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the poorest description, and remain un-sions. I say again with Lord Henley , augmented, unnoticed, and unregarded. these things ought not so to be. There are many lay-impropriators who Before I subinit my plan of alleviaseldom' or never see the parishes from tion for these evils to the public, I wish whick they receive their tithes ; nor to answer an objection which will be contribute to their charities ; nor benefit proposed, not to the principle on which them in any work of Christian love. So I would proceed, but to some of the reabsolutely do they regard this owner-marks I have now made. “Why," it ship of the great tithes in the same will be said, “why should these oblight as their rents, or their funded pro-" servations be confined to the lay-imperty, that they would look upon him |“ propriators ? Have not the great tithes, who proposed to them to augment their" and the church lands, been taken froin vicarages, from the tithes, as a mad-1" the parishes, and from the parochial man, or as an idiot. I could enumerate “ clergy, and granted in many instances a long and painful catalogue of similar" to bishops, colleges, deans and chapinstances. The truth must be told. The " ters, and to other corporate bodies, lay-impropriators have betrayed their “ as well as to lay-impropriators ? Have trust; the lay-impropriators have broken " these restored ihe tithes to the vicars?, the oriyinalcontract under which theyhave " Are there no livings in their gift, imso long possessed their tithes and lands. “ poverished by the failure of these They have never granted to the poor” public bodies to provide the competent viears of the parishes from which they " maintenance of which you speak?” draw their great tithes, their “ congrua I answer, that the objection in many portio,” as the ancient law expresses it, instances would be found to be unanor as subsequent authorities designate swerable. The ecclesiastical, and other it, their " competent maintenance"-corporate bodies, have certainly not their “convenable provision—which augmented the poor livings so frewas contemplated in the original grant of quently, or so extensively, as equity re-, the tithes to impropriators, of any kind quires that they should have done. I They never seem to imagine that an would not, however, extend to them the equitable duty is imposed upon them, remedy I am about to submit to the lay-, of increasing the maintenance of the impropriators, because the hill of the poor incumbent. Yet in every case of Archbishop of Canterbury, as I have aldeficient revenue, the ecclesiastical part ready shown, enablesall the ecclesiastical of the church is clamorously called upon bodies to fulfil the contract upon which to make good their breach of contract. the tithes, and other ecclesiastical reve.. The beneficed clergy are required, by nues, were appropriated to their use : the public press, and by the orators of and because they are already acting the day, to tax their already deeply upon that bill, and exerting themselves burdened incomes, not to assist their to remedy the evils in question. The own poor incumbents, but to enrich and Archbishop of Canterbury, and the benefit the wealthy and noble lay pa- Bishop of London, are augmenting all trons, by enabling them to present their the poor livings in their gift, to the friends and relations to livings which amount of three hundred a year. The are to be mude more valuable at the ex- Bishop of Gloucester, the Chapters of pense of the impoverished priesthood. Windsor and of Westminster, are atThat poverty of the benefices, which is tempting the same object. I have no the consequence of the defalcation on doubt that all the other ecclesiastical the part of the lay-impropriators, is bodies will follow their example; and attributed to the clergy, as an ecclesias- that these instances may be regarded tical crime. The clergy are taunted and only as specimens of what will be done insulted; while the lay-impropriators by other bishops and other collegiate, themselves remain unsuspected of nego bodies... lect, and continue unmolested in their With respect to the church of Dur-, enjoyment of the ecclesiastical posses- ham, I can affirm, without fear of con

tradiction, that no lay-impropriator in ' liamentary grants to the amount of one the kingdom (and there are many who million one hundred thousand pounds, possess a much larger property in tithes), I have failed, in the course of more than a has done one-tenth of the good which century, to raise each of the poor livings this church has conferred, not only since of England to 1001. a year. Lord Henley's the passing of the archbishop's bill, but and Dr. Burton's plans, even when during the last century and a half, i united into one, as Lord Henley proupon its poor vicarages. Beneficial poses, in the tract appended to the end leases have been granted to Dalton, of the seventh edition of his pamphlet, Bedlington, Eglingham, Ellingham, would not increase the 3,000 poor livings Norham, Elvet, Crossgate, and others. in the gift of laymen, which are under The chapter has long appropriated a 150l. a year, to 3001. a year. The union large portion of its yearly revenues to l of these two plans would yield, accord. this work of augmentation and it is ing to Lord Henley, 300,0001. a year, constantly increasing the value of its which, if divided ainong the 3,000 poor benefices. They have long since re. livings, under 150l. a year, would give solved to raise every living at their dis. to each 100l. a year, and if divided posal to a certain amount, and to go on among all the 4,361, would give to

enlarging the income of the incum- each less than seventy pounds: that is, ** bents, till they shall be in the receipt of it would not yield, even if we supposed " that competent maintenance which they that the whole fund could be devoted,

consider to be their due. For these without any material deduction, to the reasons, therefore, I would not extend object in view, that competent mainteto the ecclesiastical part of the church nance for the clergyman which it is the the plan which I would submit to the intention of all our plans to obtain. approbation of the public. The bishops, Neither would Mr. Miller's plan* acdeans and chapters, and colleges, are doing their duty. Our rulers and dig

• Mr. Miller's plan for the augmentation nitaries are on the alert; and with the of poor bishoprics and livings, ispowers which they now possess, they to require the payment of first fruits, kcare able and they are willing to remedy cording to present values; the first fruits to the evils of impoverished benefices, and be considered as only one half of a year's in

come; two years to be allowed for payment. their consequences, non-residence and And bisho

And hishoprics and livings' under certain pluralties.

amounts to be exempt. There is ret another objection which A clerical tax, according to present values, may be proposed, and which I shall under the name of tenths, but upou a graduated therefore notice before I submit the de

“ scale, to be imposed, so as to produce an annual

amount nearly equal to one-tenth of all the cletails of my new plan to the reader. ricalincome of England and Wales, Bishoprics "Why“ (it will be again urged), " why and living's under certain values to be exempt, “ are you not contented with the plans and the scale to be moved upwards as soon as " for improving the value of the poor

augmentation has brought the exempted pre

ferments to the minimum of the taxable in: « benefices, which have been proposed comes: the same principle of increased ex. “by the governors of the Queen Anne's emption to be observed respecting first fruits.. “ Bounty, aided by the Parliamentary l. To render present incumbepts subject to at ** grantsmor with the plan proposed by la

least one-third of the rate fixed, by the gra.

duated scale, for the new payment of tenths. “ Mr. Miller, by Dr. Burton, by Lord To obtain' (towards the fund for general * Henley, and by these conjointly?" augmentation) from the lay patron of any * I reply, that none of these plans are poor living, which shall have been improved $0 efficient, or so immediate in their be- by grants derived from the clerical tenths, as

many years purchase of the annual amount neficial effects, as to afford that relief of such as

autor that retter of such augmentation as may be deemed for the pressing emergencies of the equitable. case, which appears to be absolutely ne- The whole of the funds arising in there cessary. The sum's which have buen various ways to be placed under the manage placed at the disposal of the governors. To re

went of Queen Anne's Bounty.

s. To re-unite prebends, 'pot residentinry, to of Queen Anne's Bounty, aided by Par- their proper Hvings; and to connect you

394 .

complish this desideratum. By his 1 But not only ought we to avoid re-
plan the livings which are now under sorting to this impolitic and inefficient
seventy pounds a year, would be in- mode of proceeding, we must take
creased to one hundred a year in the
course of ten years." Something muste
. Something must returns of 1818. We learn from these that

there were, as I have before said, 4,361 livings .. be proposed wich will more rapidly, in England and Wales under 1501. per anbum,

and more efficaciously, remove thej There are
evil, than has been hitherto suggested 12 .. under ,. 10
in any plan submitted to public appro-

45 .. under .. .. and above .. 10

19. bation.

... and above .. 20

246 .. under .. and above .. •. Let us now, therefore, consider on 314 .. under

50 .. and above, what foundations a plan may be formed 314 .. under .. 60., and above ... for increasing the poorer benefices : 301 ., under .. 70., and above ... which shall not offend that part of the

278 .. under 80 .. and above.

251 .. under .. 90 .. and above community, who are not guilty of de

100 .. and above .. 90 2.siring the welfare of the Church of 250 .. under ..110 .. and above ,. 100 ..England.";.;. '. ,

289 .. under .. 120 .. and above .. 110 : The plan must not be founded on the

254 .. under .. 130.. and above .. 120

217 .. under .. 140 .. and above.. 130 prineiple of confiscation : and this for

219 .. under .. 150... and above .. 140 two reasons, its impolicy, and its ineffi- This is from a return made in 1815, when viency. Its impolicy has been already things were very high. It is allowed out to be showo, in its consequences of destroying complete. That is, there were even then, a

few more livings of each of these classes. Now,

urch as things have fallen, there must be many Its inefficiency appears in this, that if more.-Parliamentary Papers of 1818, vol. all the episcopal, decanal, and capitular xviii., p. 215. revenues in England were to be dividedl. The episcopal and decanal revenues have at once among the 4,361 poor livings

been estimated at 463,0001. Let us suppose

wing this sum be placed without deductions at the which are now under 150l. a year, they disposal of the state for the purposes of coptiswould not increase each of such livings cation. To raise the 4,361 livings then to to the amount of two hundred per 2001, a year would require as follows:-' ! annum.*...* . ; : .

12 Livings at 10 to 200 would require 2,280 Confiscation, therefore, would be

........ . 8,100 utterly inadequate to provide that com

...... 20,230 petent maintenance which it is on all 246. sides acknowledged, ought to be granted

... 47, 100

... 43,960 to every resident incumbent. Confis.

301.

39,130 cation and equal division of the church 278 .

33,360 property generally would not secure the 251.

27,610 sum of 300t. a year to each clergyman;

394.....

39,400 L 250.. 110.

22,500 though this sum is considered by all as

23, 120 the minimum income of every benefice

...... 17,780 in England. Confiscation, therefore, is 217 ........ 140..

13,020 not advisable.

150 ............... 10,950

£387,900

This returg was not complete, for 758 liv. dentiary canonries with poor livings' in the ings are omitted. Let us place these at the same diocese.

highest sum of 1501. To raise these to the My plan, Mr. Miller observes, should pro- amount of 2001. per annum, the additional duce at least 250,0001. per annum when in full sum of. 128,7002. would be required. If we operation. Dr. Burton's not 60,0001.

add this sum to the sum of 387,9001, we have As to appropriated tithes in general, be pro- the sum of 516,6001. required to raise the poor poses that they be charged along with those livings to 2001. a year each. That is, we re enjoyed by the vicar or perpetual curate in a quire more money by 53,600l: than the w bole just proportion, for the building and main income now vested in bishops, deaus, and tàining in a good state of repair the incum- chapters, to give to the poor clergy, by the bent's house.

plan of confiscation, the small pittauce of two * This is easily proved by the Parliamentary hundred pounds a year. .

...... 39,360

314

314.....

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100

120.

130

219........

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care to devise a remedy-which will not union of the church with the state, can tax the sectarians or Dissenters. It is alone prevent our infidel or irreligious absolutely necessary to prevent any re- patrons of livings from presenting here sistance on their part. Though the Epis-tical, Unitarian, worthless persons to copalians of England would never have the benefices of the church. The power objected to an assessment for the sup- of the state is required, to allow the port of a Presbyterian or Independent ecclesiastical ruler of the church to lechurch establishment, if the dynasty of gislate for the general, good. The Cromwell and the Long Parliament had church, in return for this benefit, preremained permanent-ihough they, sub- serves the nation from anti-Christianity mitting themselves to every ordinance in all its forms. The Church of Engof man for the Lord's sake, would have lands may be called, the eclectic sect of paid every tax which the Government the Christianity of the world. It poshad imposed upon them, we cannot sesses within itself all the truth and all expeet such proofs of Christian princi- the advantages which other societies of ple, from the enemies of the Episcopa- Christians variously propose to themlian establishment. My plan, therefore, selves. It enjoys the spirituality of would make an exception in favour of worship aimed at by the Dissenters, with all Dissenters, so that they should sufficient external discipline to prevent have no reason to raise the war cry its disciples from falling into heresy or against us.

error. It comprises all the supposed exWe must not look for pecuniary aid cellences of the church of Rome, by from the Government, in any other form maintaining a standard of faith, a gradathan that which the Government grants tion of ranks, and a well-defined and to railroads or canals, or to any public well-ordered authority. It possesses work. It is certain that Christianity is property of its own, and it is exempted of such infinite importance to nations, therefore from the temptation of beas well as individuals, that the Govern-coming the slave of the crown, or subment of England, as well as that of mitting to the caprices of the people. every Christian country, ought to be It is the link between the prince and the ready and willing to make great sacri- peasant. It binds man to man, and man fices for the good of the church of to God. Like the sun in the heavens, Christ. It is, however, to be feared, at it shines alike upon the palace and the this period of our history, that the state cottage: and the influence of its miniswould not be disposed to take upon ters is felt through all classes of the itself the expense of removing, either community, from the halls of Parliawholly, or in part, the evil which nowment to the bed of the pauper. oppresses the church. Other plans, In thus speaking of the blessings of therefore must be suggested, and a re- Christianity, how can I pass over the medy must be found, which shall affect clergy of the Church of England. They the parties more immediately interested, deserve, and receive the approbation of the patrons and the incumbents, and the wise and good. Encompassed as to a certain extent, the state.

we are by infirmities, some few excep: • The patrons of livings are interested. I tions there must, and will be found out If the value of the livings in their gift is of twenty thousand ecclesiastics : but materially increased, the advowson be- the far greater number deserve the eucomes increased in value in the same logy of Cave,* and the testimony quoted proportion.'s jese

The incumbent is interested: the # In te renovatam (says Cave, in his De. Object being to improve his yearly in dication to the Church of Eogladu) intuemur come.

ævi Cyprianici simplicitatem, Constantipiani • The state is interested. The Church / zelum ac puritatem, Theodosiani decus et

EUTačiav, utioam addere liceret, et felicitatem. of England deserves the approbation,

" | Vigeat apud te magis magisque autiqua fides, the sanction, and the protection of the virtus, simplicitas; sint Laici lui moribus in. state which it has so long enjoyed. The culpati, in fide firmi fortesque; sipt Sacerdotes

from Dr. Chalmers by Lord Henley,'| bent of a living to mortgage the living ?" How are they honored in the midst of for the building of a parsonage house. “the people in the going forth of the The Archbishop's Act enables eccle"sanctuary. When they put on the siastical patrons to increase their livings " robe of honour, and are clothed with | by annexing to them certain tithes. "" the perfection of glory, they make the The Church Building Act empowers “ garinent of holiness honourable."* I the Lords of the Treasury to issue money trust they will ever remain faithful to for certain ecclesiastical purposes spetheir trust, and obtain that love and cified in the act. homage which are due to them, as the Here are four several laws, which servants of Christ.

enable a bishop to value-an incumbent Let us now, then, consider what prin. to mortgage-a patron to contribute, ciples are sanctioned by the existing and the state to assist, in the augmenlaws of the country, to enable us to com- tation of livings. plete a safe, just, efficient, and perma- I would propose, then, that when a nent removal of the evils of pluralities living is under 1501. a year the bishop. and non-residence. I find the acts of on the principle recognised in the Parliament which recognise the founda- Bounty Act, return the report of the tions of the plan which I contemplate. said living to the governors of the They are these the act called the board. Queen Anne's Bounty Act--the Gilbert That the governors of the same be Act--the Archbishop's Act for enabling empowered to apply to the Lords of the ecclesiastical patrons to augment livings Treasury for a temporary advance of --and the Act for Building and Enlarg- money, not exceeding in the first ining Churches and Chapels. Though the stance any sum above 5,000l. or 5,700l., state is deeply interested in this matter, for the repayment and interest of which the parties more peculiarly and person- ample security shall be given. ally so are the patrons of the poor liv. That the Treasury be empowered to ings, and the incumbents of the same, advance this sum upon the joint security together with the bishop of the diocese, of the patron, the incumbent, and the upon whom the duty, devolves of enforc-Governors of the Board of Queen Anne's ing residence to the utmost.

Bounty. The money to be funded, or : In the Queen Anne's Bounty Act, or laid out in land, at the discretion of the in the supplemental Act, 1st Geo. 1., patron and incumbent, with the approI read a clause which requires the bation of the bishop and governors. bishops to return to the Board of Com. By the advance of 5,9001: at four per missioners appointed under that act, an cent., or 5,700l. at three and a half per account of the value of all the improved cent., the living would be nominally - livings in their dioceses. The same increased 2001. a year. · act also encourages the patrons of To repay the principal of the money

livings to make benefactions, for the borrowed, I would propose that the in· augmentation of the living, on condi- cumbent give security, that the sum of ·tion that the governors of the bounty 100l. be paid by him, and be funded will do the same. ,

every year and be permitted to remain The Gilbert Act enables the incum- in the funds at compound interest. By

this means, 100l. per annum, at three

and a half per cent., the present price · tui justitia amicti, doctrina ornati, et sit tu of the funds, would pay off 5,000l. in omne ævum, ut hactenus, stupor mundi Clerus, Britannus. Propitius experiaris (be goes

about twenty-nine years, or 5,7001, in on) serenissimum Regem, omnesque in emi-l about thirty-two years. neutià constitutos, ut pro quorum salute in- To provide for the payment of the

dies ad Deum preces fuudis eorum præsidio, / interest of 5,0001. at four per cent. per , muniaris, tuique omnes vitam agant quietam annum, or of 5,7001. at three and a

ac tranquillam, cum omni pietate et gravitate. . - Care's Dedication to his Historia literaria: half per cent., I would propose, that one :'. * Ecclesiasticus, ch. 50., v. 5-11... per cent, be paid by the incumbent,

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