Commons and Common Fields: Or, The History and Policy of the Laws Relating to Commons and Enclosures in England. Being the Yorke Prize Essay of the University of Cambridge for the Year 1886
University Press, 1887 - 180 ページ
"Being the Yorke prize essay of the University of Cambridge for the year 1886."--T.p.
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acres agricultural allotments approve arable land beasts Bedfordshire Bill Blomefield bordarii Bracton Britton Cambridgeshire Catthorp cattle century claims common common appendant Common Appurtenant common fields common law common pasture common rights communia complaints Conquest consent copyholders corn cotarii cottagers Court Baron Court Leet cows custom customary Danish deer demesne Domesday domini enclosed enclosures encroachments England Essex existence farmers fence fens Fitzherbert Fleta Forest franc tenement free tenants freeholders ground hath hold houses Ibid Inclosure Acts Inclosure Commissioners inhabitants labour libere tenentes liberi homines Lincolnshire lords of manors manerium Navestock neighbouring Norfolk Norman open fields open spaces operarii owners parishes parks Parliament pasture pertinet plough poor quae quia quod rent reporter rights of common says Seebohm sheep socmanni Statute of Merton sufficiency of pasture tenentes de dominico tenure terrae terre tillage town township villa village community villani villeins villenagium virgate waste lands Whalley
78 ページ - I) your sheep that were wont to be so meek and tame, and so small eaters, now, as I hear say, be become so great devourers and so wild, that they eat up, and swallow down the very men themselves. They consume, destroy, and devour whole fields, houses, and cities.
77 ページ - ... and invented ways and means how they might accumulate and gather together into few hands, as well great multitude of farms as great plenty of cattle, and in especial sheep, putting such lands as they can get, to pasture, and not to tillage, whereby they have not only pulled down churches and towns, and enhanced the old...
76 ページ - Inclosures at that time began to be more frequent, whereby arable land, which could not be manured without people and families, was turned into pasture, which was easily rid by a few herdsmen; and tenances for years, lives, and at will, whereupon much of the yeomanry lived, were turned into demesnes.
5 ページ - For the good nature and benevolence of many lords of manors having, time out of mind, permitted their villeins and their children to enjoy their possessions without interruption, in a regular course of descent, the common law, of which custom is the life, now gave them title to prescribe against their lords ; and on performance of the same services, to hold their lands in spite of any determination of the lord's will. For though in general they are still said to hold their estates at the will of...
150 ページ - For the parish ? If I am diligent shall I have leave to build a cottage? If I am sober, shall I have land for a cow? If I am frugal, shall I have half an acre of potatoes ? You offer no motives; you have nothing but a parish officer and a workhouse! Bring me another pot...
78 ページ - Let Christian landlords be content with their rent and old customs; not raising the rent or fines, and bringing up new customs to oppress their tenants; neither letting two or three tenantries unto one man. Let them not take in their commons, neither make parks nor pastures of whole parishes: for God gave the earth to man to inhabit; and not unto sheep and wild deer.
5 ページ - On the arrival of the Normans here, it seems not improbable, that they who were strangers to any other than a feudal state, might give some sparks of enfranchisement to such •wretched persons as fell to their share, by admitting them, as well as others, to the oath of fealty ; which conferred a right of protection, and raised the tenant to a kind of estate superior to downright slavery, but inferior to every other condition.
113 ページ - THE great movement in favour of enclosures which took place in the last half of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries must be viewed from two standpoints.