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rose to oppose it, and I had the pleasure they would all have this conviction; and to second his motion. A pretty long if every man in England could see this debate ensued upon this question, but sight and hear those sounds, all Enge Mr. O'CONNELL did not press it to a land, with one united voice, would pray division. After which, the first clause to God to protect him against all his was gone into, and the debate on it enemies. In short, without him, Iree continued until a very late hour, i land would be dealt with, just as the when the chairman reported progress, Government pleased, without the oppos and obtained leave to sit again, after sition of any resistance at all ; and, for which a whole string of orders of my part, I should deem myself one of the day were gone through in a few the worst of all mankind if I did not minutes, each of them of vast import- lend him all the support in my power. ance; but the members all going away, I may not, in all cases, be exactly of his and the House in complete hubbub while opinion, even in matters relating to this pondrous work was going on. Upon Ireland ; but, seeing him beset, as I do, this occasion, it is impossible for me to leaving out of the question the probarefrain from expressing my admiration bility of my opinion not being so corof the things done by Mr. O'CONNELL. rect as his, it is not for me to split hairs I never had before an opportunity of in such a case, to perk up my opinionin witnessing his surprising quickness, and opposition to his, and under that prethe irresistible force of that which drops tence, leave him to be torn to pieces by from his lips. His sincerity, his good- his merciless foes. Last night, he filled humour, his zeal, his earnestness, his everybody with astonishment at his willingness to sacrifice everything for powers, and especially at his surprising the cause of the people ; for the cause quickness. There he was, the mastiff, of those who never can serve him in surrounded by that which I will not deany way whatsoever ; it is only neces. scribe ; every one taking his bite, one sary to be a witness of these, to explain behind, another before; and he turning why it is that the people of Ireland love first to one and then to the other, and him, and confide in him ; and why it is laying them sprawling upon the earth. that he is so bated and detested by every To be able to do him justice, you must one who has a tyrant's heart in his body. see him with thirty-four men only at his There is another description of men, back; with three hundred and fifty too, of whom it is necessary to speak roaring out against him, and with upon this occasion ; I mean those who twenty or thirty lying quiet in snug siare actuated by envy, and I do not here lence bursting with envy still more allude to any amongst his own country-deadly th n the open hatred of his foes. men; for they all seem , perfectly wil. There will be reports of these debates. ling to acknowledge his superior claims These reports will be as full and as corto the confidence of his country. If he rect as the circumstances will permit, have any fault, it is that of letting the but it is not in the power of man to do kindness of his disposition get the better justice, not a tenth part of justice due to of his justice ; but perhaps this is insepa- his zeal and his exertions on this occasion rable from those other qualities which For my part, I sat and looked at him have caused him to have such predomi- with astonishment until eleven o'clock, nant sway over the minds of the industri. when, finding that there would be no ous classes of his country. It is impossible division that night, I came away. , But to see the conduct which is observed my colleague, whose judgment is not towards him, without being convinced inferior to that of any man, staid the that his enemies are thoroughly per- debate out, and told me that, Mr. suaded that Ireland must have justice O'CONNELL carried on the war against done her, or he must be destroyed. If his foes in a manner to surprise him all my readers could hear the words ut- beyond anything that he had ever seen tered with regard to him ; could see in his life. Very often have we seen in the looks accompanying those words; the English papers, and particularly in
the Times, sneers at the Irish people, Hawkins, John, Newport
Oswald, R. A., Ayr county greatest glory, the most heart. felt Sirol tisfaction that man can possibly enjoy,
Oswald, James, Glasgow must give delight to every heart in
Wallace, Rubert, Greenock which the base and venomous passion
Butler, Col. Kilkenny County
Fitzsimon, N., King's County
Finn, I'm. F, Kilkenny County
Galway, J. M., Waterford County (TELLERS INCLUDED)
Lalor, Patrick, Queen's County
on going into the Commiitee on Maclaughlin, L., Galway City
O'Connor, Fergus, Cork County
O'Connor, Don, Roscommon County ENGLAND.
O'Farrell, Moore, Kildare County Aglionly, H. A., Cockermouth. Roche, William, Liinerick Buckingham, J. S., Sheffield
Roche, David, Limerick Bowes, John, South Durham
Ruthven, E. S., Dublin Beauclerk, Major, East Surrey
Ruthven, Edward, Kildare County Cornish, James, Totness
Snell, R. L., Tipperary County Collier, J., Plymouth
Sullivan, Richard, Kilkenny. Cobbett, Win., Oldham
Talbot, J. H., New Russ
Vigors, N. A., Carlow
Grattan, Henry, Meath County · Gully, John, Pontefract
O'Connell, Maurice, Tralee · Hall, Benjamin, Monmouth
Paired off for the amendment.
Tynte, C. K., West Somerset
Wigney, Isaac, Brighton
1 this privilege might be abused to PERSONS SENDING PETITIONS. an enormous extent. All, therefore,
that petitioners will have to guard Experience has now enabled me to
against is, the enclosing of any give full instructions on this head. !
letter, or any other thing, besides 1. If the petition weigh less than sir
the petition itself; for, if I find ounces, !l ourhit to be sent open at
any letter, or any tising but the both ends, with the words, " Peli
petition, I will never certify; anı, tion to Parliament”, written on of course, I cannot have the petithe cover ; but with no letter, nor Clion, which I shall send back to
anything but the petition, enclosed. I the Pust office along with the let2. If it be a large roll, or anything
ter, or other thing, enclosed with it. weighing more than six ounces, it 1. There is no need of any letter to me may still come by post, tied up, or
along with, or about, a petition. sealed uy, with the words “ Peti.
Those who do me the honour to tion to Parliament” written on! send petitions to me, may rely on the cover, and directed to me;
my attention to them. They must but, having no letter, nor anything! see, from what I have said in the but the petition. enclosel. In such
foriner article, that it is impossible a case, I am allowed to open the for me, or for any member, to preparcel, and, upon my sending back
sent any petition, except accidentthe cover, to the Post-office, with a ally, as soon as he receives it. But, certificate, that it contained nothing the course that I shall pursue, even but a petition, the postaye is re under the present regulation, will mitted. The following note to ensure the presentation in a reasonine, from the Secretary of the Gel
able time, and in the manner most neral Post-office, wili fully explain likely to ensure to the petitions this matter. .
their suitable effect. It is very de. “Sir Erancis Freeling presents his
sirable, and, indeed it is our duty, "compliments to Mr. Cobbett, and begs to husband our time; and, by clus“ to place in his hands two petitions sifying my petitions, by laying " to Parliament addressed to him, which them before the House in a distinct " had been returned to the Post-office manner, by enabling the reporters "as refusel, on account of the charge to give a clear account of their “ to which they were legally subjected
tenor, I shall render them of more " in the first instance under the pro
utility, than by presenting them in “visions of the ict.
a promiscuous and desultory way; “In any similar cases hereafter, it! and I shall, by the same mode of “mav perhaps save some delay, if Mr. proceeding, save the lime of the “ Cobbett will open the packet and House, which is a very great "return the cover to the letter-carrier, matter. " with a certificate on it, signed by him. 5. The right of petition is invaluable; “self, that it contained only a petition and I exhort my readers to look "to Parliament, which would be a suf upon it as a duty as well as a right. "ficient voucher to enable the Post But, there are some rules to be “master-General to direct the charge i atiended to, and these ought not to “ to be allowed."
be neglected, or disregarded. “ General Post-office, 12. March, 1833.” First; The petition should be written
in a plain hand. 3. Nothing can be more just, proper, Second); bowever angry, and how
and convenient, than this regula ever justly, petitioners may be with tion. It leaves no one any right the House, they ought to speak in to complain. It is quite proper to language not abusive, at the least. require the certificate, signed by No man ever wrote so many petithe member himself; otherwise tions to Parliament as I have : no
man was ever more angry with the House ; but never did I write one that could be called other than perfectly respectful towards the House. In these compositions Il have always found the means of saying very hard things in very softi words.Describe the deeds and motives of others as you like ; but be, as I have always been, most respectful to those to whom you address your supplications ; alwavs observing, however, that the King's servunts, as such, are not amongst those whom you address ; and that, therefore, in speaking of their actions and motives, truth is all that you will have to consult; and I recommend to you to call them the King's servants, and by no other name ; for that is what they are,
and they are nothing more. THIRD; if a petition consist of more
than one sheet of paper, the sheets should be attached to each other by good, strong paste ; tor, if separated from the petition, they cansa not, with propriety, be presented
along with it. FOURTH; if it be the petition of a
single person, it is proper to put it on one side of a sheet of rather large paper, and to send it in a roll; and, in all cases, the band-writing ought to be plain and pretty large, and the matter in distinct paragraphs; and the prayer very clearly stated. The petition ought not to be in the form of a letter, turning over from side to side ; for, though that forms no objection to its reception, still it has a careless look, and not enough of seriousness about
it. 6. Now, then, I have pointed out to
my readers the manner in which they may easily perform their part of this great duly. Our country, which we all still love, l in spite of the oppressions which we have to endure, is in a state in which it cannot long remain : that state must be greatly changed: look which way you will you see everything upon the
shake: you see the King's servants themselves with nothing but a choice of changes occupying their minds, at the very moment when they are setting all their old professions at defiance, in order to resist the adoption of those changes which alone can produce real tranquillity. Great sacrifices must be made by those who have hitherto made none, but who, on the contrary, have been always gaining. To induce them to make those sacrifices, by means that will not convulse the country, nothing will tend more powerfully than numerous petitions from the people, stating their complaints in respectful but firm language, but calling for reasonable and just methods of removing the grounds of those complaints. For my part, who have so long fore. seen this crisis, it has always been my most anxious desire to see a peaceable result. I know well, that, finally, the people will triumph, and the country be as free and as happy as it ever was ; but this is not enough for me; I want the transition to be peaceful ; but, in order to give us even a chance of this, the aristocracy must, at once, give way so far as to satisfy the just and reasonable demands of the industrious classes, who have been so long and so cruelly suffering, and who now clearly see the real causes of those sufferings. The Reform of the Parliament, if it produce no change in farour of the people, will render them more out of humour, less disposed to bear oppression, than they were before, because, now, if no such change take place, they will reasonably conclude, that there is no hope of obtaining a redress of their griere ances ; to an absence of hope despair succeeds, and desperate actions follow desperate thoughts.
DISTRESSES OF THE PEOPLE.
1" and continued stationary till May,
“ 1923, when it cropped to "2s. 6d., and The following is a correct report of “ remained at this price until DecemMr. FIELDEN's statement relative to the “ her, 1825, when it fell to 2s. 3d.; and
distresses of the working people in the" in February, 1826, to 2s. In April it , North, which statement having been “ fell to ls. 9d., in August to ls. 6d.,
very much misrepresented by the re-1" and in April, 1827, to ls. 3d. In May E ports in the newspapers, and more mis. “it rose to ls. 6d., in June to ls. 9d., in
represented still by the comments in “ August to 2s. In October it was rethe lying newspapers of the North, 1“ duced to ls. 9d. In February, 1828,
give it here, vouching for its correct." it advanced to 2s. In April it was #ness. It will be recollected that it" reduced to ls. 9/d., in June to ls. 6d.;
arose on the debate of the 6. March, on " in September it rose again to ls. 9d.; Tabel the sugar duties, the granting of which " in October it fell to Is. (d. ; in De
duties, Mr. Fielden opposed, seeing “ cember to ls. 3d., and in May, 1529, that the grievances of the people ought to Is. itd. The average price since to be redressed before the granting of " had been about ls. 3d. Some hon. these, or any other, taxes.
I “ Members, he had observed, laughed Mr. John FIELDEN: “A good deal" while he was reading this statement; " having been said on the reduction of “ he would assure those hon. Members, “ salaries and superannuated allow-" that it was no laughing matter for "ances, he would take the opportunity" these poor work people who had by
of submitting to his Majesty's Go “ these reductions been subjected to se"vernment a criterion, or guide, for " vere and unparalleled privations. Hon.
making reductions in these charges. " Gentlemen, he found, were sceptical, “ He would state the reductions which“ and even ventured to deny the dis. " he had had to make in the wages of the “ tress, which he in former nights had “ poor man's labour. He and his " described ; but here was the proof. " partners emploved between one and" They need not now be at a loss to K two thousand hands in hand-loom- "know what it was that had caused “ weaving; and he would give to the" this distress, when they took into ac“ House the wages which he had paid " count that the labour which was " for a certain description of cloth, well“ paid with Ss. in 1814, had for several “known in the Manchester market, by 1 years of late been paid with ls. 3d. " the name of the third 749. The House “ He hoped that the noble Lord, the “ would perhaps better understand " Chancellor of the Exchequer, would “ what this meant, when he told them " consider these facts. It might be " that it was a light description of calico. " asked why he had made these reduc“ This scale of wages he had taken from “ tions ; why he did not continue to pay “his own books; and his veracity on this “ more. This was an important ques " subject he thought no one would ven- ' tion. And he would tell the House “ ture to question. In 1814, the price " that he had with the greatest reluct. “ for weaving one piece was 8s., and ance yielded to making these reduc
“gradually fell, till, in the latter end “ tions; but he had been compelled !“ of the year 1816, it was reduced to 1" by a necessity which he could
“2s. Od. In 1817, it was advanced to “ not control. No Gentleman had “ 28. 9d., 35., and 35.66.; and in Sep-" taken more pains than he had to “ternber, 1818, to 4s. In February, “ keep up the value of the poor man's la" 1819, it fell to 38. 9d, and continued "bour. He had exerted himself in every " to fall, until, in September in the “ way which he could devise to effect “ same year, it was 2s. 6d. In October " this object. But his exertions had “1820, the price was advanced to“ been unattended by success, and he “ 28. 9d., afterwards to 38.; and in Oc “ would tell the noble Lord and the “tober, 1821, to 3s. 3d. In January, “ House a fact connected with this “:1822, it had again fallen to 2s. 9d., “ statement of wages, which was very