« 前へ次へ »
been discarded in other lands, with the go-carts of those, “who, for covetousness, with feigned Europe in its infancy, should to this hour be good words, made merchandise of men's souls." enough for England; why it is, that, having with We have an infinite respect for property ; but them arrived to the state of manhood, we should then it is the property of those who hold it by leave it for them to harmonize their habits with the best title ; and we have a sympathy, moretheir age, but preposterously array ourselves over, with the losers as well as the gainers—the partly, in the wisdom of maturity ; partly, in
small owners as well as the great possessors of the simplicity of our non-age; cutting our coats it. Sure we are, at least, that no one on earth in the fashion of Stultz, but submitting to a pin can have so absolute a property in our souls as afore to save us from the effects of bread and we ourselves have. It is very hard that “ fabutter. Mr. Macauley will, no doubt, some day mily settlements” should be disturbed by this or other, be revealing to the world what it is in truth. But they who made those settlements “ the nature of ecclesiastical revenues," which ought to have looked to their title in time ; and renders it fitting for John Bull,—no longer the on those who first made, or have continued to envy, but the joke of surrounding nations—to make, our souls a subject of traffic, the inconexhibit himself in such a plight; or, wherefore venience must devolve of our demand to take it is, that the fact of “those revenues being them back into our own keeping. We may, to mixed up with private property,” would forbid be sure, in pity to the successors of the first us to hold in equal veneration the testing of our wrong-doers, assign them compensation for the innocence by a ploughshare, and the testing of re-entry we claim upon our spiritual rights ; but our theology by the decree of a Pope, a Parlia we entreat them to be discreet in the matter of ment, or even a “Westminster Assembly,” title. with “shallow Edwards, and Scotch What d'ye Our neighbour, next shop, has earned his call” to help them in their inspirations.
substance by honest industry. A person in black We confess we are curious to learn the full accosts him, and demands a year's payment of dimensions of that “ lion in the way,” which has him : for what? for spiritual instruction. He always the perverseness to appear just at the declares that he had never had any from him ; moment some effort is to be made to get rid of that he had committed that office, and had ala wrong, or the reason is demanded for some ready discharged that debt, tó a person in whose venerable rapine. But, full of trust in our religious opinions he had far greater confidence cause, we intend to look boldly on this “ lion;" than in those of his visiter ; and of whose sancand have a comfortable assurance that, when all tity, knowledge, and zeal, he had most satisfacis over, “no manner of hurt will be found upon tory experience. “Never mind,” exclaims the us.” Nevertheless, we feel for Mr. Macauley's person in black; “these things were settled long “perplexities,” and can little wonder at the dif ago, by wiser heads than yours, who never inficulties he sees in his way. But “words are” tended that you should be at the trouble of not always “things.” And we tell him plainly, thinking for yourself. Other and better judges that already we see his defeat in the weakness than you have determined what religious opinions of thinking too much about words, and too little and instructions are best suited for you ; though, about things; in frightening himself with empty to be sure, your modern lawmakers have, awksounds, instead of encasing himself in immortal wardly enough, granted you the power to take truth. So long as he is in this mood, there will them, or leave them. What an unreasonable be no want of bug-a-boos to alarm him. Hence fellow, therefore, you are to complain! You see it is we feel our relative strength. For us it I don't meddle with your conscience; but still I will not be enough, when we have stated a must live, and must meddle with your purse. wrong, to amuse us with the cry of “impracti- Meantime, whether you complain or not, or cable ;” nor, when we have demonstrated a whether you have been fool enough to pay anorapine, to harangue, with affected indignation, of ther or not, I have authority to demand your “ vested rights.” If our enemies (for enemies money or-your person. So come along. Bai. we reluctantly deem them) should speak to us of liff, do your duty.” And this is a minister of Moses, we shall show that it is the “profits” | Christ !--this his vested right ! * So Lord Althey mean, and these by no means the “minor” thorp, so Mr. Macauley, and so Sir Robert Harones; and should they hazard the name of Chris ry Inglis, must say. But then, only think of tianity, we shall be constrained to remind them “ the nature of ecclesiastical revenues," and -not of the religion of those who “ provide of family property, and all that. Why, the mothings honest in the sight of all men”—but of | nopoly of snuff by the kings of Spain was a trifle
To tithes too, as well as to annual dues of money. They are both in the same category; the difference only consisting iu the degree of distinctness with which the operation of the one or the other is followed out. On the landlord, or the tenant, or the consumer, we hold it to be indisputable that, directly or indirectly, tithe must operate as a tax; for which an adequate value ought to be given. But can that value be given to any one not of the Established creed? Supposing even the tithe to be paid by no one now existing, all real property having been subject to it time ont of mind,-a not infrequent argument—is it equitable in the law to sanction such a bounty to any one denomination of opinion ?-giving to one half of the nation its religion for nothing ; and by excluding the other from all participation in this so-called national reserve, exposing it to an outlay for the support of the religion of its choice, from which the partiality of the State has exempted the more fortunate sect ? Commute or modify tithe, then, however you may,—and many are the palliating nostrums we shall have—can any alteration applied to it, short of the utter extinction of its sectarian nature, ever reconcile it to the understanding, or the patience of a free people ?
to this ! for although there was no permission to tlements which the paternal kings could enable buy it elsewhere, yet these kings did not oblige their dependents to enjoy out of the booty thus their vassals to purchase it whether they chose it gathered; and the consequent “perplexity” (still or not. We know nothing to compare with it that “ lion in the way,”) of undoing with refebut the gabelle of France, under the paternal rence to salt that which our rulers, both spiritsway of the Bourbons. “ You must buy our salt," ual and civil, to this hour are doing with refesaid the king. “But we do not want it,” said the rence to immortal souls ! We know the history villagers. “ No matter,” replied his paternal of the salt. We remember what became of the Majesty ; “we insist upon your taking, or, at any gabelle. “ O that men, therefore, would learn rate, paying for, and that at the price we fix to be wise !” They have had many warnings. ourselves—7 lbs. yearly of our salt, for every in- | History, they say, is philosophy teaching by dividual in a family, whether you want it or not.” examples ; and hitherto we fear she has had but Yet this was justice! So say the Churchmen small encouragement in the number and diligence the case being exactly their own--and so must echo of her pupils. But let us hope better things. Lord Althorp, Mr. Macauley, and Sir Robert We shall do what we can, to aid in her labour of Harry Inglis. But then, again, the family set. | love.
PIEDRA DE LA MADRE; OR, THE MOTHER'S ROCK.
Near the spot where Atabapo flows into the Rio Temi, there rises a mass of granite called the Rock OF THE GUAHIBI Woman, and
sometimes the PIEDRA DE LA Madre. Natural charity, which will assert its rights, even where it is most brutally outraged, has given this name to the spot. The story is related by Humboldt; and we could have wished to see it appropriated by Mrs. Hemans, in her “ Songs of the Affections." Modern history affords few themes so full of simple and pathetic interest. About fifty years back, the Spanish missionary at San Fernando, led his Indians to the banks of the Guviare, to seize by violence some of the native children, to be made slaves to the mission, and converts to the religion of Him who took little children in His arms, and blessed them, and said, “ Suffer little children to come to Me." In a hut, the men hunters found a Guahibi mother, with three children, of whom two were still infants. Her husband was absent fishing; and she was employed in preparing the flour of the cassava root, for the sustenance of her family. In vain she attempted to flee with her little ones. The captive group were bound and carried to the station of the mission. The mother repeatedly afterwards attempted to escape with her children; but was as often tracked and dragged back by the Indians. At length the cruel resolution was taken to separate her from the children. She was conveyed up the river to a distant missionary station, without knowing whither she was going ; save that the 'current and the course of the sun indicated that it was farther and farther from her children and her native plains. She succeeded in bursting her bands; and plunging into the stream, to return to her children, swam to the left bank of the Atabapo. The spot to which she floated was the rock which now takes its name from her history, In the tangled forests on the banks of the river, she tried to conceal herself ; but was once more discovered, brought back, and stretched on the rock. But the poet shall tell the rest.
E. T. M.
Oh, mother! broken, bud-stript flower !
Was this thy sole reward,
For all thy perils dared ?
Despair froze up her tears,
Destroyed her hopes, her fears.
With spirit unsubdued-
Refuses drink or food.
They stretched her on the rugged rock,
They scourged her naked frame,-
Were lavished on her shame.
Shed for a mother's wrong;
The keen, the torturing thong.
Wielded by natures fierce,
Nor prayers nor cries could pierce.
With drops of crimson blood;
Rose wildly o'er the flood.
Man's sinful soul to save,
To cross the boundless wave?
Yet treated men as slaves;
Thick-floored with tear-worn graves.
Of peace to all of joy-
Of hope, without alloy.
Who stole tny sacred garb,
Their arrows, poison-barbed.
Bleeding, fast-fettered, far away,
Beyond her children's cry,
They bore her—but to die !
With closing, sunken eyes—
The Indian mother lios.
Of whispering, tuneful trees-
Brought by the passing breeze,
Upon her pale cheeks played
Her dying limbs are laid.
Their broken radiance shed-
Waved high above her head.
BRITISH CHANNEL FISHERIES.
Report on the British Channel Fisheries. House of Commons, 6th August, 1833.
A LARGE majority of the present Whig House of boat, not more than half the size, and usually of Commons seem to be so thoroughly imbued land their fish as soon as caught; when it is imwith an inbred desire to encourage monopoly, and mediately conveyed in a fresh state to the Lonto oppose the doctrines of Free Trade, that, don market by land. There are also carrier(with the clearest evidence, and most convincing boats, who purchase either of the French or Engarguments in favour of the advantages the public lish fishers, and sail for London the instant would derive by obtaining its supply of food from they have bought a cargo. It appears that about the market of the world,) according to the ideas three-fourths of such cargoes are bought from of our sapient legislators, “ Monopoly and Close English fishers, aud one fourth from the French. Trade" is henceforward to be the rule, and Free Sprats form but a small portion of the trade. Trade the exception.
They are taken, from November to February, in The public may read an instructive lesson the neighbourhood of Folkstone. The boats as to the incapacity and ignorance of their repre used in this fishing are small, and are called sentatives, in the pages of the report with which stow-boats. A small quantity of the finest fish we have headed this article. A committee was ap are sent to London for eating ; but the greater pointed during the last Session of Parliament, to number are used as manure, for which purpose inquire into the state of the British Channel Fish they are in great request; the price is usually eries. It appears from the evidence, that “the fish £1 per ton. eries are at present in a depressed and declining Flat fish are taken during the greater part of state ; that they appear to have been generally the year, either by what are called trawl-nets, sinking since the Peace of 1815, and more rapid or by the hook and line. The English univerly during the last eight or ten years ; that the sally use the trawl-net, but the French use both capital employed does not yield a profitable re methods, and it appears that the finest fish are turn; while the number of vessels, boats, and caught by the hook. Several of the witnesses men is much diminished, and the fishermen and have endeavoured to prove that injustice is done their families, who formerly were maintained by to our fisheries by allowing French turbots to be their industry, and enabled to pay rates and used in England; but as it appears that they are taxes, are now, in a greater or less degree, de. | usually larger and finer, we think the public will pendent on the poor-rates for their support.” If agree with us in not desiring to see any alteraanything were required to add to our conviction tion in this matter. The trawl-net scrapes along of the total unfitness of our legislators for the ground; and as the flat fish breed in the the duties they have undertaken, it would be channel, it appears that much injury and destructhe opinion pronounced in a following part of tion has been done to the young fry when the the report by this committee, respecting the trawl has been used near the shore. It certainly causes which they imagine have produced this appears, from the evidence that has been given, state of distress. Before, however, we enter on that the trawl ought not to be used within one this part of the subject, we propose (from evi- league of the shore, (unless the meshes of the dence brought before the committee,) making our net be made large enough for the young fish to readers acquainted, 1st, with the general mode of pass through,) during the winter months. fishing in the Channel, and, 2d, with the manner Pilchards are taken in August, September, and in which London is supplied with fish.
October, on the Cornish coast ; the greater por.. The chief sorts of fish caught in the British tion are caught in what are called seines. Channel appear to be mackerel, herrings, sprats, A seine consists of three boats and two nets, flat fish, (i. e. turbot, soles, brill, and plaice,) and is worth about 1.800. About 30,000 hogspilchards, and a few whitings, cod, and conger eels. heads of pilchards are caught in seines, and an
The mackerel and herrings come to the Chan. nually exported to Italy and the Mediterranean ' nel in large shoals from the north, and afford the in a dry state; and about 20,000 hogsheads are chief harvest of the English and French fisher taken by drift-nets. The following is the answer men. The mackerel makes its appearance in May of an intelligent witness as to the difference beand June : the herring, later in the year, in tween drift and seine fishing: “The seine is, where October and November. Both these species of a shoal is seen approaching; the seine throws out as fish are taken in what are technically termed it is, to encircle them; it touches the ground by “ drift” nets. These are large nets spread across leads at the bottom, and floats on the surface, the sea, to entangle the fish as it endeavours to and the fish become encircled. The drift fishing swim through. The French and English fishers is carried on by boats which fish in deeper water, pursue different methods of fishing: the French use many miles from the land, and throw out nets, a large class of boat, (from thirty to sixty tons,) which are, in many instances, a mile long, to float and in general take a cooper with them, and a on the surface, or at the bottom, as they think requisite supply of salt and casks, in order to it most likely to answer; they lie in the way pickle the herring as soon as caught; the Eng- of the fish, who strike against them, and are lish, on the other hand, use a smaller description | meshed.”.
A trifling quantity of cod, whitings, and conger the peace of 1815, and to have examined the sieels are taken in the Channel by hook and line; tuation of the fisheries in former times. Had they the lamprey is the bait used for the cod.
done this, they would have found, on the most It appears that London is abundantly supplied cursory examination of the general history of the with fish, and that the market is fair and open. fisheries in past times, that from a very early The manner in which the fish trade is conducted period, there has been an alleged neglect on the in the metropolis, is as follows:-At Billings- part of the Government in supporting the fishgate, (the chief market,) there is a class of per eries ; and complaints have been constantly sons called fish-salesmen ; to these persons, car made, as at present, “ that the natives of the goes are sent up from the country for sale ; the continent have been allowed to resort to our fish arrives very early in the morning, chiefly by bays and harbours without molestation; and that water, only a small portion by land. There are the English have purchased their fish from the a number of boats at Gravesend, Margate, and foreign boats.” The Committee, on a little Dover, called carrier or hatch-boats; these ves further examination, would also have found that sels resort to the fishing-ground, and buy of the these complaints have, at different times, been different fishermen, a cargo, with which they im followed by various absurd acts of Parliament, mediately sail for London. This of course is an imposing duties and penalties on foreign fish; excellent arrangement for the fisherman, as he is and that, till a very late period (1830), bounties thus saved the trouble of sailing up the Thames, were given for catching various species of fish, and is able to employ the whole of his time in particularly the herring and pilchard. The bounfishing. It is supposed about one-third of the ties had the only result that might have been fish brought to Billingsgate is caught by foreign- previously anticipated. Capital was employed in
The market at Billingsgate opens every bolstering up a trade that was not required; morning at five o'clock, and the retail dealers in and the fishermen went to sea, to catch, not fish London go there at that early hour to buy such but the bounty. The complaints of distress, fish of the salesmen as they think will suit their in former days, arose in reality from the same customers.
causes as at present. Other nations have been able The herrings and mackerel are supplied either to put to sea at a cheaper rate than the English, from the Suffolk or the Sussex coasts; cod from and consequently to undersell them in the marthe north sea ; eels from Holland ; turbot and ket. Taxes have always been comparatively high other flat fish, in small quantities from the Chan in England, and the wages of labour have in nel, but principally from the coast of Holland ; consequence been comparatively large. It has lobsters from Norway; salmon from Ireland and therefore been more profitable to the capitalist Scotland ; oysters from Essex. It is calculated, to invest his money in manufactures or in trades, that so abundantly is Billingsgate supplied with where great skill is required, rather than in fish, that the average wholesale price per lb. of fishing, where the expense of the labour mate. the whole amount of fish sold there, would not rially affects the price at which the fish can be exceed one penny.
sold. The Jameses and the Charleses (I. and II.) The above summary of the evidence offered to issued their proclamations against foreigners the Committee, shews clearly the small import-fishing on our coasts, and sent their vessels of ance of the Channel fisheries, as far as the sup war to drive them from the coast ; but the atply of the London market is concerned ; nor does tempt was abortive. The foreigner undersold even the herring fishery carried on in the south the English in foreign markets, and consequently bear any comparison with that of Scotland and succeeded. Perhaps there is no branch of indusIreland, and Holland; as the Northern herring try, of which the importance to this country has fishery exports annually 330,000 barrels. The been so much overrated, as the herring-fishery. Committee, in their report, have taken upon For more than two centuries, company after comthemselves to say,
“ The causes which have ma pany has been formed for its protection. Fishterially tended to produce this depression, are, ing villages have been built,-piers have been Ist, The extensive interference of the French constructed at the public expense,--Boards and fishermen on the coasts of Kent and Sussex ; 2d, regulations have been established, and vast sums The large quantity of foreign-caught fish illegally have been lavished in the way of bounties ; and imported and sold in the London market ; and, yet the fishery (as might have been expected) 3d, The great scarcity of fish in the Channel.” remains in a feeble and unhealthy state. The We have already mentioned the third alleged real causes of this distress are to be traced to cause, (which must be trifling in itself,) in our the high price of corn, and other necessaries of account of the flat fish, and the easy remedy life in England,—to the system of poor-rates which may be applied; but the other alleged | adopted in the south of England, by which every reasons, (the interference of the French,) are stimulant to exertion is done away, [vide Report only worthy of a Parliamentary Committee of of Poor-Law Commission,] as the able-bodied landowners. After ascertaining that the fish- fisherman is allowed to throw himself on the eries in the Channel were in a declining state, it poor-rates for support in bad weather, or at any ought to have been their care, as legislators, to time when he finds it inconvenient to go to sea. have reflected attentively on the general circum- The Committee should have paused before they stance in which the fisheries, (in common with endeavoured to injure the fish-eating part of other branches of trade,) have been placed since the community, by recommending that the French
should be prevented selling to us; and should the Dutch, French, and Norwegians. The in.. have reflected that corn is now 60 per cent. dearer terests, however, of the public and of the fisherin England than in France. They should have men, need not in any way be placed in opposirecommended the abolition of the monopoly of tion. Let the enlightened friend of the fisherthe Corn Laws, before endeavouring to increase man demand a reduction in the duties on corn, the monopoly of fish ; they should have reflected brandy, hemp, and timber; and let the public dethat cordage is dearer in England than in mand a repeal of all the acts which prevent France ; that the nets cannot be made at the foreign fish coming to our markets. According same price in the two countries; that the wood to the exact letter of the law, turbot, eels, and of which the boats are built is heavily laden with lobsters are the only fish which can come free of duties. They should unanimously have recom duty. According to the usual system of our legismended the House to alter the duties on timber,lators, they have exempted the delicacies of their to place all foreign on an equality with the own festive board! while they have prohibited Canadian. The Committee, also, seem to have the Dutch herring, or the Norwegian salmon, or entirely forgotten the fact, that during the war the Spanish anchory—fish which might be sold time there was naturally much overtrading in at so low a rate, as to be of service to the poorer the Channel fisheries. When the British cruisers classes of society. We trust that the Whigs blockaded the coast of France, the field was en will pause before they add to the distress of the tirely possessed by the English, and consequently country, by adopting the advice of the Comevery one engaged in fishing, with the certainty, mittee; that they will not, under the pretence at that time, of enjoying a part of the monopoly. of benefiting a small part of the fishermen, inHappily this system is at an end, and we see flict a positive evil on every person in the metrothat the London market is partly supplied by polis, and in the midland counties,
PHILOSOPHY OF WAR;
I.-Games of the People, and the Game of Kings. Cause sense of enjoyment always stings itself into the
of the choice of the latter. Sense of Divine Right sense of destruction. It is so with love, and more fixed hitherto in the Subject's mind than in with every hobby. As a king is the highest athe Monarch's. Perfect Despots not so necessarily mong human creatures-conventionally speakdesirous of War as others. Kingly valuation of the ing--and the supreme ruler of all beneath him, Lives of Foreigners and Subjects.
it eventually requires the slaughter of thousands All nations, from the earliest ages, have had
to prove his miraculous position to himself, and their games and pastimes, which differed with replenish his occasional sickly misgivings of his the people, according to their various peculiari- the royal tiger's power, near at hand or afar;
own divine right. The sheep do not question ties, though similar as to the general question of excitement. But with kings of every age and
but if some foreign tiger does not question it for
them, i.e. for his own sheep, then the other clime, the same game has been identified with
royal animal, being the stronger of the two, gets the “pride, pomp, and circumstance” of their
tired of the mere admission without the desired station; and this game has been War. The
exercise. To eat and grow fat is not enough: morally vapid and selfish condition of human
to feel truly great and happy, he must destroy. nature, pampered in extreme, and the ennui al
The continual absence of provocation becomes of most inseparable from a state in which every
itself a provocation; and mischief must be done wish is a law, render it exceedingly difficult to
somehow. In countries where entire despotism procure a sufficient excitement for the cravings gives the monarch an unquestionable “divine of restless, high-fed, smouldering sensations, right” over the lives of his subjects, a prodiacting upon a vulgar or gross imagination, and a commonplace mind, that has been made a self- | gality of executions, or else a large massacre idolatrous pagod by incessant flattery and abject portion of his slaves may be indulging insolent
now and then in some province where a small homage. How unsatisfactory to such a being ideas of freedom-or, by way of interlude, must be a game at chess ? The excitement he might possibly happen to feel from a steady in employing his creatures upon some vast prodigal
whim, as huge as useless* — will generally suffice tellectual effort is destroyed, by the extraordinary
for the temporary satisfaction of his splenetic fact of his always winning! Athletic, or other
gall, and the feverish want of some strong object manly exercises and amusements, are beneath
in life. But where kings are circumscribed in his dignity, even were his pursy condition capable of engaging in them; and to this there is
* It is calculated that the largest of the Djizeh pyra
mids contains six million tons of stone, and that its erechardly an exception in modern times. Having
tion cost the labour of 100,000 men for twenty years ! satiated himself with every luxury and sensu How many human lives it cost, (thrown into the bargain) ality, nothing remains but War. The extreme it would not be very difficult to conjecture.