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to resort! That acting upon the principle, “ I Finally, in order to perpetuate the blindness, am entitled to FORBID,” it may re-enact, at its and secure the subserviency of the people of pleasure, imprisonment during life (and why not | Leeds, and Manchester, and Birmingham ; and torture or death? *) for the third offence of to prevent any hope of evasion from the feeblepraying from any other book, or with any other ness or circuity of ecclesiastical proceedings; words, than the same ruling power has " pre the civil magistrate in his wisdom may provide, scribed” in the Liturgy of the Church Esta not only that they shall not openly preach, pray, blished: That not only may it forbid to worship affirm, or speak, but shall not even privately in places of their own selection, but it may, by read whatsoever might be deemed to call in such mulcts and penalties as it pleases to inflict, question the fallible infallibility of Lambeth, or punish the whole people of England-Roman Fulham, or Durham. Here is the precedent: Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Unitarian for “ Heretical, seditious, schismatical, or offen. non-attendance in the Church Established, on sive books, wherein anything contrary to Chrisevery Sunday and holiday throughout the year: tian faith, or the doctrine or discipline of the That not only may it so constrain them, but if Church of England, is asserted,—are prohibited they shall venture to complain, or so much as to to be printed, imported, published, or sold.” * utter their thoughts upon any points of doctrine, Now, if it be contended that all this was bad discipline, or worship, except in approval of such enough in its own day, but would be utterly as are thus «
prescribed,” it may consign them unfit, discreditable, and abominable, if attempted to all the consequences of what they call their to be revived or originated in the present-we “ greater excommunication ;” for which ask very humbly, but with an invincible deterBurn. The which prohibition of complaint or mination to ask on until we shall get an adediscussion is promulged, and to this hour is re quate answer,—Wherefore “unfit” for the pretained in the church of Lord Althorp, in the sent day? Was dissent ever a mischief, and is following terms :-“ Whosoever shall hereafter it not now ? Was it formerly a duty of the civil affirm that the form of worship in the Church of magistrate to "prescribe” in religion, and is it England, established by law, containeth any less so still? Has the salvation of souls been at thing in it that is repugnant to the Scriptures, any time within the cognizance of the Statute or that any of the Thirty-nine Articles are in any Book, and ought not souls to be as dear to the part erroneous, or such as he may not with a Legislature now as then? If the everlasting good conscience subscribe unto—let him be ex. interests of men are at stake, and the magistrate communicated, ipso facto, and not restored until have the power to ensure them, he is bound to after repentance and public revocation of such interpose-usque ad necem—to effect so surpashis wicked errors.” Again: “ If any one shall sing a good: but if he have no such power, then preach, or, by open words, declare or speak any it remains to be proved upon what grounds he thing in derogation or despising of the Book of could have ever undertaken to interfere at all. Common Prayer, or any thing contained therein If, however, it be suggested that, in these days -let him be excommunicated, and not restored the Magistrate could only pretend to a fostering until he repent,” &c. Again : “ If anyone and encouraging, rather than a positive and coershall deny that the Churches established under cive power, and may, therefore, only dubiously this Government are true Churches, or refuse to and mildly legislate on the eternal concerns of join them in Christian profession—let him be man,—we desire to learn the evidence even of excommunicated, and not restored, until he re
this! We confess we can as little detect its pent,” &c. Again : “ Whosoever shall separate
foundation in theory, as discern its utility in themselves from the communion of saints, as it practice. For our life, we cannot be made to is approved by the Apostles' rules in the Church see how truth, or any degree of it, can be carried of England, and combine themselves by a new by vote; or how the Speaker having decided, brotherhood :-or shall affirm and maintain that the
ayes have it,” can give to Lord Althorp any other congregations, than such as are allowed in the one House, or Dr. to Howley in the other, by the laws of this land, may rightly challenge to any better assurance of the correctness of their themselves the name of true and lawful churches interpretation of the Divine decrees, or of the
let him be excommunicated, and not restored proemium of John, than a Whitfield or until he repent,” &c. Again: “ If the church- | Priestley may respectively claim in vindication of wardens, questmen, or assistants, do, or shall theirs. Of a Parliamentary excise-law we have know of any man in the parish, or elsewhere, a tolerably adequate conception. Of the omniwho is a defender of popish or erroneous potence of the three Estates touching leather doctrine, they shall detect and present the same and soap, we would not lightly raise a question, to the Bishop of the diocese, to be censured and We can even conceive a Parliamentary King : punished according to the ecclesiastical laws but of a Parliamentary God, or a Parliamentary prescribed in that behalf,” &c. &c. +
religion, we profess to be as incompetent to
frame a consistent idea, as the well-known Lord We refer to the Act of Uniformity, 1st Elizabeth, 2, Peterborough was a hundred years ago. And as the provisions of which, in certain instances, failing of little still do we see, in its practical efficiency, the effect intended, it was actually proposed by Grindal, in writing to the Council in 1562, to try the application
of palliation for this half interference for the of torment ! -Hallam's Constitutional History, Ch. 3. + English Canous, 1603.
* Printing Act, 1662. Part of $ 2.
salvation of souls, but wholesale retention of Will Lord Althorp or Mr. Macauley,* will Sir Mammon; for this petty persecution, but unre Henry Parnell or Sir Robert Harry Inglis anlinquished monopoly, which satisfies our modern
We believe they cannot. For, in Whig; inasmuch as for one dissentient in the our conscience, we believe we have placed them days of Elizabeth, or Charles 2d, there are twenty in a dilemma from which there is no escape. nou. In the appendix to the Annals of Sir John Unhappy scheme, when even its plausibilities Dalrymple, it would appear, that in the reign of only minister the more surely to its overthrow! William 3d the proportion of Conformists to Since it is the scope of our argument to showNonconformists, in the provinces of York and and we think we have shown that the very Canterbury, was as 22 to 1;* whereas, at the circumstance of remitting the penalties of their present moment, it would scarcely be to under ecclesiastical code; the very fact of looking rate the former, to state that they barely, if at quietly on, while Dissent, like the vermin of all, exceed the proportion of 1 to 1.+
Egypt, is “in all our quarters,” and Dissenters In fact, to speak in the language of statesmen are shouldering our Churchmen wherever they and churchmen, persecution did its work ; and turn, either indicates a consciousness that the might, if more vigorously executed, as Clarendon pretended right was a usurpation from the beaffectingly observes of the ecclesiastical rigours ginning, a thing of naught in the sight of God to which, like another Saul, he was himself or man; a profanation in conception, an inqui50 strenuously consenting, “ have produced a sition in practice; or it proclaims the fact that thorough reformation.” We ask, then, why not the magistrate has thrown up his commission in go on? Why not persecute now as bravely as despair, and, having abdicated his functions, in the days gone by? If “ the right to FORBID should cease to exact THE PAY of which those other worship than” his own be included in the functions were designed to be the condition, authority of the Sovereign, it must be from its Until, then, Mr. Macauley shall have frankly tendency to secure the highest interests of man ; declared that he renounces the defence of a doand, therefore, “ the consent to PERMIT" that minant church-of any religious institution, howwhich conflicts with and defeats so inestimable a ever modified,-however retrenched of abuses,purpose, must, in truth, be to abandon the most erected upon the principle involved in the existawful of duties,
ence of the churches established in the northern And yet, it has so much of weakness in it, and southern sections of this island, we deem that that we scarcely know how to impeach it of we have imposed upon him a no light task in crime. Its very contradictions appear to bespeak inviting his reply to the reasoning we have emfor it less of the anger than the pity of all ra ployed in this paper. tional beings. It is first to erect the most stu But Mr. Macauley is not without resources ; pendous of powers for the most transcendant of and by inviting a consideration of what has been ends, and then to concur in its downfal; as if the done in other countries, where civil and religious motive to its construction were the blindest of liberty are not only cherished in name, but have impulses, and the frustration of its object a pas been the objects of an especial and all-pervading time or a triumph. It is the bootless ingenuity concern in the fundamental constitution of their of children, all anxiety in building a castle of governments,—he would seem to recognise, in the cards, and the moment it is built, all impatience policy those states have adopted, a not unsuitable to pull it to pieces again. It is to intend the standard, by which, to estimate the growth to salvation, and achieve the perdition of souls. It which we have ourselves attained, in just and ra. is as the mercy of heaven, and the malice of tional views of the social union. demons. A purpose all good, and a connivance Setting aside the great, the primary, and perall evil. It is a compound of elaborate contra vading question, which, in truth, is the beginries, part of iron and part of clay, combined into ning, the middle, and the end of the whole inone monstrous, impossible, and self-destroying quiry,—“whether it be, or be not, desirable that whole. It is, in one word, the portentous con the state should make provision for the religious tradiction of declaring that it is necessary, and instruction of the people,"—inasmuch as it inyet not necessary, to set up the particular wor volves the collateral questions who the teachers ship in favour with the Civil Ruler ; necessary, are to be ? and what the religious instruction they as affording the only effectual way to salvation are to give ?-setting aside for the present, we and not necessary, because there are other effec say, this all-absorbing, ever-returning question, tual ways. Here, then, is our question. If the let us reflect for a moment on the examples former, why TOLERATE ?-If the latter, why which have been commended as models of wisESTABLISH?
dom, in the respective situations of the countries
. Morning Chronicle, Oct. 11, 1832. + We shall probably refer more particularly to this litigated point on another occasion. In the meantime, the very circumstance of doubt, in itself, confirms all that we wish to establish—the rapid progression of dissent. If the Bishop of London have authoritative documents on the subject, we are probably destined to see them.
Since this article was written, Mr. Macauley has gone to legislate for the Hindoos, at the rate of some ten thousand pounds a-year. Sir Henry Parnell we do not believe to be a maintainer of Church Establishments. or this we are sure, that the instant he is convinced of the wrongfulness of a State Religion, supported by national funds or by compulsory assessment, no selfish or party considerations will induce this most independent and conscien tious Reformer to countenance the Church Establishment.-E. T. M.
referred to. “ The Americans,” says Mr. Ma
“ A turn of time, at which we would advise cauley, “ situated as they are, judge wisely in
To any other kind of exercise.” having no established religion. The French, on
Dismissing then these adepts in what Lord Bathe other hand, judge as wisely in giving a
con calls “ left-handed wisdom,”—by any one stipend from the revenues of the state, to ministruly in earnest in seeking a just and sound conters of opposite religions. But before we can
clusion upon this Question of Questions, let us
with no Jess earnestness entreat to be told, what properly decide what course ought to be taken in England, there are many circumstances to be taken
those essential circumstances are which render into consideration,—the nature of ecclesiastical unfit, unjust, and untrue at Edinburgh, Glasgow, revenues,—the manner in which those revenues
Leeds, and Birmingham, those principles of reliare mixed up with private property,—the state
gious policy which are received with all honour,
and work with all benefit at Boston, Baltimore, of public feeling towards the Church,” &c. &c. Now with respect to the former of these exam
Philadelphia, and New York? ples, it is not quite apparent, whether it was in
Without pledging ourselves to approve in all tended to regard America in its collective or
respects the ecclesiastical system in any one of distributive character,—whether in reference to
the Atlantic States, but perceiving in each of its Federal Government, or its separate State Go.
them the immeasurable distance which divides it vernments. If reference be had to its federal
from the systems established in Britain, we beg
leave to ask, what there is in the constitution of government, it is indeed sufficiently plain that America did judge most wisely, or rather was
the human soul, or in the habits of society at guided by imperious necessity, in not establishing
Edinburgh or Birmingham, which would be unany particular form of religion for the entire com-friendly to the existence of Christianity, or the munity ; since to have done so wonld be to trench
welfare and peace of their communities, in the upon the interior regulation of the constituent
following fundamental provisions of the State of
Massachusetts. states, which it was the especial aim of the Con. ventional Congress, to reserve in all cases, where
“ It is the right, as well as the duty, of all its surrender was not absolutely essential to the
men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons, existence of the contemplated union. If the
to worship the Supreme Being, the great Crea
tor and Preserver of the Universe. And no subconvention would not delegate to the
general government, the power to appoint the officers of ject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his militia within the several states, -much less person, liberty, or estate, for worshipping God would it have thought of confiding to it the
in the manner and season most agreeable to the qualification or appointment of their ministers of
dictates of his own conscience, or for his relireligion. Considered in this view, then, there gious profession or sentiments ; provided he doth can be no parallelism-no analogy to the case of
not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others But it is otherwise with the
in their religious worship. Great Britain,
. There States in their separate capacity. In these there
fore, to promote their happiness, and to secure is a strong analogy ;—at least in those States
the good order and preservation of their governwhich already were largely peopled, and pro
ment, the people of this commonwealth have a mised to accumulate, in rapid progression, the
right to invest their legislature with power to flourishing millions which have enabled their
authorize and require the several towns, parishAtlantic border to rival the happiest portions of es, precincts, &c. &c. to make suitable provision, Europe, in wealth, industry, intelligence, and public worship of God.
at their own expense, for the institution of the numbers.
Provided, In all periods of transition—in the progress of
notwithstanding, that the several towns, parishall great measures of state,-it is of the essence
es, precincts, &c. &c. shall, at all times, have the of change to embark in its discussion two dis
exclusive right of electing their public teachers, tinct classes of persons ;-those who are in ear
and of contracting with them for their support nest in their professions—and those who are not ;
and maintenance. And all moneys paid by the those who wish to do good to the community at
subject to the support of public worship, and of large, and those who, whatever they may say,
the public teachers aforesaid, shall, if he require are in heart and soul bent only upon doing good public teacher, or teachers, of his own religious
it, be uniformly applied to the support of the to their own dear selves. From recent experi. ence, we know pretty well what sort of persons
sect or denomination, provided there be any on
whose instructions he attends : otherwise it may they are who honour and regard the people with their lips, while their hearts are far from
be paid towards the support of the teacher, or them—who have the form of public virtue but
teachers of the parish, or precinct, in which the without the power ; and of whom, as impersonat
said moneys are raised.+ ed in a somewhat remarkable individual, it was
• Let it be observed, that we quote throughout from
a Collection of “ The Constitutions of the United States ;" no less truly than pungently said, “not that he
published at Philadelphia, 1791. What alterations, if cared for the poor; but, because he was a thief, any, in the American systems may have since been made, and had the bag.
Now with this class of per we have not at this moment an opportunity to inquire. sons, we at present have nothing to do. They
+ It will be observed that in Maryland, the only other are playing too shallow and too short a game to
State in which the civil power interferes for the promo
tion of religion, a considerably wider latitude for the argive any great cause of uneasiness. They are
propriation of the money raised, is permitted to the party masking it in the broad day-light,
who may choose to decline attendance on religious worship.
" And every denomination of Christians de- | religious profession and worship, without discrimeaning themselves peaceably, and as good sub mination or preference, shall for ever hereafter jects of the Commonwealth, shall be equally un. be allowed, within this state, to all mankind. der the protection of the law; and no subordina Provided, that the liberty of conscience hereby tion of any one sect or denomination to another, granted, shall not be so construed as to excuse shall ever be established by law.
acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconAgain, in Maryland,
" As it is the sistent with the peace or safety of this state.” duty of every man to worship God in such man Now, it is admitted, (at least by Mr. Macauner as he thinks most acceptable to Him, ley,) that in the promulgation and the practice therefore no person ought by any law to be mo of such principles as these, America has done lested in his person or estate, on account of his 66 WISELY.” Can there be any just reason shown religious persuasion or profession, or for his why, if Great Britain were to follow the example, religious practice; nor ought any per she would act foolishly? or why, if she were to son to be compelled to ..... maintain, or take back the political sustenance which her contribute to maintain any particular place of daughter, with filial generosity, would press to worship, or any particular ministry. Yet the le her lips, she would impair instead of re-estabgislature may, in their discretion, lay a general lishing and prolonging the health of her constiand equal tax for the support of the Christian tutional frame? Is it calculated to throw doubt religion ; leaving to each individual the power upon the safety of the experiment,—that, whereof appointing the payment of the money col as in Boston, with 77,000 inhabitants, there are lected from him, to the support of any particular 49 congregations,-in Glasgow, with 160,000 inplace of worship, or minister, [of his own selec- habitants, there are only 63? And further, that tion,] or for the benefit of the poor of his own while Philadelphia, (look again at her religious denomination, or the poor in general of any par charter too !) with 130,000 inhabitants, has 77 ticular county."
congregations,—Edinburgh, with its 150,000 inAgain, in Pennsylvania : It is declared .... habitants, has only the same number with Glas“ That all men have a natural and indefeasible gow? Can any additional misgivings arise from right to worship Almighty God according to the the fact, that even in those districts of the Union dictates of their own consciences; that no man where society is comparatively unsettled, and can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or where a comparison with England might be exsupport any place of worship, or to maintain any | pected to be so little in favour of the younger ministry, against his consent; that no human country-even there, where “ the evil spirit of authority can, in any case whatsoever, control or sectarianism is said to have wrought its perfect interfere with the rights of conscience; and that work,” *—the city of Cincinnati in Ohio, with no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any only 28,000 inhabitants, comprises no fewer than religious establishments or modes of worship.” 18 places of worship,—and that in the state of
Lastly, in New York : “ And whereas we are Ohio throughout, “ there is a greater number of required, by the benevolent principles of rational professors of religion, in proportion to the whole liberty, not only to expel civil tyranny, but also number of the people, than in any other state in to guard against that spiritual oppression and in- | the Union?" + Nay, that in that very region of tolerance, wherewith the bigotry and ambition which, among others, it is with great assurance of weak and wicked priests and princes have affirmed, that, principally from the absence of scourged mankind :—this convention doth fur any established form of religion, “ the world has ther, in the name, and by the authority of the as yet produced no instance of society advancing good people of this state, ordain, determine, and under a less promising aspect, intellectual, modeclare, that the free exercise and enjoyment of | ral, and religious," # we have satisfactory evi
• Principles of Church Reform, By the Rev. Dr. Arnold, Head Master of Rugby School, &c., &c. 3d ed. p. 14. + Stuart's Three Years' Residence in North America. Vol. ii. p. 44.
Dr. Arnold, p. 78. We must say that this passage savours strongly of Trollope. The truth is, there would seem to have been a strong predisposition in this able writer to take the least favourable view of the religious position of the United States. Undoubtedly they presented a most troublesome obstacle in the way of the conclusion at which he wished to arrive; notwithstanding that that conclusion terminates in a species of latitudinarianism but sleaderly palliated in the eyes of his “ order," by the remaining, and, in reference to doctrine, the preposterous and utterly arbitrary exclusions which characterize his system, and which so unequivocally attest the absurdity of expecting that any churchman can be competent to the task of legislating for the religious liberties of these countries. Whether or not Dr. Arnold has placed himself under the respectable guidance alluded to, certain we are, that his delineations of religion in America are well deserving of a place in the same cabinet with that most veracious of ladies' description of the steam-boats of the Mississippi. They are both of them curiosities in their way.
By the bye, it is not a little singular, that in the only two States of America, so far as we are informed, where a legislative tax, or a legislative requisition, for the support of such religion, and such minister of religion, as each in. dividual may choose, has existence, those peculiar denominations of religion prevail, or are rapidly tending to prevail, which yet this reverend reformer would altogether exclude from his so-called “ national" church. In Maryland, it is known, the Roman Catholic faith has always held its chief sway; while in Massachusetts, the only other State which has siunilarly legislated, “ the sect everywhere spoken against" is causing a prodigious uneasiness to its enemies. ! Are these, then, “those parts of the Union in which," as Dr. Arnold writes, (p. 77,) “religion is in the healthiest state ?" If they be, then he ought to look with more favour on these religious denominations at home. If they be not, then his argument from the benefit of the qualified establishments in America falls to the ground. Ulrum horum ?, As to the
dence that “ the people generally are a quiet, tions of the Union, a comparison of the rates of orderly, peaceable, moral, and industrious race, education with those of Great Britain, assigns, and the moral character of the people highly re for the numbers attending schools,-in Connecspectable !” However the worldly-wise may ticut, 1 in 3 ; in the State of New York, 1 in 4 ; regard it, will the religious people of Great Bri. while in England they are 1 in 16 ; in Wales, 1 tain feel much alarm at the progress of dislike in 20 ; and even in Scotland but 1 in 10.** to the connexion between Church and State, And yet, all this while—tell it not in the when it is ascertained, that in a country where place of peers, publish it not in the hearing of no such connexion is suffered to exist, there bishops-a Jew might be Mayor of New York ! were on the 1st of January, 1833, no fewer than Need we speak of property, and of the order, 14,626 churches or congregations for a popula- stability, and vigour of society, which are indistion of 12 millions ; that is to say, one church pensable to encourage, protect, and extend it ? for 854 persons, a greater proportion by far than Need we tell the notorious fact; that the very exists in Great Britain and Ireland ; † and yet, persons most bitter in their taunts, and conspithat with all this, an intelligent and sober ob cuous in their horrors at the progress of popular server has declared it as “his decided opinion, | ideas at home—that some of the proudest Tories that while there is infinitely less hypocrisy in of England, ay, and the most incorrigible matters of religion in the United States, there is ultras of Europe,-nay, that even royal, and certainly not more enthusiasm or fanaticism than regnant names, too, are to be found in the list of is to be found in Great Britain.” I
subscribers to funds which are wholly at the Collaterally with religion, it may possibly be mercy of a people among whom the name of a some additional encouragement with the good tithe-sale has never been heard ; and where, to people of England, to think well of the “ wis revert to the language of Mr. Macauley, dom” of the American system, even if trans compelling of any one to pay for the maintenance planted to their own side of the Atlantic—that of any particular doctrine he does not approve,” in point of crime, while the rate of felonies is would as little be dreamed of, as the trickling ++ in England 1 to 800, and in Ireland 1 to 500, in of the ampulla for the head of their President, the United States of America it is but 1 to 3,600, or the more substantial benediction of a million of the whole population. Further: with re for his Civil List! spect to education, it may still more dispose And France, too! no, no; our examples are them to receive these impressions, when they to be drawn from the good days of the Childerics understand that, in communities so circum and the Charlemagnes—of the Pepins and the stanced, yea, even in that West || where “so Capets; and the stream which meanders through ciety is advancing under so disastrous an aspect, the interesting ages that intervene, must come intellectual, moral, and religious," "appropria to our lips uncontaminated by the impure infutions for schools have been regulated by Con sions it would derive from the Montesquieus and gress, and their extent is immense :” that “the Turgots, the Gregoires and De Pradts of less land belonging to public schools in the New hallowed and illuminated days ! States and Territories on the east side of the With such advisers, Mr. Macauley will, no doubt, Mississippi alone, amounts to eight millions of be able to make out a triumphant case; and a acres :" I while, in reference to the older por- | string of invincible reasons, why that which has
reservation of their property in the State of New York to the clergy of the Church of England, it is only what is similarly provided by the constitution of Catholic Maryland,-a fact in the history of modern Catholics (for we are sufficiently bigoted to distinguish between Catholics and Catholicism) deserving of all honour for its liberality and forbearance; but, beyond this praise, we are as little prepared to assent to the correctness of the act, as Dr. Arnold can be justified in extracting from so ambiguous an example, an inference in favour of the policy of ecclesiastical endowments by the State. Stuart. Vol. ii. p. 272.
+ Patriot. (A London religious journal.) October, 1833. # Stuart. Vol. ii. p.
44. § Westminster Review. Oct. 1832, p. 379. Note.-Much, unquestionably, is to be placed to the account of the rarity of temptation to crimes against property, in a country where the means of subsistence are so generally abun. dant. But with all deference to Mr. Cobbett, (if he really be opposed to popular instruction in anything beyond the art of raising cabbages,) is there nothing to be ascribed to the influence of an education diffused beyond all parallel, in any other age or country of the world ? Mr. Stuart represents, that, even in the environs of New York, the clothes were left out on the hedges all night! And it so happens, that both in that city and at Boston, the good effects of education have been attested in a manner deserving to be especially noticed. In the Introduction to the Report on the Code of Prison Discipline for the State of Louisiana, by E. Livingstone, Esq. (Lond. Ed. 1827, p. 22.) we find it stated, that “ The plan" (very similar to that which is destined, we trust, at no distant day to be attended with such benefit in Ireland) “ of religious instruction, embracing the doctrines common to all Christian sects, and excluding all sectarian doctrines, has been for years the practice in Boston; and such has been the success that has attended it, that although the schools have been in operation more than ten years, and on an average more than 3,000 have been educated in them every year, not one of those educated there has been even committed for a crime. And in New York a similar effect has been observed."
Verily these be-Trolloped Americans contrive to manage it wonderfully, considering their heathenish aversion to the “ Church-and-State" machinery of old Mother-Land !
|| Of the south we forbear to speak. It might have furnished a topic—of sympathy—to Lord Eldon and his Bench of Bishops : but, for ourselves, we dare not be apologists, and need not be accusers. The accuser is to be found in every honest man's breast. Stuart, vol. i. p. 319.
Id. i. p. 320. r tt It is possible some persons might prefer the reading of this word without the letter “l.” But it is of no moment: in either case the meaning being much the same.