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though an “unprofitable labourer,” he nine in the six years,' either bred or was earning money enough to own a bought by A. B. pig when he came into the “ Natu- It is curious to observe how this list's ” service. Suppose, then, that he - Naturalist” has fitted his subject to had, at that time, seven shillings a his experiment in all particulars. He week, which is about the lowest wages brings him into his service sickly, with that have ever of late years been given , wife and family, but owning a cottage to labouring people. The seven is now and garden to start with, and, by im. made up to ten, and, in consequence, A.Iplication, a pig; but he forgets that a B. gets more healthy, dresses his family man, sickly for want of sufficient sustebetter, and so on, as above: query, how nance (as he proves this man to have much of his additional three shillings a been), would not have been the owner week does it take to produce these re- of a cottage and a pig. Again, having sults ? Say one shilling and sixpence ; brought his man to the full ripeness of then we have one shilling and sixpence his experiment, having made him beto put by weekly to buy another pig, a come the owner of pigs, cows, and a few sheep, and two cows. Eighteen-| whole flock of sheep, he kills him, like pence a week will make 31. 18s, a year, I a true “ Naturalist,” to view the result, and, bearingin mind that it is but a poor and then he gives us this nntable discow that sells for so little as eight pounds, play :-“ After about six years' service, a poor and “unprofitable" cottager's my honest, quiet, sober labourer died, pig that he can get for so little as one " leaving his wife and two children pound, and a miserable ewe, with lamb,“ surviving: a third had recently died. that he can get for less than thirty shil." We found him possessed of some lings: hearing these facts in our minds, “ money, though I know not the amount ; we leave the - Naturalist” to explains two fine hogs, and a flock of forty-nine to us howu “ soon" it was that A. B. be - goord sheer, many far advanced in came possessed of an additional pig, Tamb;" to all which the conclusion two cows, and a fiu sheep!
and moralis,-"and all this stock We confess ourselves incredulous," was acquired solely with the regular and for this reason, that, if you mul- “ wages of ten shillings a week, in tiply 31. 18s. by the six years that A. B. “ conjunction with the simple aids of lived with “ Naturalist," you will find" rigid sobriety and economy, without a it amounts to the sum of 231. 8s.; and “ murmur, a complaint, or a grievance!" then, if you will take and calculate the There is no merit in not murmuring cost of animals at that period, you will / where there is neither complaint to find them amount to more than that make nor grievance to feel, you know, whole sum, namely :
“ Naturalist !” Ah! but that is not
what you mean ; you mean that, after 2 cows, at 81. each ...... 16 0 0
this story, any man that has ten shil5 sheep, at 30s. each .... 7 10 0 l hog ........
lings a week (any labouring 'man) ......... 1 0 0
should not think of murmuring and £24 100 complaining; for you have proved,
like many others who have written and Thus, eighteen-pence a week, for the spoken upon it, that it is “ all their whole six years, would not huy what own fault” that they are in want of the “ Naturalist” says A. B. bought food and in want of clothes ; you ob“ soon” upon that sum, or some sumligingly furnish us with an instance, a . not exceeding it, by above a halfpenny case in point, which settles the matter, or two! We have given him five sheep and the Quarterly Review has done its without the authority of “ Naturalist;"best to send you into every drawingbut what were we to gather by the word room and library in the country to profew ? and let us caution him against mulgate your grateful discovery in nastarting with too sinall a number, seeing tural science. Pity, too, you did not that he has to make them up to forty- know the sum that A. B. died possessed
of! One would have thought that you, fore defenceless part of his countrymen, his benefactor, would be the very man by a man who assumes a character that to know it, and to have the distri- is very likely to give both currency and buting of it, or the vesting of it in authority to his work. savings-banks. And then, “ forty-nine Much more might be said upon the “ good sheep, many far advanced in passage that we have quoted above, " lamb!” So, they were of all states and ibut we have already occupied too conditions; but -- furty-nine sheep ? much of our space with it. Upon The stock of a moderate farm! The somewhat the same topic, however, we man knows nothing of what he is cannot help bringing in here a passage writing about! he is evidently ignorant or two, from pages 131 and 132, which of the manner of keeping, feeding, and give additional proof of the malignity multiplying these aniinals; and this and folly of the writer of this book : last-mentioned absurdity, put to that of " And every village boy with his cur the cow being “ more difficult to main- " detects the haunts of the poor hedgetain through the winter,"shows an igno. “ hog, and assuredly worries and kills rance of the whole matter so gross, that “ him. Killing everything and cruelly, one can attribute it to none but a man " are the common vices of the ignowho has never contemplated it at all, and “ rant:” And again, speaking of the has never seen the animals unless horse, " The ass, probably and hapthrough a stage-coach window, or ob-“ pily, is not a sensitive animal, but the liquely, from a window in Half-moon- " poor horse no sooner becomes the street, or some other street, Piccadilly: “ property of man in the lower walks of
In the absence, therefore, of proof of " life, than he commonly has his ears the truth of this story ; till we are in- " shorn off; his knees are broken, his forined of the “ locus in quo," the “ wind is broken, his body is starved, place where this happened which he “ his eyes !! I fear, in these tells us of, we doubt it entirely. But“ grades of society, mercy is only known let us put down on paper what a man" by the name of cowardice, and comcan get to live on for ten shillings at " passion designated simplicity and efthis time, dividing it into so much each feminacy?" Verily, this « Naturaday; let us be scrupulous to allow him list” has found out amiable characa bare sufficiency for himself, a wife, teristics for his own species ! The and two young children, and then let poor boys, the village boys, too, each us see how much money a man is likely with his cur, are heaped altogether to lay by to buy pigs, cows, and sheep. that they may be snitten down by
Per Day. Per Week, the anathema of this pious admirer of
d. S. d. nature. In cominon justice to the boys, 4lbs. of bread, a day .. 7 .. 3 6 we cannot help reminding him, how1fln, of bacom ........ 9 .. 5 6
ever, that he himself professes to have I pint of beer.......... 1 . 0 101 flb. of soap in the week......0 11
been a sportsman, and that, so long as
the mangling and killing of pheasants, 10 0
partridges, hares, rabbits, &c. &c., is io In this calculation we have taken the be eagerly and openly sought and pracpresent prices, and as things have not, tised by full-grown nien and sober “naof late years, been much cheaper than turalists ” us a sport, the poor village they are now, ten shillings now will boys may, surely, if they can bear the buy as much as it probably would in sight, be excused for worrying and killthe time of A. B. And here the whole ing so unsightly a little devil as the ten shillings is gone in a bare sufficiency hedgehog. But our “ Naturalist" of necessaries. We defy the “ Natu. swells into fury when he comes to the Talist" to controvert this, and, there-horse, “the property of man in the fore, again we express our great disgust lower walks of life," and which walks
the attempt here made against the with admirable rhetorical propriety borious, patient, unlettered, and there- quickly become “grades ” in his hands, that is so say, steps ; our author finds made to say “ his honour," in page 30 that the inoment the horse comes down the cottager is called “ the cotter," in to these, all the ills that horse flesh is page 25, making hay is called “ saving heir to come upon him ; cropped hay," and we find other expressions ("shorn," our author says) ears, broken which make us conclude that the writer knees, broken wind, and instead of eyes is of the sister kingdom. None the at all, a long dash and two marks of worse for that, unless we find that he admiration! Terrible ! one would has contemplated rags and famine in think be believed in the migration of his own unfortunate country till his souls, and was afraid of becoming a heart has become callous, and till he horse. But, coolly, “ Naturalist : would not mind contemplating the same would it answer the purpose of one of in ours. the "ignorant" in the “ lower grades? In page 59, our author remarks that to serve his horse so badly: would he “ Trees in full foliage have long been break his knees, and his wind, and poke " noted as great attractors of humidity, out his eyes, on purpose? And are you" and a young wych elm, in fall teaf, so ignorant, yourself, as not to know " affords a good example of this supthat it is those in the “ upper grades "" posed power ;'but in the winter of who break the knees, and do all the rest “ the year, when trees are perfectly hefore the horse comes into the pos-“ denuded, this faculty of creating session of your “man in the lower “ moisture about them is equally obwalks?” But you mention incident-“ vious, though not so profusely. A ally the ass, and “ we thank thee for strongly-marked instance of this was that word,” for the ass is peculiarly “ witnessed by me, when ascending a the beast of burden of those in the " hill in the month of March. The “ lower grades," and do we see asses" weather had previously been very fine cropped, or even docked; and much " and dry, and the road in a dusty, state ; more, nicked; do we see them with " but a fog coming on, an ash tree, broken knees, broken wind, and such" hanging over the road, was dripping eyes as it shocks your delicacy to de- " with water so copiously, that the road scribe? But enough. One word, how-" beneath was in a puddle, when the ever, on the word “ignorant:" no man " other parts continued dry, and maniis ignorant who knows his business, “ fested no appearance of humidity." . the business which he professes to In Mr. White's History of Selborne know. Some men know more things may be seen the whole that is worth and more important things than others, reading of our author's observations and, in proportion as these things are upon the matter which he prefaces important, and the knowledge difficult above, and of which we have not room to attain, the man ought to be reve- for more than the preface of either; we renced and deemed learned who knows will, however, extract that from Mr. them ; but no man who knows any Wurte in order that they may be comscience, or any art that is practically / pared. beneficial to the whole body of man- " In heavy fogs, on elevated situakind, ought to be called ignorant, “ tions especially, trees are perfect and it would have become one of your “ alembics; and no one that has not pretensions, “ Naturalist” though you." attended to such matters can imagine be, to be less forward in round as-“ how niuch water one tree will distil sertions that nature has placed certain" in a night's tiine, by condensing the evil dispositions in the minds and " vapour, which trickles down the hearts of distinct grades of society;" boughs, so as to make the ground it wouid have become a man of your" below quite in a float. In Newtonparts and your piety to ponder a little " lane, in October, 1775, on a misty before you made this frightful disclo-" day, a particular oak in leaf dropped sure.
f" so fast, that the cart-way stood in In page 17 an English labourer iss“ puddles, and the ruts ran with water,
" though the ground in general was“ mentioned in my former letters, a “ dusty. * * * Trees in leaf have such “ young one and a female with young, ma vast proportion more of surface" both of which I have preserved in " than those that are naked, that, in “ brandy. From the colour, shape, size, " theory, their condensations should " and manner of nesting, I make no "greatly exceed those that are stripped“ doubt but that the species is nonde“ of their leaves; but as the former" script. They are much smaller and " imbibe also a great quantity of " more slender than the Mus domesticus "moisture, it is difficult to say which " medius of Ray; and have more of the “ drip most.” Pages 205, 206.
" squirrel or dormouse colour : their We have left ourselves. so little room “ belly is white; a straight line along for quotations, that we must in most of " their sides divides the shades of their our instances of plagiarism refer simply" back and belly. They never enter to the books. In page 130 of the “ into houses, are carried into ricks and “ Naturalist," an account of the hedge. " barns with the sheaves; abound in hog, is made up from page 77 of White “ harvest, and build their nests amidst and vol. 1. 134 of Pennant, Brit. Zool., | “ the straws of corn above ground, and excepting a particular account of the “ sometimes in thistles. They breed as spines of the little animal, which may " many as eight at, a litter, in a little or may not be a copy from some other “ round nest composed of the blades of author. Pages 84 and 85 of“ Natura-“ grass or wheat. One of these nests I list" compare with pages 509 and 533 “ procured this autumn most artificially of White. P. 118 compare with p.11." platted, and composed of the blades STILLINGFLEET. Tracts. In p. 134, " of wheat ; perfectly round, and about we have this account of the harvest “ the size of a cricket-ball ; with the mouse :
s“ aperture so ingeniously closed, that " The harvest mouse (Mus Messo-/' there was no discovering to what part "rius) in some seasons is common " it belonged. It was so compact and “ with us, but, like other species of " well filled, that it could roll across “mice, varies much in numbers found. “ the table without being discomposed, "I have seen their n'ests as late as the “ though it contained eight little mice, "middle of September, containing “ that were naked and blind.”. “ eight young ones, entirely filling the And, in page 39, he says :" little interior cavity. These nests " As to the mice, I have further to “ vary in shape, being round, oval, or “ remark, that though they hang their "pear-shaped, with a long neck, and“ nests for breeding upamidst the straws "are to be distinguished from those of “ of the standing corn, above ground;
any other mouse, by being generally " yet I find that in winter, they burrow "suspended on some growing veget-" deep in earth, and make warm beds in "able, a thistle, a bean-stalk, or some “ grass : but their grand rendezvous " adjoining stems of wheat, with which seems to be in corn-ricks, into which “it rocks and waves in the wind ; but “ they are carried at harvest." " to prevent the young from being dis. Mr. Pennant seems to have heard of “ lodged by any violent agitation of the this niouse only from Mr. Wute, for “ plant, the parent closes up the en- he evidently takes his communication, " trance so uniformly with the whole and says that this animal abounds in " fabric, that the real opening is with Hampshire. The “ Naturalist," how• difficulty found.”
ever, finds it “common in some seasons In White, page 33, we have a full with us." He gives us a graphic sketch description of this mouse in his 12th of it and of its nest, and so far we are letter to Mr. PENNANT, who, in his under obligation to him. British Zoology, gives us the same de Page 145. The hair and fur of ani. scription in the very words of Mr, mals compare with Dr. Dersam's Phy, WHITE: namely,
sico-theology, vol. 1. p. 314 note, “ I have procured some of the nice Pages 151 to 153 about the mgration of birds is a confused jumble, which may “ with their captures to their young : be found better expressed in the several “ the constant supply which they bring, notes of Wuite, 139, 146, STILLING " the celerity with which it is given and Fleer, 108, and the appendix to Peno " received, and the activity and evoluNANT ; all, except the hypothesis, that, “ tions of the elder birds, present a the soft-billed birds migrate to Eng-" pleasing example of industry and land as a breeding-place for the sake of " affection !" a compounded food for their young. This But unfortunately, we had before he supports in no rational way; gives us read, in Mr. Wurte's book. no reason to 'suppose that the mothers "The progressive method by which can find for their young liere what they " the young" (of swallows)“ are incannot find in other climates from “ troduced into life is very amusing : which they come to us. It is an in- /" first, they emerge from the shaft with teresting subject, but one that requires“ difficulty enough, and often fall down to be elucidated by facts in conjunction “ into the rooms below: for a day or so with reasons, and not by loose suppo-" they are fed on the chimney-top, and sitions. In the “ Naturalist,” compare " then are conducted to the dead leafpages 161 and 162 with White 105, “ less bough of some tree, where, situpon the hard life of the little insect“ ting in a row, they are attended with eating birds during our winters. In “ great assiduity, and may then be page 183, he says:
“ called 'perchers. In a day or two as I have repeatedly known districts, “ more they become flyers, but are still 6 from which during the winter season" unable to take their own food; there“ every blackbird, thrush, gold and bull. “ fore, they play about near the place “ finch, had been killed, yet in the en " where the dams are hawking for flies; “ suing spring observed their places " and, when a mouthful is collected, at “ filled by others, and the song in the" a certain signal given, the dam and “ grove, and nesting in the brake, as “ the nestling advance, rising towards “ harmonious and as plentiful as usual." each other, and meeting at an angle ; “ Many sportsmen know that killing “ the young one all the while uttering “ down their game does not universally “ such a little quick note of gratitude “ prevent a supply in the ensuing sea “ and complacency, that a person must « son."
1" have paid very little regard to the It is a bold man that can so positively ” wonders of Nature that has not often on the word of a “Naturalist," assert“ remarked this feat." P. 170. that he had repeatedly known every one In page 206 and 207, we find the of these several kinds of birds killed in Alycatcher thus characterized : the groves and brakes, even when So We have perhaps no bird more atclose about hiin : and we do not think “ tached to peculiar situations than the that it is many sportsmen who do think grey flycatcher (Muscicapa Grisela); that the killing of all their game is com- “ one pair, or the descendants, frequent patible with the usual stock of it ; un " year after year the same hole in the less, indeed, that be next to none at all. " wall, or the same branch on the vine The “Naturalist” is a bold asserter, and" or the plum. *** This Alycatcher these facts are indisputably his own. In “ delights in eminences. The naked page 197, he gives us this amusing de “ spray of a tree, or projecting stone in scription of the assiduity of birds towards “ a building, or even a tall stick in the their young :
“ very middle of the grass-plot, is sure “ It is a very amusing occupation, for “ to attract its attention, as affording an “ a short time, to attend to the actions " uninterrupted view of its winged “ of a pair of swallows or martens, the 1“ prey; and from this it will be in con“ family of which have left the nest,“ stant activity a whole summer's day, “ and settled upon some naked spray, “ capturing its food, and returning to “ or low bush in the field, the parents “ swallow it.” “ cruising around, and then returning In WHITE, p. 104.: