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for inquiry into the causes of the dis cannot be removed because they have tress of the country, and, on which mo- to compete with power-looms? If I tion the division was as will be seen thought power-looms were the cause of. under:
the distressI and my partners have Mr. FIELDEN: I have listened with near one, thousand of them and if it: attention to speeches made by different can be shown they cause the distress, I. : Members during the discussion on the should like to see them broken to pieces important question before the House, to-morrow ; but this is not the cause, and the various opinions advanced have for anything calculated as machinery is. excited my astonishment and surprise to facilitate and increase production, is a .. The hon. Member for Essex has just blessing to any people (hear, hear, from told us that money, the mere ineasure Lord Althorp); if the things produced of commodities, does not alter the real be properly distributed, and it is the value of things, that in all communities duty of the legislature to cause such a there is distress, and that we cannot ex- distribution to be made; and, if I were pect to remove it. Other hon. Gentle- of opinion that the relief of the distress men have admitted the severity of the could not be effected by the legislature, distress, but that it is beyond the power I would take my hat and walk away, of legislative control. Some deny the and not come within the walls of St. distress being greater than heretofore, Stephen's again. The labouring people and the noble Lord, the Chancellor of are in deep distress; there is a cause the Exchequer, has told us he does not for it, and if the King's servants cannot: believe there is
is more distress than there find a remedy for it, they are not fit to: has been. He admits, however, that fill the benches they occupy, in this there is very severe distress amongst the House, and I will tell them that they hand-loom weavers, and says it is cannot do so long. But who are they caused by competition with the power that have brought this industrious peoloom, and cannot be removed. He and ple into this extreme distress? It is not others oppose inquiry, because it would the new inembers of this House, but it : disturb the question of currency, and is those who have been the legislators produce evil rather than good. Here is for years. His Majesty's Ministers, the a reformed House, then, admitting dis- right hon. the Meinber for Tamworth, tress to exist amongst a people which I the right hon. the Member for Essex, pronounce the most industrious and and others, “not right hon." says some productive people on the face of the one. Well, not right hon. then ; I am globe, but ihat this distress is beyond apt to make mistakes of this sort, being the power of legislative control, and a new Member. My training has been ought not to be inquired into, for fear at the spinning-jenny and the loom, of disturbing the currency. The ques and not at the college and the burts, tion of the hon. Mover, is for a se- and I think I am entitled to the in“ lect committee to inquire into the dulgence of the House this causes of the general distress ex- account (Hear, hear, from Sir Robert isting among
the industrious classes of Peel). Yes it is from those Gentlemen, “the United Kingdom, and into the who, by a long train of misrule, have “ most effectual means of its relief." brought on the distress that I demand a Here is not a word about currency, and remedy for. The hon. Member for Essex had it not been stated in debate, I could has told us there is great distress in not have inferred that it involved that France and on the continent of Europe, question at all; but are the people of and it is vain to expect relief from it England to be told that their grievances here. What are the people of England, are not to he inquired into, because it who produce more than is requisite to r may raise a question on the currency ? (make them all well off, to be told that And are my poor distressed hand-loom because distress exists in France and weavers to rest satisfied with being told on the continent, they are to suffer disthey are suffering severe distress, which tress too! I will carry the hon. Mem.
bes across the Atlantic, and refer him to f for one of the same articles would pay a people there are people speaking the the same sum in taxes at the close of same language, the descendants of Ea- the war! I ask how is it? Is this glishmen toom and ask him to tell me 'just? Is it reasonable? There have ' how it is that a common labourer there, been no loans contraeted since the war, who does not produce more than a nu increase of national debt, and yet we common labourer in England-how it are thus dealt with. This then accounts is that for a week's labour he can get a for our distress-we have three things barrel of the best flour, weighing 1961bs., instend of one to pay for taxes; we have while the English labourer cannot get thus lost two thirds of this proportion of more than 12lbs.; and why the weavers our labour, and where is it gone to there can get three times as much flour what is become of it? What we have for their labour as my poor weavers get. lost, somebody has gained. I have It is because the Americans are not heard a great deal said hy different taked, as we are. Yes, it is this taking persons, since I came into this House, away in taxes from those who labour, about the protection that should be and giving it to those who do not la- given to property, and no one has urged baur, that is the cause of the distress. And this more strongly than the right hon. will this refornied House, from whom Member for Tarnworth. This is what so much is expected, tell the people of I require: I ask no more; and if the England that the cause of their distress noble Lord and those who act with him shall not be inquired into, and no that re. will grant us this, I and my poor weamedy can be applied ? Bat it is said the vers will not then complain of disdistress is confined to one class. I will tell tress. But we are not protected ; our this House it is not the labouring peo- labour, our property is taken from as, ple only who are suffering distress, but hy increased and unbearable taxation, those who employ them are sinking in a threefold proportion to what it was with them, amidst unprecedented and at the close of the war; and given by increasing productions too. Those in the the Government to fundholders, placecotton trade have nearly trebled their men, pensioners, sinecurists, and all who productions since the close of the war ; live upon the taxes and fixed money inin that
year the consumption was 6,000 comes-who now have three articles of bags of cotton a week; in 1824, it was our manufacture for the sum that would 11,000; and in 1892 it was 17,000; then buy them but one. I ask, then, is and for manufacturing the 11,000 bags there no remedy to be found for our a week, consumed in 1824, whether it distress in this reformed House of Comwas made into fustians, 745 calico, 723 mons? Will you not inquire into the powersloom calico, or water twist, four cause of the sufferings of the people ? leading articles in the cotton trade, the They have expected great benefits would manufacturers and their workmen re-result from a reformed Parliament ; ceived a less sum of money than they they have for two or three years waited did for the six thousand .in 1815, and patiently for this reform, and if their still less for manufacturing the 17,000 expectations be not fulfilled, if they find bags a week in the year 1832. Now, that justice is denied to them, I treinble the hon. Member for Essex has told as, for ihe consequences. I had a great what is true, that money, which is a real more to add on the subject of the mere measure of commodities, does not distress, but it would be unfitting to alter the real value of those manufac- detain the House longer under the imtures. How comes it then, that I, who patience which has for some time heen ama ta' manufacturer, and my poor shown to close the discussion on this Weavers, have to raise the sum we have question, to pay in taxes now, to execute the labour required to produce three of any one of these articles of manufacture, when the money value of the labour
Lists of the Majority and Minority of gross absurdities, which can never be on Mr. Attwood's motion will be given acted upon; and, as towards the people n the next Register.
of this great town, it contains proposiFor the Cominittee...... 160 tions of the cruelest kind. Against it...
3. Keepers of hotels, taverns, inas,
ale-houses, cook-shops, &c., selling Majority 34
meat on any part of the Sunday are to be fined the same as above.
4. Persons being present at any club OBSERVANCE-OF-THE-LORD'S rooins, or news-rooms, on a Sunday, to
be fined the saine as above; and the DAY BILL!
keepers of such rooms, who have them A VERY short abstract of this bill open on Sundays, to forfeit fifty will serve to show how complete a revo. pounds, and the house to be deemed a Jution is contemplated by the intro- disorderly house and dealt with accordducers of this incomparable piece of ingly. I see no exenrption here for
legislation," as law-making is now the club-houses of $t. James's and other called.
parts of the Wen. "1. It is proposed, " That no person 5. Being drunk on Sunday, a fine of
upon any part of the Lord's-dny, not less than ten shillings, nor more « shall do or exercise, or hire or enıploy than twenty.
any person to do or exercise any la- 6. Justices of the peace, constables, * bour or work of his or her ordinary deputy constables, churchwardens, overe calling, or in the way of trade or bu- seers, or police officers, with or without “siness, or keep open shop, or buy or warrant, may seize all articles of food *sell, or cry, offer, or expose for salé, sold, cried, offered, or exposed for sale
or receive or deliver, or cause or pro- in any market, street, highway, or pub
cure to be bought or sold, or cried, lic place, and shall deliver such seized 4 offered, or exposed for sale, or received articles to the overseer of the poor
or delivered any goods, wares, mer- the parish to be distributed among the ** chandises, animals, chattels, articles, poor. That is to say, on the highways " effects or things whatsoever, or pay, in the neighbourhood of London, in the
or cause or procure to be paid any summer months, when stewed-up Lon
wages or sum of money, or security doners crawl out from the smoke fora “ for money, or make any contract of few hours of basking and breathing; * hiring, or other contract or agreea when the poor man or woman takes ad
ment, or do or permit any matter or vantageof this tu sell his or her little bas " thing prohibited, or for the doing or kets of sweet-meats, ginger-pop, sugar"permitting of which any forfeiture is plums, oranges, and so on, a police-of"imposed by any provision of this act :" ticer may seize upon the whole concert, and
and give it up for the benefit of the 2. That every person who does any poor of the parish ! of the above, shall pay not less than 7. The next clause is one of the most five nor more than twenty shillings for importants of the whole, and I shall the first offence; not less than twenty therefore give it as it dow'stands in the nor more than forty for the second; nor | bill : it is proposed " That the owner more than five pounds for every subse- )" and owners of every wagon, cart, van, quent ofence; and, moreover, all agree "stage-coach, steans-carriage, omnibas ments, receipts, &c., are void if done" or other carriage, earrying or licensed contrary to this act.
W to carry goods, parcels or passengers in So far, this is nothing more than a “ for hire, which shall in any. manner re-enacting anal hardening the old laws" commence its journey during any prart of Charles the Second's reign ; but in " of the Lord's-day, or which shall in the present state of the country, and of any manner proceed on, or continue large towns in particular, this bill is full " its journey between the hours of 3
of the clock in the morning 10. The next is' also a very import
of the clock of the ant clause, affecting all coasting vessels, "evening on any part of the Lord's-day, vessels trading to Ireland or across the “ shall forfeit for the first offence ten channel, and all vessels and boats on "pounds, and for the second offence the rivers ;. .and I. shall, therefore give
twenty pounds, and for every subse- this also as I find it in the bill. It is: " quent offence, thirty pounds, and be proposed “That every owner or part “ deprived of his or her license, if any owner, or owner or part owner for the "such there be ; and every person with " time being, or person having the "such wagon cart, van, stage-coach,“ control, management, or direction for “ steam-carriage, omnibus, or other car- “ the time being, as captain, master or
riage, shall forfeit for the first offence“ other person in command of any any sum not less than five shillings," ship, steanı-vessel, or other. vessel
nor more than ten shillings, for the" which shall leave its port, or com“ second offence not less than ten “mence its voyage on the Lord's-day, “ shillings, nor more than twenty shil- “ except only any vessel of not less than lings, and for every subsequent öffence“ two hundred tons burden, setting out
not less than twenty shillings, nor more upon a foreign voyage and not being " than five pounds.
a steam-vessel, shall for every such :: This stops the nightcoaches that offence forfeit'any sum not less than start on a Saturday night, the carriers,“ fifty pounds nor more than one hun,vans, and road-wagons; it stops also“ dred pounds, and every owner and all coaches that go out on Saturday part owner, and owner and part owner morning, and even on Thursday and “ for the time being, and from having Friday, if they have to go to distant " the control, management, and direc· places, such as Falunouth, Carlisle, Edin-" tion for the time being of any ship, -burgh, unless they manage to put up steam-vessel or other vessel, or of any during some hours which have yet tu cargo, who shall land, unload, disbe decided upon, and which may be charge, remove, or warehouse, or cause from twelve o'clock on Saturday night" or procure to be landed, unloaded, to twelve o'clock on Sunday night, and " discharged, removed or warehoused, then proceed again; and, of course, it " and every person who shall assist or -stops the coaches that are coming up " superintend in landing, unloading, disto London from distant places, unless “ charging, removing or warehousing they manage it so as to perform their "any cargo or freight, either wholly or journeys between Monday and Saturday, “ in part, from outof or belonging to any or, to put-up on the road on Sunday. "ship, steam-vessel, or other vessel, on -This will prevent the mails from carry“ any part of the Lord's-day, shall foring passengers at all on Sundays ; but " feit any sum not less than two pounds, for this, see exemption-clause at ihe end. nor more than five pounds; and
9. Proposes that nobody shall let, and " every person who shall employ in nobody hire, horse or carriage to be " the conveyance of goods or passen- used on a Sunday, under a penalty gers, or hire or let to hire, any boat, growing up in case of repetition of the “ wherry, lighter, barge, or other vessel, offence, from one pound to ter pounds ; for the purpose of being used or em: - and loss of license.
ployed on any part of the Lord's day, 9. Any person travelling with any “ shall furfeit for the first offence any cattle, or any animals, or with any súm not less than five shillings, nor barge, lighter, boat, or other vessel, on more than ten shillings; for the sethe Lord's-day, to suffer penalty such as “cond offence, not less than ten shillings, is proposed in article 3 above; and "nor more than twenty skillings; and every toll-gate or lock-keeper who shall“ for the third offence, not less than suffer any such to pass his gate or lock" I winty shillings, nor more than five on that day, is to pay a fine of twenty " pounds." shillings.
This stops all steam-vessels, smacks,
&c. that coast their way to and from to the overseers of the poor, for the beLondon in our own internal shipping nefit of the poor of the parish in which trade, if such vessels require to start on the offence was committed. the Sunday ; and, as the Lord did not 14. The exemptions to this 'act are make the winds and tides observe the contained in one clause, and that clause Lord's-day any more than any other day, I shall give as it stands. It is : “ Proso advantages are no longer to be taken " vided always, and be it further enactof the caprices of winds, nor of the ed, that nothing in this act shall exflowing of tides, when these are favour-" tend to any menial servants acting in able to a Sunday starting. · Again, the "the necessary service of his or her emRamsgate, Margate, Gravesend, and "ployer, or to any person, selling, buying, Greenwich, and Richmond steam-boats" delivering or receiving milk before are absolutely stopped on the very days " nine o'clock in the morning, or after when they make their harvest. The “ four of the clock in the afternoon, or same sort of boats on other great rivers |“ to any person selling, buying, deliare of course stopped also. Wherries, "vering or receiving medicine or mediyachts, and all boats, whether for plea-" cinal drugs, or to any baker setting sure or otherwise, are to lie up on Sun" or superintending the sponge, or to days! This is absolute ruin to the the selling, buying, delivering or reowners of wherries on the river Thames, “ ceiving of dressed meat, liquor or and to those on other rivers, of course. “other provisions within hotels, coffee
11. Is a very important clause." And“ houses, inns, cook-shops, ale-houses, “ whereas the profanation of the Lord's “ beer-houses, or other houses for the
day is greatly increased, by reason of " sale of victuals to be consumed in and “farmers, drovers, cattle-dealers, and" upon the premises, by any traveller, “ others travelling thereon, for the pur- or by any person or persons who shall
pose of attending various markets have lodged and slept on the premises “ and fairs which are now held on the “ during the preceding night, or to any “ Monday ; be it therefore enacted, That person attending any meeting for re“ neither of the markets or fairs herein- ligious worship, or school for reli" after mentioned
gious instruction, or to any person
shall be held on using or employing or employed with, " a Monday; and every such market or " or hiring or letting to hire, any horse “ fair which is or shall be held or ap- or horses, carriage or carriages, for
pointed to be held upon a Monday," the purpose of going to or return“ shall be held on the Tuesday next" ing from any place of religious
ensuing," &c. under a penalty rising worship, or to any rector, vicar, froni twenty pounds to fifty.
curate, or minister of religion, or 12. Is a proposition, that any justice " physician or other medical practitioner of peace, constable, police officer, &c., “ going to, or returning from, or in the may seize one or more of any cattle exercise of his professional duty, or that he shall find travelling on a Sunday, to any person acting under or by virand impound it till the next Wednesday, " tue of or putting into execution this unless a penalty of not less than two “ act, or to any stage-coach, omnipounds nor more than five pounds be "bus, or other carriage carrying passuoner paid ; and if not paid before the “ sengers only for hire, and licensed to Wednesday, then, that any justice of " run any distance not exceeding ten peace may impose, such forfeiture. “ miles from London, which shall on
13., Complaints under this act are to" any part of the Lord's day leave Lonbe made before any one or more justice “ don at any hour not later than nine of or justices of the peace having jurisdic- the clock in the morning, or leave the tion in the place where the offence was place from which it is licensed to run committed." He may award part of the " to proceed to London at any hour penalty to the informer if he thinks fit; "after seven of the clock in the evening, and, if not, the whole penalty to be paid " or to the travelling only of the royal