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(the distant provinces ; and which did EDITOR OF THE MORNING CHRONICLE not proceed far, before those who had
relied upon the police for their protecBolt-court, 21. March, 1833. tion, were sent out of their mansions as SIR,-For about ten or twelve years, beggars upon the world. I think it is, I have exchanged two! I charge the Morning Chronicle, as Registers a week against six Morning, being a FEELER for effecting this purChronicles in the week. I will do this pose, and I detest and abhor it accordno longer. I will no longer have fel-ingly; and will no more have any lowship or communication with that transaction with it of any kind wharsopaper, and my reasons are as follows: ever. I believe that the scheme is very
I have perceived in the Morning ripe in the minds of some persons, and Chronicle, always, a disposition to in- I think it my bounden duty to keep the troduce a government of spies and in- country in a state of warning with reformers and gendarmerie and hired ma- gard to the thing itself, as well as with gistrates into England ; a disposition to regard to its consequences.. supplant the ancient laws and usages of
Wm. COBBETT. the country by German and Austrian establishments; a disposition to sweep away sheriffs, constables, watchmen, and all the whole of the county and parochial officers of the peace; and to in
STAMP TAXES. . troduce in their stead hirelings, exer- ' I CANNOT answer the letters written cing power coming immediately from to me on this subject. My whole time the Government; a disposition to super-would not suffice for giving proper ansede, in effect, the humane poor-law of swers to a twentieth part of them. To Elizabeth, and to treat the working one correspondent, who expresses a hope people like so many slaves ; a disposi- that I will not let the matter drop till I tion, in short, to reduce Englishmen to have obtained justice for the people, I a government of force, instead of a go. had almost a mind to write an angry vernment willingly obeyed. This I have letter. When did he know me let a perceived, in that paper, for many years thing drop ? As to obtaining justice past, and have, upon several occasions, for the people, that I cannot pledge expressed my indignation at it; but, nyself for ; but I will pledge myself to NOW, that man must be blind who leave undone nothing that I am able to does not see, in that paper, FEELERS do, in order to obtain that justice. The continually put forth for the purpose of affair stands thus at present. On the first - Preparing the country for the establish- Monday in April I shall bring forward the ment in England of just such a govern- subject again ; and, if tlie Chancellor of ment as that which has so long existed the Exchequer do not then name some in Ireland. That paper now tells us, I day before the 21. of April, on which he almost in so many words, that the will bring in the bill of which he has POOR-LAW COMMISSIONERS are spoken, I will, on the last Monday in about to recommend the establishment April, bave my bill ready, and move for of a police-force, which is 10 extend all leave to bring it in. If I have leave to over England into the very villages, and bring it in, it is well; if I have not, I that one object of it is to compel the poor | will then publish my hill, and show to desist from demanding and oblaining what has been, and what is, and what relief. The writer of the articles that ought to have been, and what ought I allude to, forgets that there was, in now to be. The country will be France, a police of this sort in every astounded at the sight; and, for my village, previous to the breaking out of own part, as I proceed in the work, I the French revolution ; and that, the feel my heart filled with indignation police force did not prevent that revo- that I cannot describe; indignation to lution which began, not at Paris, but in reflect that this industrious and harassed people should have been thus treated nufacture, if you include rent of land, for so many years, and that there should wages of reaping, washing, bleaching, have been no one single member of dressing, and plaiting the straw, sewing Parliament to make a complaint in the plait, freights of vessels, and manu. their name. , " .
facturers' profits, bring in 20,0001. a year additional, to enable the Orkney man to eat his brown bread, to drink his beer, and kindle his fire in the middle of his
hearth, for this good old Saxon custom, ORKNEY ISLANDS,
as well as that of drinking his own home· BRITISH LEGHORN.
brewed, is cherished by the descendant
of the Norseman. And a patriarchal To Mr. William Cobbett, M.P. for Oldham.sight it is to see the bluff old islander,
behind the hallan, with his numerous Sir,—These islands are benefited offspring encircling him, to hear the not less than 20,000l. a year by this ma- fireside tale he tells them of the sea nufacture, which you were the first to some virtuous exploit of his younger introduce. The wages paid out to fe-days, for all are seamen in their males who plait the straw, somewhat / youth. exceed 12,000l. As high as six guineas To any county in Scotland the sum of an acre are given for land to grow the 20,000!. a year would be a vast accession straw, in a country the arable acres of to its resources, but this came to Orkwhich seldom exceed 251., and rarely ney at a critical time, and went far to come up to that amount. The owner supply the deficiency occasioned in its of the land ploughs and lays down the revenue, when the kelp trade was crops ; but, after all deductions for his ruined by the experiments of Huskisson labour at the current rates of the coun- and Poulett Thomson, backed by the try, he pockets a nett rent of not less stupidity of some of our northern re-, than 41. 10s. an acre--the average of presentatives. You may remember that the arable land in Orkney being not this article of kelp, the staple of one 141. To such a pass is the manufac- third part of Scotland, and the staff of ture brought, that bonnets have been life to two hundred thousand families, made as high as 101. in price ; 31. or 4l. was the first on which those, bungling have frequently been obtained for fine charlatans, who knew nothing of the specimens. What renders it more pe- true principles of free trade, tried their culiarly advantageous, the greater part miserable hands. Having plunged the of the labour is carried on by those who whole north and west of Scotland into could not otherwise turn their hand to ruin irremediable and deplorable, they so good account the young women. rested from their labours, till a wagon At this easy employment they find an wheel avenged the wrongs of the houseoccupation every way suitable to the less, and the orphan, and the exile on softness of their nature, and calculated the Canadian shore. Thus it is to legis, to engender those little tastes and habits late for men, as if they were sheep, and of nicety, neatness, and propriety in to sport with the property of the subdress and behaviour, the ornament of ject" as if there were no property in their sex when kept in proper bounds. goods. Kelp, which brought in 30,0001. I have not by me, at present, an exact a year to Orkney, prior to the minisreturn of the number of persons wholly tration of that ill-omened Jacobin, Husor partially employed in this manufac- kisson, yields not, now, 5,000l. The ture in Orkney, nor of the number of difference goes into the pocket of the yards of plait manufactured, with their Spaniard for his barilla, or of the glassmarket value; but I have applied for it, maker, who has a monopoly, and keeps and when obtained, I shall send it to up his price as before. But the British you. I do not think, however, that I Leghorn compensates, though partially exaggerate, when I repeat that the man to other hands, the whole deficiency of
25,0001., except 5,0001. of which this nufacture, dispensing bread to the incounty has been robbed.
dustrious, instruction to the ignorant, You should know how this manu- and comfort to the poor man's hut, facture is conducted; the system is They live without reproach, and almost one very opposite to that of the Owenite without envy, but for a few neighboursocial system, apt to become too social. ing fanatics who cannot abide that Altogether, I am inclined to believe it is failk should be contaminated by good one which will meet your cordial appro-works. bation, unless I misapprehend entirely Here are no odious factories to poison the spirit of your writings. It is chiefly health and morals; no heaps of human carried on by two sensible nien named beings are huddled on one another, at Robertson and Ramsay, who were the 90 degrees of a thermometer,: to first to introduce it, and have done breathe the air of Pandemonium. much for its' permanent prosperity. Competition does not starve the indusThese two excellent persons, respected trious. No ten hours bills are necessary. for their honesty, industry, frugality, The high-pressure system of labour inoderation, and zeal, in every good which has enslaved your country, is that is to be done the poor, are also the yet unknown in mine. We have no pastors of an unobtrusive congregation troops of paupers mangled in the engine, of independents-a sect in Scotland or spirit-broken on the tread-mill. The differing little from our national esta- expense of our poor, to each individual blishment, except in the article of church liable to pay rates, is one shilling and government, in their mode of solem- threepence per annum. . Each pauper Dizing marriages, in the administration costs 21, 11s. 8d. per annum, exclusive of baptism, and partaking of the com- of voluntary aid. This arises not from munion. Each congregation chooses want of poor-laws, but because we have its own pastor, and is in itself a su- no poor, except the blind, the maimed, preme church court. The clergy are the aged, and the sick ; every able man supported by the voluntary oblations of has work. the faithful-not unfrequently by their The young women, who plait the own means ; for all are useful, all in- straw, live at home with their parents; dustrious. They reduce marriage more they assist " the good woman" in the nearly to a civil contract, at least in duties of the house, churn, make cheese, some congregations. They do not bap- and milk the cows, bake, brew, and wash. tize infancy. They partake of the They give part of spring and all harvest Lord's Supper every Sabbath, instead of to their parents. If the family be nu. twice a year, as 'in' our established merous and strong, some stay at home, church: and once a quarter, as with and some take hire at other farms, besome of our sectarians. The same cause, the country being thinly peopled. confessions of faith very nearly per-| labour is invaluable at that season, and vade all our religious societies; Cal. the safety of the crop, beneath that vatinism is the bottom of their creed. riable sky, a duty paramount. This - In Kirkwall, the principal town of feeling, so necessary to the very existOrkney, the independents have one ence of the inhabitant of this "stornchapel (meeting house), capable of swept" land, the God of nature seems holding 400 hearers ; and they have four to have implanted in the breast of every or five others throughout the country, one, with the force and the sanctity of a in two of which Messrs. Robertson and high religious duty. The old man, Hamsay officiate on alternate days, at a speaking of the weather, and the prose distance from their hoines of from 10 pects of the harvest, reverentially tö 16 miles, in that boisterous climate, touches his įbroad bonnet, beseeching almost without a bridle road. Thus, " the mercy of God." Tilt the crop all Sunday, they lead their little ftock has been secured, no man may properly s by the quiet waters ;” and, all the be said to be his own master; old and week, they carry on their beautiful ma- young lay all aside bat the harvest
"n: Work; and not unfrequently I have seen stream, wash their feet, and * don their
them "stack and screw" by moonlight. hose and shoon," as your Chaucer has Then all is cheerfulness : for, about this it, by no means fastidious to the passing, time, the young men are coming home i stranger. This ceremony is reversed at from the Greenland fishery, high in their departure homeward'; for though spirits and provided with the rent; for not deficient in vanity, my countrywomen these fine fellows throw all their savings are careful and economical; and such is into the common purse. I should tell the effect of custom, that going bare you, nowhere is filial piety more re- foot, " kilted to the knee,” excites no spected than among this truly open- unpleasant feeling there, as it is said to hearted people.
do with you in England. In the one Vast tracts of moor-land and of bog case, it is accompanied by famine, filth, cover the interior parts of these islands. and squalor--the badge of misery; in The cultivated lands stretch along the the other, it is the sign of health and creeks and bays, and less precipitous vigour; besides, one' easily becomes cliffs, which intersect this iron-bound reconciled to a well-turned leg and firm coast. Patches of old green pasture, instep, " albeit scant of hosen,' to quote watered by the little streams which issue Chaucer once more. from the springs among the hills, lie With the money they get for their interspersed among the waste lands, work, and they reckon mighty shrewdly and are used as summer herdings. Skirt with the employer, our young women ing those wastes, stand the low turf purchase the thousand little items they cottages of the moorland farmers, with call necessaries, though God knows how their few roods of arable ground, with correctly! An infinity of needles and eut any sort of enclosure ; a few stacks pins, and tapes and starch, and soaps of bigg and oats are in the yard, and an and bluenot omitting snuff for the excellent stack of peats for fuel. Thus old man," fannel for the mother, and provided, he hears the tempest whistle a trifle of finery for themselves, exulting from without, fearless of its violence, in the chought of Sunday. Perhaps they Weather permitting, he goes out to fish; are the least sophisticated of women, the rest of his time he thrashes in the simple, obliging, contented, and kind; barn, mends his net or line, and “winds kind beyond expression in their manier, bands," which signifies making straw and always civil. They are desperate ropes; for such is bis simple tackle, at a bargain, much feared, yet beloved The women spin and plait thin straw ; of the shopkeepers. All things conand thus, in cheerful industry, the long sidered, perhaps no people enjoy hąphours of winter are beguiled. In sum-piness more purely unalloyed; their
mrer. they work out of doors, and beside wants are few and easily satisfied; they i the corn-fields in early barvest, tending are not oppressed, nor given to the the cattle.
abuse of taxable commodities. Every h Once a week, barefoot, with petticoat visit to the market-town is a minor kind tucked, or, as they term it," kilted up," of carnival; and each young woman they carry their work to the towns of contrives, by hook or crook, to have a Kirkwall and Stromness, whichever dozen such to her share within the year. they happen to be nearest to, these Her great pleasure there is, to walk being exactly fifteen miles apart, situ- about the street, staring at the finery, ated beside convenient harbours, almost to call on friends, and þiggle with the at' opposite extremities of the main shopman, not omitting, any more than land, and enjoying a tolerable trade. ladies in Cheapside, a sly look at the Here the principal manufacturers reside, young men passing, herself at the same and hither the young women carry their time visible, and for that reason making work, and receive their wages, and so such thing she buys debateable, . * much straw for the next week's em- If the great end of all who aspire to "ployment. When they reach the town be useful be " to make men happy, ar bead they sit down by the nearest to keep them so," I conceive you will
be gratified to learn, that, for once, a llue, three times the gross amount of species of labour has been invented, the, whole. revenues of the church of which gives bread to the industrious, Durham. Yet this nobleman would as without demoralizing them... I do not soon think of endowing the mufti of a know whether this manufacture benefits mosque at Constantinople, with his the tax-gatherer; if not, that is another tithes, as of augmenting the stipend of singular exception; but I hope the Bri- the poor incumbent of the district, from tish Leghorn will long flourish, without which a large portion of his immense the paternal protection of Government. revenues are derived. He is contented
In another letter, I shall furnish you with allowing the same small salary to with the particulars of a case connected the present incumbent, which was with these islands, and in which you are granted in the reign of Henry the deeply interested, as a representative of Eighth. He permits the poor clergythe people; one of whom I am proud to man to be borne down with poverty, on subscribe myself with. every sentiment the very living from which he is enof gratitude for your efforts in our be- riched by all the great tithes. Yet, in half, in and out of Parliament,
this very place, it was, that one of the
ORCADENSIS. parishioners reflected, in my hearing, on .; . i 4, Duncan-street, Edinburgh, the dignitaries of the church, for not . 1. March, 1833.
increasing the revenues of this large and impoverished parish. We do not envy
this nobleman his great possessions. EXTRACT
They are his by law : but they were ori. FROM . .
ginally granted upon conditions, the
spirit of which he is as much required to A Plan for abolishing Pluralities, and observe, as if the law of man, and not the non-residence, in the Church of Eng- law of God only, exacted his obedience.
land, by increasing the value of poor Here, then, I adopt the words of Lord ".. livings, without Spoliation: in a iet- | Henley, when he speaks of the church e ter to Lord Henley. By the Rev. revenues--My brethren, these things : Geo. TownSEND, M.A.-Rivington, ought not so tobe. London. .
I know of another lay-impropriator, It is absolutely necessary in this hour who, in a parish of eighteen miles in of the agony of the Protestant Church length, receives all the great tithes, to of England, that the public who desire the amount of several thousands a year, ecclesiastical reform, should have their while the living itself yields ten pounds attention directed to their lay-impro- a year to the officiating minister. ; priators, I shall avoid mentioning. I know another lay-impropriator, names, as they are not essential to my who, in like manner, grudgingly allows argument: while I shall submit to the a few pounds to the incumbent, while he 'consideration of Lord Henley, and his exacts with a rigour which would disassociates, a few circumstances which grace and shame a clergyman, the last rest upon undoubted evidence, and which sheaf to which he can lay claim. Ought may be regarded as common occurrences. this to be?. I know of another lay
One noble Lord is the patron of a impropriator who possesses the great living, where there are ten thousand pa- tithes of a large parish and refuses eren rishioners. He possesses, as the de- to mend the windows of the chancel of scendant of the original grantee, not the church, unless threatened with the only all the great and small tithes, and penalties of the law. Ought this to be? all the church lands, but he claims,l. I know of another, a nobleman, who and by his agent receives, even the possesses a larger yearly income(if report mortuary fees. The income of this no- speak true), than the whole bench of bleman, which is principally, or in great, bishops ; a considerable part of which
part, derived from the spoliation of the is derived fron the great tithes of livings "church, exceeds, it is said, in annual-va while the livings themselves are of