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would we expect a proper and well-oiled motion Of this same dignity, the use is, the procuring for the in our House of Peers! If my Lord the Mar.
possessor of it, respect, deference, compliance with such
demands as it pleases him to make-compliance with quis Baker attempted any little piece of pilfer
his wish and desire, in so far as it is known, or can be ing for the sake of his private tooth, would there guessed at: and of all these good things, by means of not be my Lord the Viscount Butcher to keep which are produceable and produced all other sorts of him in check ? If my Lord the Duke Scavenger good things-the more a man can have, without either employed his honours in support of dirty streets
of the above-mentioned irksome operations, without which and unswept lanes, would not my Lord the Earl
appropriate aptitude is not to be had, -the less of it will
he have need of; and, accordingly, the less of it will he Tavern-Keeper coalesce with my Lord Baron
give hiinself. Shopkeeper, and bear down the proposed iniqui Accordingly, if you would see that relative inaptitude ty? We could show, indeed, that with such a which is correspondent and opposite to official appropriate House of Peers the affairs of the nation would
aptitude, if you want to see that same relative inapti. proceed in admirable style. And then, what
tude—or in one word, deprarily in its several grada
tions, look to the top of the scale : there you may see better obstacle could be had to the innovations Kings. Exactly as their power and dignity is their of a revolutionary House of Commons ? The depravity : so, mathematically speaking, less and less, as House of Commons has already walked, and, some
they have less and less of those same attributes.
To come down to Peers. So it will be with Peers. years hence, may again walk over the necks of
True it is—your Peers, if you continue to have any, the existing House of Peers; but with our House
will not be so bad as ours: for they will not have so they would know better than try any such auda much they will not have near so much-power, along city! We shall write a volume soon on this sub with their honour and dignity. They will not have the ject, and lay it at the feet of his gracious Ma
nomination of the self-constituted and self-stiled Repre
sentatives of the People; they will not be in the habit of jesty; but, in the meantime, we warn all men
having distant dependencies obtained and retained, for against the small and stupid measure on which the sake of official situations established in them, for the they were violently bent, as was said in the co purpose, and with the effect, of being filled by Peers, or lumns of the Chronicle and the Times ! Create elder or younger sons of Peers, for the profit of depreda. a few more Peers, to overcome the obstinacy of
tion, and pleasure of oppression, to be exercised by those
same living receptacles of honour and dignity. The conthe present assembly ! Give privilege to a few more
sequences of any such burthen would, in your part of the to cure the arrogance of a privileged assembly! world, be, for some time, too bad for endurance ; and If you put a man in a starched cravat, will he not therefore it would not, till after a considerable length of necessarily be stiffnecked ? If you gird the time, be endeavoured to be fastened on you. But, when healthy branch of a tree, will not the sap cease
all this is taken off, there is surely enough left, to prevent
you from consenting to be loaded with any such encumto rise through it in sufficient abundance? will
berance as it would load you with. it not become shrivelled, privileged,—dead to all To come home to your Chamber of Peers. Part and good purposes ? If you shut a sane man in a parcel of the matter of corruption would be,-every atom mad-house, especially if he be naturally a good
of honour, every atom of dignity,—meaning always, facti.
tious honour and factitious dignity, manufactured as creature, or weakish in the intellects, is there
above, every spark of lustre, and every spark of splen. not potent ground for the suspicion that he will dour, possessed by the Chamber of Peers, or by any memsoon be no oddity amongst the inmates ? Crea ber of it, as such. Let it be called influence-infinence tion of Peers ! Bah! Dig up the causes of your
simply, or legitimate influence—would it-now, at any hostility to the present House, good country
rate,— be the less clearly seen to be the corruption that it
is ? Would not the speaking of it, as necessary, or even men! and try, if these causes would not exist
contributory, to the support of good government, be, by in regard of a modified House, in their fullest
all lovers of good government, regarded as an endeavour force. Is it that there is a fatal virus-a here to produce illusion -maleficent illusion ? These quesditary taint in the blood of your Wellingtons,
tions will assuredly be seen to furnish their own answer. Winchelseas, Caernarvons, and Londonderrys? There is vast wisdom here, as in every thing No such thing : these are as good men to spoil that fell from that august prophet's lips. Someas you could find any where ; too good some of time soon we shall return to what he has taught them for being spoiled, which is the pity. The us, and we write now only to say, that we intend virus is the atmosphere of that tapestried hall : to teach that wisdom to all other men. Meanit is full of malaria. Privilege-irresponsible while, What is to be done with the Peers ?-what power-dignity-dignity unmerited, that is the is to be done on behalf of the patriotic assembly, virus. The cup of power is sweet, but fatally an excellent, and talented, and meek House of intoxicating! Listen to one short extract from Commons ? That is the poser! One solitary the illustrious teacher of the modern world, The gleam of light breaks through the darkness. If following is from Bentham's Letter to his Fel the House of Lords perseveres in its perverse low-Citizens of France :
and obstinate endeavour to frighten Lord Grey
and Lord John Russell, their conduct will be How then stands the truth of the case ? Is it that, actionable at common law. We throw out this the more there is of this dignity, with its et cæteras, the hint for the especial benefit of our friend, Henry more there is of this same perfect aptitude ? Oh no : but, contrariwise, the less. For as to appropriate moral apti.
Cockburn, who was said, last session, to have tude, this is the fruit of self-deniah, itself an irksome sort
shivered not a little, because of the perils of the of operation ; as to appropriate intellectual aptitude, and Constitution. Let Henry Cockburn prosecute active aptitude, these are the fruits of hard labour-an.
forth with, if violence be threatened again. If the other irksome sort of operation : and the quantity of them
King's leiges have no right to protection against is naturally in proportion to the quantity of need; and, the less the need a mar has of any irksome sort of opera
being put in terror, it is time the thing should ton, the less does he employ of it.
be known. For ourselves, good Lords! we are
afflicted by no fears ! Your blustering is inno- | bodies from in front of you, we will rejoice in cuous; for we know, that in opposition to the showing you this and many other truths; and, if nation you are as-CHAFF. When their Whig we judge the signs of the times aright, that season ships shall be pleased to remove their massive is at hand.
A SKETCH FROM THE BYRON PORTFOLIO.
Adau is the very essence of the purest earth ance upon assurance of his return.
The simple ly love ; love which no being can turn from its allegation of the spirit will not satisfy her in object, no hardships cool, no crimes sever. In
such a case.
When he goes, the time of his all her words and actions there is exemplified a absence is long indeed. She says, heart overflowing with kindness,-a heart which
« 'Tis but two hours upon the sun, pours its treasures, like the rains of heaven, upon
But too long hours to me !" “ the evil and the good.” She cannot form a She could not exist alone. As if agonized by conception of unkindness : her whole nature is the thought, she exclaims, so essentially love, that the opposite feeling is
« Alone! oh my God! to her an unknown thing. Yet Adah distin
Who could be happy and alone, or good ? guishes between the love due to the Creator
To me my solitude seems sin !" and that due to the creature. Thus, when the Adah had not felt the curse of the fall, Adam, arch-fiend, by expatiating on the beauty of the Eve, Abel, Zillah, and her husband,_all, though starry host, endeavours to wile her into the in different moods, mourned over the expulsion meshes of that net which has already so com.
from Eden; but she was happy. In her huspletely enveloped her husband, how delightfully band, her children, and their society, she could her whole soul speaks forth in her language !
make an Eden as bright and beautiful as that She tells him she gazes on these beautiful sym
paradise itself; without them she “ could not, bols of the Eternal with a feeling of deep de.
nor would be happy." With them she could be light : she loves them, for they are so beautiful. so, despite even of Death. Death she feared not, She inquires, touchingly, if they too must die,
because she did not associate with it the idea of and is glad when she is told that they will out separation from her family. Therefore it was to last her and her posterity for ages ;- she would her most truly but an “awful shadow." not have such bright and splendid things come
But a great part of Adah's joy consists in her under the doom of man's disobedience.
children, especially Enoch. This contemplation here she stops, in the calm, trusting love she a never-failing source of pleasure. Cain bears to their Maker. It is with a feeling some gazes upon Enoch's beauty ; but the thought re. thing similar that she looks upon Lucifer. She calls the poisonous language of the Tempter. admires his beauty ; she is fascinated by some
The very innocence and loveliness of his firstunknown power of attraction to his presence ;
born brings to him heart-rending anticipations she cannot spurn him ;- but in all the devoted of future unhappiness. When the infant smiles ness of love, she calls upon her beloved Cain to in its sleep, he thinks it is dreaming of the lost save her from him. She cannot gainsay his ar
Paradise ; and bitterly bids it dream of it, for guments ; yet she sees unhappiness stamped
that is all it will ever taste of its happiness. upon his beauty, and her heart tells her that But Adah thinks of her infant's beauty, and the goodness can never be unhappy. Trembling
mirrored resemblance it bears to her husband with the indistinct fear, how beautifully she ex
and herself; and draws pleasure from the idea claims,
that it will one day enjoy the same pleasure in “ Thou seem'st unhappy! do not make us so,
contemplating its offspring. In the meantime, And I will weep for thee !"
Cain, breathing but the envenomed accents of Adah loved her husband most deeply. When he the arch-fiend, utters a wish that his darling is about to leave her, how earnestly she entreats boy were rather dashed to pieces on the spot, him to stay. She cannot bear the thought of than exposed to the train of miseries which his trusting him without her into the company of gloomy imagination pictures forth as the inevit. this mysterious being. And when Lucifer, able lot of his offspring. The mother, engrossed dreading that her persuasions will be successful with her own pleasing ideas, hears but indistinctin detaining his intended victim, authoritatively ly the words ; yet the fearful expression fills her commands him instantly to leave her, how in
with horror. Her heart leaps up instantly, and, trepidly she exclaims, in all the undauntedness starting in an agony of natural love and fear, she of love, daring even a power whose magnitude exclaims,she could not comprehend,
“ Touch not the child! my child—thy child, oh, Cain!" « Who
Here the character of the wife is for the moArt thou that steppest between heart and heart ?" ment absorbed in that of the mother. All love, Ere he departs, however, she must have assur. all pleasure, is centred in the unconscious child ; Mystery of Cain,
all concern is engrossed in its safety, At the
moment, she could brave even her husband, for The tide of her love is too deep to be dried up the sake of her darling boy.
by this fiery blast. She remains the only one When Cain explains that his language was near her yet cherished though unworthy hus. nought save a wish that such had happened, ra band. She calls herself his own, even after this ther than he should live to be as unhappy as dreadful deed. The agonized Cain, torn with rehis sire, this thought is scarcely more tolerable morse, exclaims, “ Leave me !" but she, ever lov. than the other. She would not forego the plea- | ing and faithful, replies, sure of watching over and nursing her child, for
“Why, all have left thee !" Eden. With what heartfelt pleasure she expa Thus drawing a reason for her remaining, from tiates upon the beauty of the rosy sleeper! With
the very circumstance, which, to an ordinary what maternal pride she exclaims,
mind, would have formed the strongest incentive " Talk not of pain!
to flight. But she fears nothing but separation The childless cherub well might envy thee from him. How touchingly and delicately she The pleasures of a parent !"
mentions the crime that had drawn an impassHer heart is swelling with the delightful feel.
able line of demarcation between him and his reing, and she cannot understand how her beloved
latives! It was between him and the Great God, Cain can be unhappy while the same source of joy
she says ; and she had nought ado but comfort is open to him.
him ! With what touching unconsciousness of evil
When the angel utters the fearful words,
“ Thou hast slain thy brother, 1 Surely a father's blessing may avert
And who shall warrant thee against thy son ?". A reptile's subtlety.” The blessing of a parent is to her a sovereign before our mind's eye, as if struck by a thunder
The idea “speaks daggers” to her. Then she is talisman. No evil influence can counteract it in
bolt, gasping for breath. The horror of the her estimation. Armed with this, she is not
thought has almost petrified her. Her eyes are afraid to trust her darling boy, even in the reach
fixed wildly on vacancy, while her arms clutch of the dread serpent, whose power and malignity
the terrified child with fearful force. As soon are so often the theme of discourse with her pa
as she can muster breath she hurriedly exclaims, rents and their family.
“ Angel of light! be merciful,- nor say, But, though Adah's heart was so full of con
That this poor aching breast now nourishes nubial and maternal love, yet its exhaustless A murderer in my boy, and of his father !” fountain had another outlet : Adah loved her pa The pitying angel assures her, not; yet then, rents, and her brother and sister, with a most even, she is not entirely calm. The storm has fervent love. Their company forms one of the not wholly passed; some dregs of it have yet to ésgential parts of her actual Eden. She views blow by, ere the agitation can entirely cease. the Supreme as the Parent of All, and she praises During this period her sorrow for the death him for having created
of Abel has been hidden, but not destroyed. Ere These best and beauteous beings!"
she leaves the spot she takes a last look, and the Her very nature is exemplified, when she declares floodgates of her heart strain with the ill-stemthem,
med torrent of grief that prësses against them, “ To be beloved more than all save Thee !" All her desires are bounded in this simple and
and she stoops down and kisses the body with a beautiful petition, with which she concludes her mournfully she bewails the early doom of her
heart almost bursting. Tenderly and most prayer, —
gentle brother; yet she dare not give vent to “Let me love Thee and them !"
her grief, How truly she says, There can be nothing in prayer more compre
« Of all who mourn for thee, hensive ; it embraces all our duties to Creator
I alone must not weep!" and creatures, and these, too, in their most de She was denied even the poor consolation of lightful form.
giving her sorrow scope. Like Rebecca in Ivan. But it is after the horrid crime that her hus- hoe, (though with a different feeling.) she must band has committed that the character of Adah
repress it, “ though every fibre of her heart shines forth in its most ennobling light. In that, bleed” in the attempt. And the reason is given like the impugned Princess of Saxon times, she as beautifully as the rest of her lament: has walked the red-hot ordeal; and her love
“ My office is, comes forth from the fiery trial, without an item Henceforth, to dry up tears, and not to shed them ! of alloy, pure' as the sun in his meridian splen
But yet, of all who mourn, none mourn like me, dour. At first, when the agonized Eve accuses
Not only for myself, but he who slew thee !" him of the crime, how eagerly she starts forth in
In conclusion, we consider Adah as a complete his defence ! With what undoubting sincerity portrait of the perfect wife; a character of all she calls upon her beloved Cain to free himself others the most delightful, yet, alas! the most from the accusation! Though the undenying other delineations of this master-mind in this ;
rare to be met with. She is superior to all the silence leaves no doubt of his guilt, what can be more heart-rending than the appeal she makes
there is a pure unobtrusive piety in Adah, that, to Eve to stay her curses !
like the sunlight on a picture, brings all its bean. “Curse him not, mother, for he is thy son !
ties into view, discovering those which were com. Curse him not, mother, for he is my brother,
paratively hidden, and shedding the brighter glory And my betrothed” on the more prominent parts,
ON A CRITICISM OF NIEBUHR.
To the Editor of Tait's Edinburgh Magazine. The learned Niebuhr, as he is generally term. | ing, may, if they will search for, probably find ed, has had the advantage of at once puzzling similar inaccuracies. and alarming the critics in the Reviews; and This very story of Cincinnatus, and Niebuhr's they, who are so bold in general, content them exposure of it, are, we see, given and amplified selves with giving extracts from his work, ( The in the Foreign Quarterly Review, with much Fragment of a History of Rome ;) and without praise to the learned author, and without the venturing on any opinion, finish as they began, slightest doubt or surmise of any possibility of by calling him the learned author, and so wash his being in error. their hands of him.
The following is the story given from Livy by It appears, however, that there is ample Niebuhr :room for remark,-in fact, great necessity for “ The Dictator (Cincinnatus) ordered the investigating, sifting, and curtailing his sweep- serviceable men to be in readiness at sunset, ing alterations, emendations, and decisions. food for five days, and each with twelve paliNiebuhr's claim to belief without examination, sades. which, however, he puts forth with great can “ At midnight, they reached Mount Algidus, dour and modesty, on the score of his deep re and were near the enemy's camp, which enclosed searches, is unreasonable, and will never be that of the Romans in the midst. The Dictator granted to him; not only because blind assent, made his troops march onward in column, till a without inquiry, is repugnant to the opinions of circle was formed about the Æquians ; then they the day, but also, because we are aware that halted, and began to dig a trench, and to heap men of genius are particularly liable to self up a mound, on which the palisades they brought deception; and the very circumstance of poring with them were to be driven in.
When they long over a subject, which is the foundation of were setting to work, they raised the Roman the claim above-mentioned, leads to the imagina- battle-cry. This announced to the Consul's tion becoming heated, and seeing, not only things troops that the wished-for succour was arrived; difficult to perceive, but also those which do not and they delayed not to burst forth from their exist otherwise than in the “mind's eye.” Nie camp. The Aquians fought with them during buhr has an easy method of discrediting and the whole night,” &c. getting rid of such events as stand in his way. This statement, and the victory obtained over He terms the History of the Kings of Rome, the Æquians by the Dictator, Cincinnatus, are as given in Livy and other ancient authors, a thus ridiculed and disposed of by Niebuhr:“Lay,” or rather, Lays; not that any poetry “ This legend will not stand the test of histoexists, or is stated to have existed on the subject, rical criticism, any more than those which refer but he thinks it likely that lays may have been to the time of the Kings; but such a test must written, containing accounts of the ancient Ro- not be applied to it any more than to them. The man monarchy; from which poems he assumes poet, whether he sang his story or told it, had that the prose history which we read, may have no need to reflect, that if five palisades were a been taken. He gradually becomes sure on the heavy load for a soldier enured to his duties, men point, and forth with proceeds to state it as a fact. called out in a general levy must have been to
Of the more recent history, likewise, he clears tally crushed by the weight of twelve. That so away such facts as he thinks proper, by terming great a number of them could not be made use them, not lays, but “ Legends." Being inclined, of, unless the circle was so large that, if all the however, to question this peremptory manner of soldiers stood in a line, they had a fathom of demolishing all our old scholastic and deeply-im- ground apiece; in which case, to say nothing of printed ideas, I determined to endeavour to the time it would have required before each had follow this author through some of his proofs, finished his piece of wall and ditch, an attack and see if all was right. I took at hazard the in any quarter from the Æquians, who were far well-known « Legend” of Cincinnatus, raised superior to Minucius, would have burst through from the plough to be Dictator of Rome. On this the whole fortification. Or that no scout could story the learned German is at once sarcastic, have walked the distance between Rome and humorous, and witty, (after a fashion ;) notwith. Mount Algidus, more than 20 miles, betwixt sun. standing which, if I, like himself, have not been set and midnight; and here it is done by a deceived by my imagination, I think we shall be column of men, heavy armed and heavy laden. able to show that his reasons for discrediting The poet, however, neither counted their steps Livy on this point are groundless.
nor the hours. Still more might he smile at I do not charge him with intentional unfair any one who objected that the Æquians must ness; but the incorrectness is quite extraordi. have been struck with blindness and deafness if nary.
they allowed the Romans to march round about This, certainly, is only one out of a thousand them, and enclose them in a net, without offering of his emendations; and others, with more lei. any impediment, and never interrupting them sure, more ability, and, above all, more learn. while throwing up their intrenchments: for this,
to be sure, was not wrought by human means. twelve miles from Rome, and not twenty; which, God had smitten them, so that they neither saw we imagine, makes all the difference. And it nor heard, and could not perceive the battle would be well if some explanation were given of cry which pierced to the ears of the army en so great a mistake ; one, indeed, which should closed by their lines,” &c.
prevent our taking for granted any of Niebuhr's On this part of the story, the Foreign Quar. statements. terly is even more express"; stating, that “the With regard to the intrenchment being cast shout was unheard by the Æquians.” The story, up unperceived, in the middle of the night, there or rather the legend, is therefore scouted and is nothing worthy of reply in the objection. discredited, because
Lastly, and which is very extraordinary,) 18t, The men are stated to have carried
Niebuhr's assertion, that the historian represents twelve palisades, instead of five, (the usual num the shouting of the Romans as heard by their ber.)
comrades alone, is utterly unfounded ; and the 2d, Because, between sunset, and midnight, wit concerning the.gods rendering the Æquians they marched to Algidus, a distance of twenty deaf, &c. &c. is quite thrown away. Livy's miles.
statement is express, that the “shout resounded 3d, Because they dug trenches without being on every side of the enemy, and, reaching be. perceived by the Æquians. And, Lastly, (and yond their camp, was heard by that of the Con. which creates the greatest mirth in the author,) sul, exciting terror in the one, and the greatest Because the Roman soldiers shouted so as to be joy in the other.'
B. heard by their comrades, but yet were not heard by the intervening enemy.
P.S. -As Niebuhr is to set all the ancient his. Yet, taking all this without contradiction, tory right, so his translators intend to rectify even as stated, we do not find the matter so the modern spelling ; and thus their translation clearly and indisputably a “ legend” as is as is throughout disfigured with “ promist, attacht, sumed. However, opinion is free; and we are
reacht, forein, soverein,” &c. &c. and numerous not obliged to leave the matter so in doubt ; other elegances and improvements. We rather for, 1st, As to the palisades, possibly the sol. think the t, though, perhaps, allowable in the diers were quite . able to carry them; or, very participle-past, is not so in the preterperfect possibly, they might have assistances in their tense ; but in the translation it is used almost journey. There seems very little to found an always in both cases. argument, one way or the other, as to these pali
Clamor hostes circumsonat- superat inde castra sades. As to the Algidus, Niebuhr make a gross hostium, et in castra consulis venit; alibi pavorem, alibi and remarkable mistatement: the distance is
gaudium ingens facit.
In 1792 the Army consisted of 44,333 rank 1817, 19,000 | 1819, 20,000 | 1821, 23,000 and file. Of this number, 22,924 were in Great 1818, 20,000 1820, 23,000 1822, 21,000 Britain, and 21,429 were distributed among our
Since 1823 the numbers have been 29,000 to 30,000. foreign possessions.
The Ordnance Military corps now consists of The returns which have been laid before Par
8,155 officers and men. liament make the numbers greater ; but these
The Expenditure in 1832 on these services was, returns are of all ranks, and of the numbers on the establishment of the Army, and not of the effectives.
£7,129,873 The whole expenditure on the Army in 1790
4,882,835 was £1,844,140.
.1,792,317 In 1792, the number of seamen and marines in the Navy was 16,000. The number of ships
£13,805,025 in commission 108; and the whole expenditure
Expenditure on the same ser
4,219,153 on the Navy was £2,000,000.
vices in 1790, In 1792, the number of officers and men in the Ordnance Military corps was 4,846 ; and the
Increase of our present Esta
- £9,585,872 expenditure on them was £151,606. The ex
blishment above that of 1790, penditure for the whole Ordnance service was
The following account shows the immense £375,000.
armed force which is now kept up in the United At the present time (January, 1834,) our Army Kingdom :consists of 95,791 rank and file, and of 109,139 of all ranks.
RETURN, showing in one table the Numbers of the fol.
lowing descriptions of Armed Force within the United In our Navy we have now employed 29,000 Kingdom, on 1st January 1832. seamen and marines; and we have 180 ships in
1. The Regular Army of all Ranks.............51,571 commission.
2. The Regiments of Artillery of all Ranks.... 4,589 The following numbers of seamen were voted in the six first years of the peace :
Carry forward, 66,160