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of fish, which, during the tempestuous seasons, they often search for in vain; and they have no idea of being provident. Their countenances exhibit the extreme of wretchedness; a horrid mixture of famine and ferocity, knawing and devouring the most disgusting objects that present themselves, to palliate their hunger*.

But notwithstanding this abject and feeble state of man, in the first stage of his existence, and without education, yet he is endowed with greater faculties than any other earthly being of the creation, although he does not know how to exercise them at first without being taught, and it is impossible to say to what extent his faculties and the powers of his intellect may lead, or how much they may be improved; for, after a certain degree of education or instruction, he is able to improve himself, and by the force of intellect and intelligence, may find out shorter methods of acquiring knowledge.

It is the Quakers' text, that "nothing in this world is more contemptible than the estimation and view of a mere natural man.” Man in his nature is entirely the creature of habit. He is sent into the world ignorant, but his mind is capable of receiving any impression that may be given it, and may be cast into any mould. Although he is entirely destitute of wisdom, in the first instance, or in the first stage of his existence, yet he soon

* Symes' Embassy to Ava, p. 129, and Asiatic Researches, vol. 4, p. 401.

becomes desirous of knowledge; and feeling his own weakness, looks around him, and seizes with avidity any object that is presented to his view, or any tone of sentiment that can be conveyed to his senses; but he is incapable of discerning what is good or hurtful to his nature. First, he learns what is pleasing to the eye, or grateful to the taste, but he is incapable of distinguishing even these qualities, except by habit; for the most hideous objects may be made familiar to his sight, and thereby rendered destitute of their terrors. He may also be familiarised to the most nauseous food, or such as would be the most disgusting to others. He may be made to play with toads, or other reptiles and beasts, and until they offended or hurt his nature, he would take his food or habits from any of these; and the great, the little, and all descriptions of the human race would receive the same impressions if not corrected by education, example, and first habits. Those who are born of Jewish parents, become Jews; those of Christian parents, become Christians; those of Heathens, become Heathens; and, those of Sa. vages, become Savages; all depend upon early impressions; and although in the further progress of life, when the mind becomes more matured by a certain degree of knowledge and reflection, they are better able to judge for themselves; yet it requires a strong mind to overcome early impressions, or early examples and habits.

It is astonishing, when we consider the mere natural state of man, that every human being, who has the advantage of an enlightened education, does not in all his words, works, and actions, endeavour to promote and extend this blessing to all mankind, rather than suffer so many to remain, through neglect, in almost their primitive state of childhood, barbarity, and ignorance. For the lowest race of human beings have an idea of improvement; and, if not corrupted by bad example, would have a veneration for wisdom, morality, and religion. The untatored savage, if not corrupted by bad ex- : ample, feels and owns a Supreme Being. He hears him in the winds, or views him in the clouds, and feels his power. He has sensations of pain and pleasure, and therefore knows that something must be the cause of all these things. He, therefore, feels adoration for that which is good, and fear for that which is bad. He has a desire for knowledge, but no means of obtaining it. But were such unhappy beings properly taught and instructed, some of them would become brilliant ornaments of society, and the human character would thereby be ele. vated, instead of being so degraded, and the happiness of mankind would consequently be benefited and improved. Man is, more than all the other beings of the creation, to be cultivated and improved, which evidently shows, that he is corrupted in his birth, and changed from his original state; for every thing else in nature is perfect of its kind. Man is not only the most degraded, but the most dangerous of all beings, if left in a state of nature, or to the free exercise of his passions without control. It is therefore the height of folly in those who recommend this state of life as the happiest state for man.

Man, without education, is below the beast of the creation. He has no government over his passions, or inclination for what is good, because he does not know it; his nature being corrupted. Education is therefore, as before stated, the improvement of our nature, by the conveyance of that knowledge which is not imparted to us at our birth, and which ought to regulate our conduct, and increase our happiness in this life, and enable us to make a good end.

All knowledge must be derived from the same source that gave life, but as the body requires nourishment, so does the mind require cultivation and improvement; but life is too short for man to acquire knowledge of his own accord, or by his own means: he must therefore have the aid of others, or remain ignorant. Thus we are all dependant upon each other, and therefore selfish desires stand prominent in the catalogue of human crimes. Every being is instructed by its parents how to procure its food, or it could not exist. Nature has provided the means, and taught the • parents how to assist their young, without whose aid they must perish, having no knowledge in themselves. This instruction is the commencement of education, and therefore nature points out, that education is not only useful, but indispensible.

The great object of education is, to form the mind and character of the pupil to virtuous actions, so as to make him a useful member of society, which he cannot be, if he be not a good man; for although the vicious may work, or the profligate may distribute their riches, yet they will do more harm to society by their bad conduct and example, than the one can ever do good by his labour, or the other by the distribution of his wealth.

A man cannot do a greater service to the state and to society than by well educating his children, and even the statesman does more good by these means than by all his other efforts for the benefit of his country. If, therefore, he truly wishes to benefit the state, his country, and society, there is no more effectual method of accomplishing it than that of extending and perfecting the education of youth, in all ranks of society, by every encouragement, according to their intended occupations in life. It is beginning at the root, or right end, in order to improve society ; but the great difficulty and care is to find out good and proper masters. To become good citizens requires good training, and he knows his trade best who has been taught it from his youth. To make able men there must be able masters, and to make good men there must be good men for teachers, for it cannot be learnt of the bad. He who is taught by a Jew will

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