their tyranny, nothing remains for them but the ly to males,) and longs to be the captain of bandesire of conquest and aggrandizement, and the ditti: he feels an impassioned sympathy with the certain slaughter of foreigners by wholesale, chief miscreant of the afterpiece; and under a who seem to have only a nominal, or, at best, a strong impression of false heroism, acts the deeds mere commercial existence. They do not for a of plunder with his play-fellows, armed with a moment conceive it as the death of men like couple of wooden daggers and a pantile glaive, themselves ; for they are of quite a different during the whole of the ensuing week, and thinks species. If thousands of their own subjects are and dreams of nothing else. Thus are the dedestroyed in the expedition, it is only doing their structive propensitives manifested, either imaduty.

ginatively, or with an eye to practice, according

to the different characters; and they are suffered II. Destructiveness natural to Man. Apology for Wild

to gain a progressive ascendency, because few paBeasts. Result of the comparison. Destructive pro

rents or tutors ever take the child to task as to pensities manifested in Childhood, and not checked.

his motives and feelings upon these occasions. Education not correct in its first principles.

The first time a boy talks, with swelling chest, Without entering into the phrenological ques of fighting, soldiering, banditti, &c., he ought to tion as to the organs of combativeness and de receive a serious lecture upon right and wrong, struction, it is quite clear that the generality of and be taught to understand that the justice or inhuman beings possess both propensities in a very justice of a cause constitutes the difference between great degree. There is no class of wild beasts true heroism and murderous brutality; moreover, who manifest them more continually, and only that war was very seldom founded upon any real a few in an equal degree. Hunger is a good patriotic principle, and was generally a thoroughly excuse for those we denominate “the brutes, ignorant and ferocious business. These princi. and for us also, the aristocratic animals. It ples are rarely thought of till too late-if ought to be a good one for us, since a calculation thought of at all—and the natural seeds of evil has recently been made by a practical husbandman, propensities grow to a rank height; nor can the that 4,150,000 oxen and cows must be slaughtered future reason and humanity of an individual of. annually, to furnish the population of England ten succeed in eradicating them. Thus, War, with one half the animal food requisite for our with its hydra-headed horrors, has no early-inproper sustenance; and that, if the other half stilled claim upon the sensibility and moral were to be entirely of mutton, 33,000,000 of feelings ; but is masked, instead, under pompous sheep must also be butchered every year. names, titles, and gorgeous paraphernalia ; so But it is in killing for sport, pastime, malice, or that, in manhood, it is generally considered a the insatiable appetite for excitement, that we mere political question; all its prodigal waste display our combative and destructive propensi. of human life being merged in some vague idea ties. The principle is displayed very early in of the wealth of nations, and the will of kings. childhood. Some children mutilate butterflies | The first principles of education ought to be in or other insects, and stand watching their writh- general humanity, or a comprehensive sympaings and the twitches of their parted members, thy with sentient as well as moral life. The with evident curiosity and complacent satisfac- boy, whose good feelings are properly directed, tion. It may be they are often ignorant of the and his vicious propensities and ideas checked as pain they are inflicting, but nevertheless are much as possible, however seemingly trivial may satisfied to perceive that they have “done for” be the medium through which they are mani. the creature. Others being more imaginative— fested, will become a far better, and far more as metaphysicians might argue-knock off the intelligent man, than if the utmost pains had limbs of little images, and deface the features ; been taken, and the most unprecedented punishor break their toys, occasionally to see how they ments been applied, for the purpose of grafting are made ; but far more generally for the plea- the Latin grammar and all the collects in his mesure of mischief and destruction, and to gaze mory before he was ten years old. Where edu. upon their fragments, ruins, and insides. As cation is not founded upon a strong, comprethey grow up, we find them rushing with a stick hensive, and sincere basis of justice and humaniamong wild flowers or corn, and furiously laying ty, knowledge is liable to become a venal sword, about them on all sides, with flushed cheeks and dipped in subtlest poison; the curse of the world, sparkling eyes; or playing at soldiers, "they even as the name of him who wields it is cursed lift the baby sword, even in a hero's mood,” and by posterity. quarrel as to who ought to be dead. Others transfix cockchafers with a crooked pin, dangle

III. Definition of a Tyrant. True Legitimacy. Analy. them at the end of a string, and listen with de

sis of the epithet,“ blood-thirsty.” Popular insensi. light to their sonorous agony; or give a maimed

bility to numerical slaughter, except as matter for mouse for the kitten to pounce after and toss

rejoicing. Keen and peculiar sense of horror, when

the impressions are concentrated. up, by way of an evening's amusement ; they are then called into the parlour to say their A tyrant is a being who possesses the power prayers and repeat a hymn ; after which, they and will to oppress, and who exercises both. go up to bed, and play at hanging, or some other Whether a monarch raise armies, and kidnap edifying amusement. A boy is taken to the thousands of men to crowd his navies, (and the theatre, (it is evident that we have alluded chief- | war-trade is far worse than the slave trade,) for


the purpose of carrying on an unjust as well as ruinous contest; whether hegrindexorbitant taxes from his subjects to meet the continual expense, and subsequent debts and emergencies; he is un. doubtedly a tyrant, be his title and nominal power what it may, since an absolute despot could do no more than waste the lives of his people, and the products of their laborious industry. It may be said, in extenuation, that a king is guided by his ministers. In this case he permits and sanctions the evil he might prevent ; and though of a negative kind, he is still a tyrant. Buonaparte has been denominated a tyrant ; but if our previous position be correct, he was by no means such a one as George 111., through whose obstinate disposition we lost America, and heaped up the national debt so inordinately ; independent of the onerous consequences, under which we now groan,

“ of forcing upon the French,” as Mr Southey says, a king they hated.” It was in the glorious cause of that ancient misnomer of kings—“ legitimate !" The only Sovereign who is essentially legitimate, is the one chosen by the voice of the nation, as their own proper ruler. Otherwise, the people are the born slaves of the breed of masters. The President of the United States is a truly legitimate sovereign.

The epithet of “ blood-thirsty,” in addition to that of “tyrant," is generally applied indiscriminately to all those whose military propensities have been successful. We will endeavour to explain how far it varies in applicability with the individual. In speaking of the generality of sovereigns who have only to grow up, and fatten as they rise, we have remarked that the feverish impulses of grossly pampered sensation, almost always tend to a desire of mischief and desolating warfare, either with no definite motive as to an ultimate result, or with an unjust and absurdly despotic anticipation. The case is likely to be very different with a sovereign, or chief ruler, who owes his station to his own energies and intellect, and the popular appreciation of them. He has to work his way up arduously ; and serious labour, as well as the public opinion upon which he rose, is not to be risked for an idle freak of bloated recklessness. His object is first to gain a given position, and then to keep it, that he may act as from a high rock. He must guard the welfare of his country, and protect it from wrongs ; but if he heedlessly endan. ger its safety and well-being, the unanimous voice which elevated him may depose him. Making war upon foreign nations, is seldom a mere matter of choice to such an individual. His best policy, indeed, would be not to do so, except where it was immediately or prospectively necessary. But having arrived at a certain pitch of regal authority, and being provoked and attacked by reason of the alarmed meanness and jealousy of conventional legitimates, he naturally proceeds to repel his enemies, and the meddling enemies of his country, forestalling them as much as possible, and endeavouring to increase the extent of his country power. This is not as a

VOL. 1.NO. II.

“ thirst of blood;" it is a determination to maintain his position. If he advance against other nations in consequence, it may not be from a desire of carnage, but a thirst for conquest. This, we grant, may be attended with an indifference to the loss of life ; not from gross insensibility or pampered inflation, but as the natural result of personal risks, and


hair-breadth pes, and the gradual blunting of the nerves by habitual scenes of warfare. Such is the ordi. nary course of warlike expeditions, with those few potentates or leaders, who may rank

among men not without humanity and true nobility of spirit.

We intend the above as a general theory, and do not apply it to any individual exclusively. Some “ awkward” examples, we confess, may adduced against it. Will it, therefore, be called sophistical? Well, let us reverse it, and see what other view can be obtained. We will con. sider, then, that the “thirst of glory” and the “thirst of blood,” are identical ; that the desire of conquest or power, and the feverish lust of mischief and destruction, with no ennobling object, not only tend to the same result, but spring from the same principle of action. We now ask, was there a single officer in the armies: of Alexander, of Julius Cæsar, or of Napoleon, from the generals to the lieutenants, who did not envy or admire their leader's power, (be his motives or principles what they might,) and who would not have done all that he did, if by such means they could have raised themselves to a similar position ? Let no man belie his conscience. If the Emperor was a blood-thirsty tyrant, there never was an officer of spirit, young or old, of high or low rank, either in his own armies, or those of any of his enemies, who was not a bloodthirsty tyrant at heart; but lacking Napoleon's genius, will, and consummate tact, they remained fixed on the lower steps of ambition's ladder, the meanest of them having the consolatory salvo of being able to vent idle epithets of ma.. licious inferiority.

While, however, we all deprecate to the vi. most the devastating and barbarous scenes of war wherewith the earth has been incessantly cursed; while we frequently express a vague: horror at the recollections of slaughter; the fact,. even when actually transpiring, takes no repul.. sive effect upon our feelings. Quite the con.. trary : folks generally delight and exult in it; and always manifest a thorough indifference to. the loss of lives, with a little verbal commisera.. tion by way of enhancing the excitement, and to be upon good terms with their own humanity.. The people, in fact, are as bad as the kings—. only that they do not cause the wars. Men of any passion and imaginative impulse, read of a. tremendous slaughter with avidity, as the next best thing to seeing a destructive fire, or the execution of some eminent villain. The great modern metaphysician has observed, that if you tell people of a shocking accident one day, and con tradict it as a false report on the next, or before they have forgotten it, they all look chagrined


No one.

and disappointed. It is too true. We do not tain a sight of the real blood, and a splinter of like to be excited, and then find it was all about the crow-bar, or a bit of the fatal mallet, ty make nothing. But as to a dreadful and well-authen into a snuff-box or tooth-pick ! ticated battle, it is generally worth as many thousand pounds to the newspapers as there are iV.-Analysis of War. Fighting by Enginery. War lives lost upon the occasion ; and no reader is will become a perfect Science. The consequences. ever affected with any morbid pity in conse

Who are usurpers. Masonic cabal of Kings. Po. quence. It is nearly the same with the survi. pular Self-reliance advocated. Indulgence of Evil vors of a desperate conflict. We recently read Propensities superseded by Knowledge. Warning an account of various invasions made by a host to Unions, and the People at large. of barbarians, (we avoid designating them for The mainspring and grand movement, the the sake of generalizing,) into a foreign country, nourishment and strength of War, are human in one of which contests they slew 100,000 men; | ignorance and human labour. Industry makes " but,” adds the historian, “could make no last- wealth ; war imposes onerous taxes ; stupidity ing impression !And what feelings of com. pays them. The consequences of war are the miseration do we entertain for the heaps of men slaughter of thousands of our fellow-creatures, who are now dust beneath the luxuriant fields and the overburdening ourselves with a vast na. of Waterloo, which are manured by the bodies of tional debt, and all ruinous contingencies. Engour own countrymen and their opponents? | land can show no counterbalancing advantages by Who, beside actual relatives, and a few travel. her wars. War hires myrmidons at vast exlers of more than ordinary sensibility, have ever pense in their pay, provisions, arms, ammunition, shed a tear, or felt a pang at heart ?

&c. &c.; and, even when disabled or dead, a Has any individual, in reading the foregoing part of the expense continues in the shape of pages, been aught more affected by the frequent pensions for themselves or families. War deallusion to human slaughter, than by the esti-stroys its own minions ; but its attendant offmate of the millions of cattle annually required spring, taxes, outlive it long enough to ruin a for our carnivorous consumption ? We doubt it. far greater number, and reduce all the poorer A kind of half-pitying astonishment is all that classes to utter want and misery. Have we recan generally be wrung from selfish, obdurate, covered the consequences of the American War, money-hunting human nature. These accounts or the French War? Shall we ever recover not only make no “lasting impression,” they them? Insane conflicts like these, always make make no impression at all worth owning. But Peace suffer so grievously, that the people are with a single domestic murder, how different is gradually rendered desperate, and generally inthe effect! Then, indeed, it comes home. A duced to desire a fresh war, as the only means letter containing an account-awful in its sim of effecting a change, not much caring whether plicity-of a hurricane and deluge in India, by it be for better or for worse. which upwards of ninety thousand people were When we consider the various methods which destroyed, appeared in The Times newspaper a have been adopted by the different nations of year or two ago, but was hardly quoted by a the world from the earliest periods, whereby second paper, and took no effect whatever upon they could best effect the subjugation or des the public. The failure of certain great bankers struction of their enemies; when we recolleet in Calcutta was a severe infliction, and produced the awkward, wildly wilful, and frequently absurd a corresponding excitement. But as to the de manæuvres they have practised, and compare vastations of war, or any other loss of life en them with the systems adopted in modern times, masse, the imagination, fond as it is of excite where slaughter and civilization are brought so ment, cannot be brought to work definitely upon near the point of perfection, we must clearly perthe feelings, without being concentrated in a ceive, that the progress of science will soon carry single object. The slaughter of 100,000 people us to that degree of practical knowledge where is “ too much of a good thing," and we give im- calculation will comm

monly supersede fighting. A mediate and exuberant preference to the horrid, clever and humorous article appeared some time barbarous, and most shocking murder of any since in Blackwood's Magazine, entitled, “ Mura vapid old woman, or worthless character; and der, considered as one of the Fine Arts!" If read with greedy avidity column after column we generalize the subject, the ostensible jest in the newspapers, (few battles pay like this !) ugly enough as a jest will become the theory which enter so minutely into all the circumstan of a serious sanguinary fact, that must eventually tial evidence, preposterous, tautological, or con produce a reaction in favour of living in peace. tradictory, and into all the commonplace localia Steam engines have already been introdneed ia ties, rendered so original and picturesque by the naval warfare, and they will next be brought colouring of a little blood. The interest never into the field as artillery, &c., so that the conflags in the progress—we pant and devour on. test of tremendous machines, the extent of whose wards with yusto ; the roots of our hair tingle required power can only be limited by the surwith exquisite griesly apprehension,- We pause face of the ground they have to move upon, but and shudder, then rush again at the narrative, which will be invincible in a given position, and and gasp and stare, and shift our seat, and read irresistible within the range of their locon otive on for more ; and, finally, hurry off to the coach facility, will produce a sweeping hurricane of in order to reach the tragic spot in time to obecarnage that must either very speedily make sol

diers scarce upon earth, or else teach kings to word for kings through the popular ignorance. keep at a respectable distance from each other, A usurper is one who is hated by his subjects, unless they would be reduced to the monarchy of and rules in defiance of their opinion and inclinAlexander Selkirk. If sovereigns could be in ation. Whether the present Autocrat, having duced to have their battles fought by an array shown the hereditary cloven foot since his asof steam-engine proxies, the affair might be ter cent, be a usurper in this sense, let the Russian minated like a grand scientific game ; but this people decide. It is no business of ours: at all would not be satisfactory to their parental feel. events, we have enough upon our own hands for ings, and millions of lives would be involved in some years to come. the unequal contest. Steam will eventually de. The strong movement which has taken place stroy war, or destroy the greater part of the hu among the people of all civilized countries towards man race. The first proposition is by far the throwing off the oppressive yoke of ages, has more likely to transpire. The accumulated know-startled every monarch upon his throne, as though ledge, derived from long experience, has now he had felt an earthquake heaving beneath it. reached a point that will soon reduce war, They must prevent the progression of the movewhich has been for ages like a blood-royal lottery, ment, or few will preserve their seats. It canor the “glorious uncertainty of the law,"—to a not be done by open force, for numbers would practico-mathematical problem: and he will be overwhelm them ; it must therefore be supersedthe victorious hero who first solves it under itsed by subtle man@uvres. The current cannot given circumstances, and immediately acts upon be stopped ; it must therefore be turned aside the solution. Every step of war, in its march and broken into streams, led into rushing con. towards a perfect science, tends to its cessation. tests with each other, and directed onward to a There is another reason for this in addition to precipice. To effect this, there will probably be the above arguments, and of far greater weight : a secret cabal among kings to go to war with the people are beginning to think. The general each other; so that, wasted and distracted with diffusion of knowledge,-if knowledge be of any foreign wars, their subjects may gradually be real value to man, —will gradually negative the brought back to their old state of thraldom; use, exercise, and calling of war. If ignorance falling a prey to the combined powers of other is bliss," why, then, let men go to war, and enjoy nations, each in turn being sworded into subjecthemselves. If it be not bliss, but bloodshed tion by the rest, till, one by one, their respective and taxes, then it is feasible to expect they will kings are reseated in safety upon their shaken give up the glorious system of being made ma thrones. This new Holy Alliance of kings may nure for foreign lands; and leave kings, who not be conducted by secret embassies, or even by will fight, to engage in single combats in a grand any definite mission ; but there will neverthechivalric ring of their respective nations; or, if less be a tacit understanding—a royal masonic the people should really and seriously come to sign, to which every crowned head will immedi. dislike, and refuse to incur the expense of pro-ately respond, and work towards the general wel. digal shows and spectacles, let the principals fare of the “ craft” in which their own fate is settle their quarrel privately, in presence of a involved; for there is “honour among kings," &c. few respectable witnesses. No nation ought to People of England --Unions—men of common fight, unless upon compulsion, i.e. to maintain sense-you will do well to be steady, consisttheir own just rights; the only exception to ent, and look to yourselves. Depend upon yourwhich should be, the cause of the oppressed in selves, and your unity of action, rather than upforeign parts,-provided always we can do so on any ostentatious party-leaders. A place or without oppressing and ruining ourselves, so as a bribe, in whatever shape, is too liable to buy to place our hearts and homes at the mercy of a either their assistance or their silence. A disimilar despotism.

rect traitor is one who sells his cause and his When the unanimous voice of a nation choose services to the opposite side: an indirect traitor a king, or chief ruler, for itself, as the French is one who suddenly remains neuter at a critical did, any other who may be forced upon them is moment. It is wise therefore to beware, and a usurper. Legitimacy is a mockery word in know to what you have to trust. There are such a case. England made an unjust war upon noble-spirited and honest men among the heads France, and forced Napoleon to shed "a deluge of all parties, whom no bribe could buy, (some of unnecessary blood ;" but England could stand of them are rich already ;) but these are only exquietly and look on, while the noble-spirited ceptions, and so few in number, that looking at Poles were being crushed beneath the hosts of a the question as a principle, they cannot be taken tyrant, with whom a comparison would disgrace into the consideration. But if the people hold aught huinan, and who was not the “ legitimate fast together, in calm, unanimous resolve, and sovereign" (according to the conventional mean be true to themselves, their leaders will not then ing)—the “divine" birth-right belonging to his be likely to desert them; nor would it be of elder brother, Constantine. “Sweet Sir! where much consequence if they did. is thine empire?” " I have lost it,” he might We have shown some faint picture of what war reply: “ I was deposed by the nobles and the is in itself, and in its consequences; the natural people's opinion." Very well: then your bro..

Very well; then your bro.. disposition there is in men for war, and particu. ther, despot though he be, is no usurper; because larly among kings, who are its practical pro“legitimacy” is mere technical nonsense-a pass. moters and conductors; and we have also given


a very feasible view of the cause the latter have kitchen,'or knocked on the head in a barn-comto exert themselves to the utmost in the breeding pared to the carnage of a field of battle? Almost of disastrous contentions and conflicts. Destruc. every soldier who falls, dies a much worse death, tiveness is natural to man; but the growing in as far as the actual butchery is concerned. Bayotelligence of the mass, which is so rapidly in neted through the bowels—sabred across the face ducing a home-felt sense of the welfare of each --shot through both thighs—and trampled being centred in all, will eventually supersede the under foot by men and horses, like a writhing indulgence of such evil inclinations. Other evil worm, after lying there in momentary expectapassions are superseded in their general effects, tion of it, perhaps half-an-hour ! And all for though not eradicated from the mind and tem what ?-most probably for a cause in which both perament; and so it will be with regard to war. parties are wrong! Armies are composed from “ Plague, pestilence, and famine” are evils we the people; twenty or fifty thousand of you cannot avoid: they may be called the bad pas being slain, as described, only serves for a few sions of the physical elements; but battles, mur days' talk at home. Nobody feels for you at all, ders, and wholesale sudden deaths, are volun except a few near relations; be sure of that tary evils, originating in the bad passions of fact. The sympathy of your countrymen is too kings and their counsellors, and acting upon the diffused and vague; all chance of commiseration bad passions of the people through their igno. is lost in the excitement of the battle and its po

But this ignorance is being fast dispelled. litical consequences. Think, therefore, of your. To force a sensitive and minute comprehen selves ; feel for your own position distinctly ; sion upon mankind, as to the actual horrors of and do not be cajoled and drawn off, as heretowar, is impossible. A few words are all we shall fore, by the insiduous pretence and sovereign hoax offer. What is a single murder, about which of aiding the cause of liberty in some other we are all so excited-a man stabbed in a back quarter of Europe, to forget your own.


THE LIBERAL MACAW ; OR TOM BAB. AND POOR PAT. “ Fiat experimentum in corpore vili.” Extract from Mr. Macauley's speech in Parliament on the Irish Bill. We've a very little lawyer,

Then cut and hack away
Who plays his game fu' brawly;

The members from the belly:
The Trinity top-sawyer,

But stay a little, stay,
Tom Babington Macauley.

I've a story, Tom, to tell ye.
He's a hand in every work, Sir,

There was once a Lawyer Jones,
And a finger in each platter ;

And he said to his friend Day,
For Christian, Jew, or Turk, Sir,

“ Kill that spider, there he runs ;"
And whatever else, no matter.

But his friend replied him, “ Nay."
And when Althorp, for reform, Sir,

Suppose the mob, Sir William,
Wants a little hotting spice,

As you walk about the town,
To keep the cauldron warm, Sir,

Should cry, there he goes, there, kill him ;
Bab has it in a trice.

Knock the rascal-lawyer down.
He's a mighty agitator

And suppose that Irish crew,
'Bout slavery, and all that,

Six millions men to one,
But he hates a low Potatoer,

Good lawyer, Bab, with you
And so thunders at poor Pat.

Should like a little fun.
And, because he does not choose

Let's send the screaming monster,
To leave priesthood in the lurch,

The Liberal Macaw,
And give heretics the dues

To some genuine old planter,
Of the Holy Mother Church,

To taste Jamaica law.
Tom Babington protests, Sir,

In corpore vili, now,
To enforce the law's sway,

Experimentum fiat :
Of all methods the best, Sir,

We'll teach the rascal how
Is to clear it right away.

To set the slaves on riot.
For he little has to spare, Sir,

Let's send him to the lash, Sir;
Of reason and of law,

And then, my dearest Bab,
Though a parrot most rare, Sir,

You'd be less inclined to flash, Sir,
As e'er St. Stephen's saw.

Your everlasting gab.
And the difference of right, Sir,

And faith, 'tis well worth while,
We surely must confess,-

For good example's sake,
'Tis that of black and white, Sir,

On a carcass so vile
No greater and no less.

The experiment to make.
And so in corpore vili

But does it follow, then, Sir,
Experimentum fiat,

That we're bound to hack and hew,
And O'Connell, o Reilly,

Six millions of free men, Sir,
On my life will soon be quiet.

And all for love of

'Tis thus, from his new perch, Sir,

Oh yes, my dearest Bab,
Our glorious Macaw,

For the sake of your quotation,
Screams up the Irish Church, Sir,

We'll trample, cut, and stab,
And down the Irish law,

Through all that horrid nation.
Oh, filthy! oh, most vile!

And, gainsay it who can,
Oh, worthiest of our hate,

Our blundering Macaw,
That emerald green isle,

Is the very fittest man
The right arm of our State,

To give the Hindoos law.

C. L

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