ページの画像
PDF
ePub
[blocks in formation]

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

329 & 331 PEARL STREET,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1859.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

4.63819

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

CHAPTER XIII.

-Intervention of Peter the Great in the Affairs

of neighboring States. — Establishment of the
ASIA MINOR AND GREECE: TIIEIR SOCIAL, POLIT•

Russians in the Caucasus and on the Caspian.
ICAL, AND STATISTICAL STATE-TURKEY.

- Acceptance of the Crown of Georgia by the
Wars of Revolution in the West, and of Race in Emperor Alexander. – Wars with the Cauca-
the East.-Effect of these different Passions in sians, and fresh Rupture with Turkey and Per-
effecting the Dispersion of Mankind.- They have sia.- Battle of Elizabethpol.-Glorious Peace
produced the greatest Wars recorded in History. with Persia.- Affairs of Wallachia and Molda-
-Lasting Conquests of the East over the West. via.-Russian System of Intervention regarding
- Wars of Races in the East of Europe.-Strife them.-Repeated Insurrections of the Greeks.
of Races peculiarly vehement in the Turkish Mutual Exasperation of the Greeks and Turks.-
Empire.-

Variety of Races in the Turkish Do Insurrection of Ali Pacha.-Statistics of Greece.
minions.--Division of the Christians and Mus -Defensible Nature of the Country.--Clarke's
sulmans.-Turkish System of Government.—Di. Description of Greece.
vision of Races in Turkey renders Government
more easy:-The military Strength of the Em-

CHAPTER XIV.
pire entirely derived from the Turks.-The whole
civil Business of the Country is conducted by GREEK REVOLUTION-BATTLE OF NAVARINO-ES-

TABLISHMENT OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE.
the Greeks. - Great and rapid Increase of the
Christians compared to the Turks.-Picture of Elements remaining of Grecian Resurrection.-Re-
the Servians by Lamartine.--General Decrease of cent favorable Circumstances in the Condition of
Population in Turkey.-Statistics of Turkey. Greece.-Recent Spread of Information, and Pas-
In what does Turkish Oppression consist ?- The sion for Independence.-Formation of the Socie-
Lives and Property of all belong to the Sultan. ty of the Hetairists.-Different Gradations in the
Great extent of Land in Turkey held in Mort Hetairists.-Extraordinary Secrecy preserved re-
main.-Injury done to Turkey by Importation. garding the Affairs of the Society:-Their Eyes
Universal Venality in the holders of Office.-Ru are all fixed on Russia.-Cession of Parga in
inous Weakness of the Executive.-Venality and 1819. — Consternation of the Pargiotes at their
Corruption of Justice.-Contrary Principles of Abandonment.--Heart-rending Scene at the Evac.
good in Turkey : Weakness of Power. — And uation of the Town.-Debates on this Subject in
Want of the Means of Communication.--Excel Parliament.-Effect of the Spanish Revolution
lent Qualities in the Turkish Character. – The on Turkey and Greece.-State of Turkey at this
Theory of the central Government is compar Period. - Its Weakness in a military point of
atively mild.-Institution of Ayams. — The Vil. View.- Commencement of the Insurrection in
lage System.-Small Revenue derived from Tur. Wallachia. — Ipsilanti's Insurrection in Molda-
key.-Great Population of the Towns, and De. via.-Ipsilanti's first Measures.-Reasons which
cline of the Country.-Multitude of idle Servants urged the Emperor Alexander to intervene in Tur-
in the Country:-Variable Strength of the Tur key at this time.-Reasons which induced him to
kish Empire.-Great Vicissitudes in the History remain neutral. — Ethusiasm of the Turks, and
of Turkey.--Independent Position of the larger Measures taken against Ipsilanti.-Commence.
Pachas, and consequent Weakness of the central ment of the Insurrection in Greece Proper and
Power.- Vast Influence of Constantinople on the the Islands.-The Insurrection spreads over all
Fortunes of Mankind.-Its incomparable Situa Greece.- Violent Excitement at Constantinople,
tion.-Description of the City.- Description of and Murder of the Patriarch. — Succession of
the City, as seen from the Sea.-Defects of its In Murders hy the Turks.- Vigorous Measures of
terior.- Population of Constantinople, and Equal Sultan Mahmoud.--Atrocious Acts of Cruelty in
ity of the Sexes.-Maritime Forces of Turkey Asia Minor.-Massacres in Cyprus.-Universal
and Greece.—The Janizaries.-Turkish Cavalry. Spread of the Insurrection in Greece.- Official
-The Advantages of the Turks in this respect Declaration of Russia against Ipsilanti.- Treach.
are now lost.-In what the Strength of the Turks ery and Death of Theodore.Defeat of the Insur.
now consists.- Where are the Turks now stron. gents at Galatz.-Disasters of Ipsilanti.-His to.
gest in War?--Turkish Fortifications, and Mode tal Defeat at Dragaschan.-Naval Successes of
of defending them.-Causes of the obstinate De. the Greeks.-Bloody Action in Cydonia.-Suc-
fense of fortified Cities by the Turks.-Russian cesses of the Turks in the Morea.- Battle of Val.
Mode of fighting the Turks.-Triple Barrier which tezza.-Raising of the Siege of Athens, and De.
desends Constantinople.-The Danube as a fron feat of the Turks in Thermopylæ.--Siege of Tri.
tier Stream. - The Balkan. - Country between politza: its Description.-Progress of the Siege.
the Balkan and Constantinople.—The Command ----Storm and Massacre of Tripolitza. - Import-
of the Sea, or the Support of Austria, is essential ance of the Conquest, and subsequent Measures
to the Success of Russia. - Schumla: its De of the Greeks. — Fresh Massacre of the Chris.
scription. -- Asiatic Defense of Turkey : The tians in Smyrna.-Operations of Chourchid Pa.
Caucasus.- lts Value as a military Barrier. - cha before Janina. Fall and Recapture of Arta.
Description of the Passes through the Cauca. -Failure of the Greeks before Napoli di Roma.
sus.—Description of Asia Minor.-Military Re. nia and Patras.-Forcing of the Line of Cassan-
sources of Asia Minor.-Mountainous Nature of dra.--Operations in Crete.-War with Persia.-
the Country, and Want of Roads.-The Cauca. Angry Negotiations with Russia.-Russian Ulti.
sian Tribes.-Russian Policy of Intervention. matum, and its Refusal by the Divan.—Ultima-
Examples of the Application of this Principle. ium of the Turks.-Efforts of Lord Strangford,

201617

the English Minister, to avert a Rupture.-Alarm Despondence in Greece.- Deplorable Condition
ing State of Constantinople, and Efforts of the of Greece in the end of 1825 and opening of 1826.
Embassadors.- Formation of a Constitution, and - Commencement of the Negotiations for the In.
Proclamation of independence of Greece.-Ca dependence of Greece.-Conclusion of the first
pitulation of Ali Pacha.-Perfidious Seizure and Protocol in favor of the Greeks.-Its Provisions.
Death of Ali Pacha.–Sensation this produced at --Operations in Attica.-Deplorable Situation of
Constantinople.-Turkish Plan of the campaign. Greece at this Period.-Naval Operations.-Pro-
-Success of the Fleet, and Defeat of Chourchid gress of the Siege of Athens.-Unsuccessful At.
Pacha by the Souliotes.-Extension of the Insur. tempts to raise the Siege of Athens, and its Fall.
rection to Chios.-Frightful Massacre in the Isl -Treaty of 6th July.--Its Provisions.-Counter
and by the Turks.-General Massacre in the Isl Manifesto of the Porte.-Strength of the allied
and.-Signal Retribution which befell the Turks. Squadron. - Preparations of the Porte. — Final
-Operations of the Greek Fleet against the Turks. Note of the Allies to the Porte.--Ibrahim's War
-Successful Attack on the Turkish Fleet.-De of Extermination in the Morea. — Plans of the
struction of the Admiral's Ship.--Renewed Massa Admirals in consequence.-Forces on both sides.
cre in Chios.-Unsuccessful Expedition of Mav Commencement of the Battle. - The Battle,
rocordato into Epirus.--Insurrection, and its Sup and Defeat of the Turks.-Results of the Action.
pression, in Macedonia.-Grand Invasion of the --Ibrahim's Proceedings after the Battle.-Final
Morea.--Dangerous Position of the Turks, and Rupture of the Turks with the allied Powers.-
able Measures of the Greeks.-Disastrous Retreat Universal Transports in Greece at the Battle.-
of the Turks. Further Successes of the Greeks. Immense Sensation produced by the News over
-First Siege of Missolonghi.- Operations in Cy. Christendom.-Who was the Aggressor at Nava-
prus and Crete.-Fall of Napoli di Romania. rino ?-The Greek War was a Strife of Religion
Fresh naval Successes of the Greeks.-Destruc and Race, not Principles.-The great Error com-
tion of another Turkish Ship of the Line.-Glo. mitted was, that the European Nations did not
rious Results of this Campaign to the Greeks. sooner interfere, and in behalf of the Greeks.-

Their Losses.-Dreadful Earthquakes in Asia Mi. Difficulty of the Eastern Question.—The Divi-
nor.–Negotiations with Russia during the Year. sion of Race and Religion in Turkey is no Bar
-The Congress of Verona declines to recognize to the Establishment of a Christian Monarchy:-
the Greek State. -Revolution at Constantinople Prosperous Condition of Greece since its Inde.
in favor of the Janizaries.--Dreadful Fire at Con. pendence.
stantinople in Spring 1823.- Preparations of the
Turks for the next Campaign. - Destruction of

CHAPTER XV.
Part of Drama-Ali's Corps by Niketas.-Divi-
sions among the Greeks.--Plan of the Campaign RUSSIA AND TURKEY, FROM THE ACCESSION OF

NICHOLAS IN 1825, TO THE PEACE OF ADRIANO-
on the part of the Turks. -- Dispositions of the
Greeks. -Early Successes of the Greeks.-Vic-

PLE IN 1830.
tory of the Greeks on Mount Helicon.-Divi. All the Wars of Europe, from 1815 to 1830, were
sions among the Greeks in the Morea.-Revolt Wars with the Mohammedans. - Rupture with
of the Albanians, and Advance of the Pacha of the Mohammedan Powers on the Accession of
Scodra.-Nocturnal Surprise of the Turks, and Nicholas. - Advantages gained by Russia over
Death of Mark Bozzaris.-Commencement of the Persia.-Repeated Defeats of the Persians by the
Siege of Anatolico.-Operations in Candia dur Russians. Statistics of Russia at this period.--
ing 1823.–Naval Campaign of 1823.-Increased State of the Negotiations between Russia and
Dissensions in the Morea.—Increasing Interest Turkey: – Measures contemplated against the
in Greece abroad. Arrival of Lord Byron at Mis Janizaries.—New Statute regarding the Janiza-
solonghi.--Continued Divisions of the Greeks. ries.-Insurrection of the Janizaries.-Vigorous
Contraction of the Greek Loan. - Preparations Measures of Sultan Mahmoud. - Defeat of the
and Plan of the Campaign by the Turks.-Oper. Janizaries.--Cruel Executions in Constantino
ations of the Turks in the Archipelago.— Attack ple.-Effect of this Revolution on the Negotia-
on Spezzia and Ipsara.-Capture and Destruc. tions with Russia.-Civil Reforms of the Sultan.
tion of Ipsara.-Glorious Resistance of the Psar -Conferences at Ackerman, and Demands of
riotes. - Immense Spoil made by the Turks in Russia.--The Russian Demands are acceded to
Ipsara. — Gallant Conduct of the Greeks after without Reservation. - Its Provisions. - Their
this Disaster.-Defeat of the Turks in the Straits disastrous Consequences to Turkey. - Sultan
of Samos.-Junction of the Turkish and Egyp Mahmoud continues his Reforms.-Internal Re.
tian Fleets. – Naval Victories of the Greeks. forms of Nicholas in Russia.-Operations in Per-
Land Operations in Eastern Greece. — Results sia. - Battle of Djevan-Boulak. - Battle of the
of the Campaign by Sea and Land.-Renewed Abbarane. — Fall of Sardarabad and Erivan.-
Dissensions in Greece.—Death of Odysseus. Capture of Tauris:-Peace with Persia.—Prepa-
Curious Statistics of Athens and Attica.-Favor. rations of Russia for a War with Turkey:-Fresh
able Prospects of Greece in the opening of 1825. Rupture with Persia, and Conclusion of the Peace
--- Preparations of the Turks.-Landing of Ibra. at Tourkmantchai.-Mutual Recriminations of
him Pacha at Modon.-Defeat of the Greeks by the Russians and Turks.-Forces of the Rus.
Ibrahim Pacha.-Capture of Sphacteria by Ibra sians. - Passage of the Pruth, and Commence-
him.-Capture of Navarino.-

Naval Successes ment of the Campaign. - Preparations of the
of the Greeks.–Victory of Sakhtouri over the Turks. --Forces they had collected in Europe
Capitan Pacha.-Successes of Ibrahim, and gal and Asia.-Russian Plan of the Campaign, and
lant Resistance near Arcadia.–Further Success its Dangers.--Which was mainly based on the
es of Ibrahim, and Capture of Tripolitza.-Fresh Command of the Sea.-Passage of the Danube
Defeat of the Greeks. — Commencement of the by the Russians. — First Operations : Fall of
second Siege of Missolonghi, and Description of Kustendji.-Siege of Brahilov : its Description,
the Place.-- First Operations of the Siege.--Rais. -Commencement of the Siege.-Bloody Repulse
ing of the Blockade of Missolonghi by Sea.-At of the Assault.-Fall of the Place. Further Suc.
tack on the Town by a Mound, and its Defeat. cesses of the Russians, and Turkish System of
A third Assault is repulsed.-Critical Position Defense.-Capture of Anapa by the Russians.-
of the Turks, and Preparations of the Sultan. Combat of Bazardjik.-Further Cavalry Actions.
Heroic Spirit of the Garrison.-Progress of the - General Cavalry Action before Schumla. -
Turks.-Noble final Resolution of the Garrison. Blockade of Schumla, and Plans of the Russians.
-Greek Plan of a general Sortie.-Commence - Journey of the Emperor to Odessa, and Meas-
ment of the Sortie.Issue of the Sortie.--Vast ures adopted there.--Position of the Russians.
Effects of the Siege of Missolonghi, and general Defensive Measures of the Turks.Operations

before Schumla.--Surprise of a Russian Redoubt. Words of the Emperor Nicholas on this Subject.

-Attack on Prince Eugene and Eski-Stamboul. -What of the alleged Regeneration of Turkey.

-Retreat of the Russians from the South of -Astute Policy of Russia in the Treaty of Adri.

Schumla.–Operations before Varna.-Attack on anople. – Difficulty of the Conquest of Turkey

Wittgenstein.-Siege of Varna.-Advance of the evinced in this War.-Great Strength of Russia

Turks to raise the Siege.-Bloody Defeat of the in Force, and of Turkey in Situation.—Cause

Russians.- The Siege is not interrupted.-Fall of the Strength of Russia in defensive, and its

of Varna.-Reflections on this Surrender.-Op Weakness in offensive War. Dangers of the

erations before Widdin. — Abandonment of the Russian Position in regard to Turkey:-The final

Siege of Silistria, and Retreat of the Russians Triumph of Christianity in Turkey is secure.

beyond the Danube.- Disastrous Retreat of Witt-

genstein.

— Commencement of the Campaign in

CHAPTER XVI.

Asia. — Description of the Theatre of War. -

Siege of Kars, and its Description. Its Fall.- FRANCE FROM THE DEATH OF LOUIS XVIII. TO THE

ACCESSION OF THE POLIGNAC ADMINISTRATION.

Appearance of the Plague in the Russian Army.

-Capture of Akhalzikh. - March upon Akhal. Great Advantages of Charles X. on his Accession

zikh. Paskewitch's Plan of Attack, and its to the Throne.-Character of Charles X.-His

Chances. - Nocturnal Attack on the Turkish Defects. - The Duke d'Angoulême is declared

Camp.-Its perilous Chances.- Desperate Con Dauphin.—The Secret Camarilla of Ecclesias-

flict on the Heights.-Total Defeat of the Turks. tics.-Entry of the King into Paris.--Abolition

-Assault of the Town.-Frightful Assault of the of the Censorship of the Press.—Dangers of this

Town.- Reduction of Alskhur and Ardagan. Step.-Increase of the Jesuits' Influence at the

Operations on the Russian Flanks, and Results Court, and their Efforts in the Country.–Strength

of the Campaign.-Paskewitch's Plans, and For of the Jesuit Party in the Legislature and the

mation of Mohammedan Corps. — Vigorous de Administration.—Their Opponents in the Cham-

fensive Measures of the Porte in Asia during the bers and the Press. — General Prosperity in

Winter.- Assassination of the Russian Minister France. - Injudicious Measure regarding the

at Teheran, and Siege of Akhalzikh by the Turks. Army.-Opening of the Chambers : comparative

-Siege of the Fortress by the Turks.-Extreme Strength of Parties.-Flourishing State of the

Danger of the besieged. — Their Deliverance. Finances.-Restoration of the Estates of the Or.

Measures of Paskewitch against the Persians. leans Family:-Law of Indemnity to the Sufferers

Opening of the Campaign with the Turks.-De by the Revolution.--Argument of M. de Martig.

feat of Hadgi Hassan. — Paskewitch's Disposi nac in favor of the Measure.-Embarrassment of

tions, and Position of the Turks.-Paskewitch's the Government from other Claims.- Argument

Plan of Attack.–Subsequent Movements of Pas against the Project by the Liberals. Beneficial

kewitch. – Advance upon Kainly, and Disposi Results of this Measure.—Distribution of the In-

tions of Attack.-Battle of Kainly.--Success of demnity : large Share which fell to the Duke of

the Russians in the Centre and on the left.-De Orleans and other Liberals.-Law against Sacri.

feat of the Seraskier.-Storming of the intrenched lege.-Law regarding religious Societies of Wo.

Camp at Milli-Duz.-Results of these Conflicts. men.-Measure of M. de Villèle for the Reduc.

-Advance of Paskewitch against Hassan-Kale, tion of the Debt. — Coronation of the King at

and its Fall.-Fall of Erzeroum. Further Move Rheims.- Prosecutions against the Liberal Press.

ments. Submission of the Pacha of Mush, and -Death and Character of General Foy.-

Death

of Baibout.-Disaster before Khart.-Retreat of and Character of M. de Serres.-Recognition of

Paskewitch to Erzeroum.-Defeat of the Turks the Independence of St. Domingo.-Negotiations

in Guriel, and subsequent Checks of the Rus for the Independence of the Spanish Colonies.-

sians.-Advance of Paskewitch against Baibout. Legislative Measures regarding St. Domingo.

-Total Defeat of the Turks, and Ţermination of Law of Entail: its Necessity.--Argument against.

the Campaign.-Conclusion of an Armistice, and the Law by M. Pasquier. - Answer of the Gov.

Summary of the Campaign.-Preparations of the ernment.-Result of the Debate. -Reflections on

Turks for the Campaign in Turkey in Europe. this Subject.--Statistics of Finances of 1826 and

Preparations of the Russians.-Operations dur. 1827.--Measures of the Jesuits. - Preceptor to

ing the Winter. – Retirement of Wittgenstein, the Duke of Bordeaux.-Denunciation of the Jes.

and Appointment of Diebitch to the Command-in uits by Count Montlouis.-Answer of the Jes.

Chief.-Naval Forces of the Russians and Turks. uits.- Law against the Liberty of the Press.-Its

-Russian Plan of the Campaign, and Turkish, Provisions.-Universal Indignation which it ex.

and Repulse of the latter at Sizepolis.-Com cites.--Passing of the Law in a mitigated Form.

mencement of the Campaign on both Sides. -Riot at the Funeral of the Duke de la Rouche.

Bloody Combats at Eski-Arnautlar.—Commence foucauld.-Review of the National Guard.-Dis.

ment of the Siege of Silistria, and its Descrip banding of the National Guard.-Its immediate

tion.-First Operations of the Siege, 'and Red Success, and ultimate Effects.-Reflections on

schid Pacha's Movement against Pravadi.—Die this Event.—Treaty of 6th July on Greece, and

bitch throws himself on the Turkish Communi. Convention regarding the Slave-Trade.--Finan.

cations.- Description of the Country, and Move cial Projects and Embarrassment of the Govern.

ments of the Armies.-Turkish Movements.—Bat. ment.-A Dissolution resolved on.-New Crea.

tle of Kouleftscha.-Fresh Dispositions of Die. tion of Peers, and Dissolution of the Chambers.-

bitch.- Victory of the Russians.—Measures of Formation of the Parties, and Preparations for a

Diebitch after the Battle.-Progress of the Siege moral Struggle on both sides.-Elections and

of Silistria, and its Fall. Description of the Riots in Paris.-Mutual Recriminations of Min.

Passes of the Balkan.-Diebitch's Preparations isters and the Jesuits. Dissolution of the Villèle

for passing the Balkan.—Passage of the Balkan. Administration.-Reproaches addressed to him

-Subsequent Movements of the Turks and Rus from both parties.-Character of M. de Martig.

sians.-Successful Attack on the Turks at Sliw. nac.—The new Ministry had not the Confidence

no.-Advance upon Adrianople and its Capture. of the King.-Answer of the King to the Address.

- Extended Positions of the Russians. -Un --Legislative Measures of the Session. It

pass-

bounded Alarm at Constantinople, London, and es the Peers.--New Law regarding the Press.-
Vienna.—Treaty of Adrianople.-Convention re Law against the Jesuits. — Indignation excited
garding Wallachia and Moldavia.-Irruption of among the Jesuits ; but the Pope approves the
the Pacha of Scodra.-Affairs of Greece in 1828. Measure.—Preparations for a Change of Minis-
-Progress of the Greeks in 1829.-Convention try.- Opening of the Chambers. - Remarkable
of March 22, 1829, regarding the Limits of Greece. Speech of Prince Polignac.-State of Parties in
-Reflections on this Convention.-Remarkable the Assembly.-Law for the departmental Munic.

[graphic]

-

« 前へ次へ »