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Ireland. Whitehall. Treniny a Shambery} T. SPRING RICE. Cavalry
2,230 2,166 Foot Guards
666 This statement of the amount of our military Infantry
16,528 | 17,245 establishments should, of itself, be sufficient to
19,462 20,077 convince every one, that they are much greater than can be justified by any public necessity. Total at Home
45,343 45,160 Nothing but the habit of long submitting to such an extravagant system, and the ge ABROAD, EXCLUSIVE OF INDIA. neral ignorance of the nature of it, can ac
3,090 2,876 Malta
2,528 2,366 count for the indifference with which the public
3,090 2,889 suffers itself to be deluded into a belief of its
Cape of Good Hope
1,779 1,725 being necessary. In point of fact, the only West Coast of Africa
360 255 reason for having greater military establishments Canada
2,575 2,417 now than we had before the war of 1793, is the
2,360 2,258 Bermuda
1,030 962 acquisition of some new foreign possessions at
Windward and Leeward Colonies 4,766 4,452 the end of the war. But this reason is not suffi
Jamaica, Bahamas, and Honduras 3,058 3,122 cient to justify more than the addition of a few New South Wales, &c.
2,539 thousand men to the army, and of a very small
1,545 1,445 naval force.
3,813 3,547 In taking a retrospective view of the progress
Total Abroad, exclusive of India 33,014 30,853 of our expenditure, it will appear that, next after the fatal step of going to war in 1793, the measure
EAST INDIES. which has led to the most wasteful extravagance,
2,700 2,663 was the arrangement, in 1816, of the peace esta
14,780 15,701 blishment. This was fixed, as circumstances have
17,480 18,364 since proved, at a higher amount than any necessity required, by six or seven millions a-year.
Total at Home and Abroad 95,837 94,377 In consequence of the exposure which from time to time has been made of the extravagant profusion and waste of the public money which this arrangement produced, it has been very much changed, and a considerable reduction has taken
In examining the grounds for keeping up so place ; but the amount which is still required for large a force in a time of profound peace, the our military establishments is very much beyond
first point to be considered is, what amount of what it ought to be. The expenditure in 1832,
force is necessary for foreign service; because the on the effective service of the army, navy, and
reliefs necessary to keep up this number must ordnance, was £9,050,133,- that is, £600,000
be taken into consideration in deciding the ques
tion of the proper amount of force to be kept up a-year more than double what was paid for the
at home. effective and non-effective forces in the peace before 1793.
On this point we have the advantage of the As it is very important to do everything that experience of what was the conduct of former
administrations to guide us. On examining a can be done to support the proposition, that the amount of the expenditure now incurred in our
return to the House of Commons, dated 220 military establishments is very much beyond
March, 1832, it will be found that, for some years what it ought to be, we shall proceed to examine subsequent to the peace, the average establish
ment of the forces abroad (exclusive of India) some of the details of it.
was 26,000 rank and file.*
The great increase which took place in this ARMY EXPENDITURE.
force, in subsequent years, and which has been 1. Number of Men.—The following is an ac continued to the present time, (in 1834, 33,585 count laid before Parliament of the number of men,) was not owing to any necessity for such rank and file in the army, on the 1st of January,
an increase, but to accident ; for in consequence 1832, and of the distribution of them. No re of the plan by which the army was increased from duction has since taken place in the number of rank and file,
• See Parliamentary Papers, No. 317, 1832
Adjutant General's Oficts} Joux MacDonaLV, A. G.
82,606 men, in 1824, to 105,270, in 1826,* on valry, and 14,780 infantry, making together the plea of a want of more troops at home, being 17,480 ; which, added to 26,000, will make that of adding a certain number of men to every 43,480 men for the force to be kept on foreign company of every regiment in the service, the service. number of men in every regiment at a foreign sta The next point to be considered with regard tion was increased, although there existed no cir to the number of men the army should consist cumstances, connected with any of the foreign sta of, is the force to be kept up at home. Now tions, requiring any such increase.
if 22,903 men were sufficient for England, In making an estimate now of what ought to Scotland, and Ireland, in the peace before be the number of men kept up on foreign ser 1793, when there were no volunteers in Engvice, exclusive of India, it will be quite safe to land, or yeomanry or armed police in Ireland, proceed on this precedent, of the early years when there was not a large body of marines after the peace, and to set down that number at ashore, nor any police in London; the same num26,000 men.
ber of men, it would be reasonable to infer, ought Of this number, 4,800 will consist of colonial to be sufficient now, when we have 21,821 vo. corps, so that the number of regular troops will lunteers and yeomanry ; 7,367 armed police in be 21,200. The latter will require a proportional | Ireland ; and 4,500 police in London. But alnumber to be kept at home, for the purpose of though it may be true that this amount of force, sending out reliefs, according to the established namely, 22,903 men, would be quite suffi ent, so rule, of each regiment being kept abroad ten much delusion and error generally prevail reyears and at home four; and also according to specting some indistinct notion of a necessity to our system of depôts, for recruiting regiments maintain a large military force, that it is not to be abroad.
expected that a reduction in the first instance of But this number of 26,000 men is greater than our force at home, to what it was before 1793, would be necessary, if proper measures were would be any where approved of; and therefore, taken to establish an efficient militia and police it will now be proposed to make the force to be force in the West India Islands. The present kept at home, greater by about 10,000 men than plan of militia is extremely defective; and there it was during the former peace. This proposed can be no doubt that a strong police could easily force, namely, of 32,500 men, for home service, be established. But the practice has been, and to be composed as follows:no one seems to give himself the trouble, amongst
Rank and File our Ministers, to bestow any thought upon the Regular troops for reliefs of 22,000 expediency of changing it, to look only to Eng infantry in the colonies, and lish soldiers for preserving the internal tranquil 15,000 infantry in India,
24,000 lity of the West India islands.
The Guards to be reduced from It was stated by a witness of the highest their present number, 4,500, to 3,500 authority in these matters, in evidence before The Cavalry now at home to be the Committee of Finance of 1828, that the duty reduced from their present numof soldiers in the West Indies was the same as ber, 6,900, to
5,000 that of a police force. But surely it must be possible to find a sufficiently fit force of this kind
Total at home,
32,500 without sacrificing English money, and the lives Those persons who may be disposed to say of English soldiers, in this sort of civil local ser that the present force at home does not admit of vice. In point of fact, the interior protection any diminution,—who contend that 21,383 men of our colonies should be left to a militia and a must be kept in England, and 23,071 in Ireland, police, as is the case in Cuba, to be paid by the notwithstanding the number of volunteers, yeocolonists; while the external defence of them manry, armed police, marines on shore, and arfrom foreign attack should be provided for by tillery, cannot produce any reasons to establish our naval squadrons, and a very small establish the necessity of such an immense force. It is ment of regular troops in each colony.
utterly impossible to do so, in consequence of It may further be remarked, that St. Lucia, this force being so wholly disproportionate to being now in our possession, removes one of the any existing danger. chief reasons which led to the keeping up a large The only reason by which any military force military force in the West Indies previous to the can be justified, is some danger to be guarded war of 1793. But of this circumstance no ad- against ; and the force should always be in vantage has been taken.
proportion to the danger. The danger, also, The arrangement which has recently been should be a distinct and intelligible danger, well made for giving L.20,000,000, for the purpose of considered, and its means of doing harm minutely setting the slaves free, ought to diminish the estimated. Now, this danger can be of only two risk of internal disturbance in the islands; and kinds,-one, that of hostile invasion of our terwe ought to endeavour to obtain some partial re ritories by a foreign nation ; the other, such a payment of this sum by reducing our army to resistance at home to the execution of the laws, the lowest possible point.
as cannot be overcome by the civil power, The force which is now in the East Indies, With respect to the first kind of danger, no and which is considered sufficient, is 2,700 ca one can, or does pretend to say, that, in the preSee Parliamentary Papers, No. 317, 1832.
See Army Estimate, 1834.
sent state of this country, with reference to fo.
Abroad. reign countries, there is the slightest probability of any invasion of any part of our territories.
Rank & File. But, notwithstanding this is the case, it is said
In the Colonies,
26,000 we must be prepared for war. To which state
In the East Indies,
17,480 ment, however, it may be replied, — There is no
43,480 probability of war to justify preparation to be
Regular troops for relief, &c. 24,000
5,000 for any future war,—or, in military language,
32,500 to form a nucleus for a large army ; for the principle on which our army is now composed,
75,980 namely, that of having a number of regiments, each with a moderate number of men, admits
According to this arrangement, the force in of the army being increased with great rapidity the colonies would be nearly as great as it was for and effect, whenever it may be necessary to in
some years together, previous to the year 1825. crease it.
The force in India would be the same as it now With respect to the other kind of danger, is, and the force at home would be greater by namely, that of resistance at home, to the laws 10,000 men than it was in the peace preceding and the civil power, this will be greater or less
the war of 1793. It would, at the same time, be according to the disposition of the people to pro less by 20,000 men than the force of the preduce disorder, and to seek to carry some parti. sent army, (January, 1834.) cular object, by having recourse to physical That this proposed reduction of 20,000 men is force. But it is impossible to show that any | by no means unreasonable, or impracticable, will such disposition prevails, in Great Britain, to
appear from what the Duke of Wellington did such an extent as to render the civil power in.
when he was at the head of the Government. He capable of contending successfully against any found, on coming into office, as great a number disturbance of the peace which it may produce.
of men in the army as there is now; but by Experience shows that, in almost all the worst putting a stop to recruiting, and not filling up cases that have occurred of open disturbance, the casualties, he reduced the number to 88,037, the mere display of soldiers has had the effect of
at the time he left office, towards the end of the putting a stop to it. If 15,500 men of the force
year 1830. In support also of the proposed reproposed to be kept at home were appointed to
duction of 20,000 men, the number of men of remain in Great Britain, this force, if properly which the army consisted in the years
1822 distributed, would be much more than amply and 1823, may be referred to. It will be seen sufficient, with all the other various kinds of by the Parliamentary Paper, No. 317 of the Ses. armed and civil forces, to make sure of prevent
sion of 1832, page five, that the establishment of ing any successful resistance to the laws. It
the army for the year 1822, was 82,054 men, and should also be remembered, that the carrying of that the number of effectives in 1823, was 81,713 the measure of Reform in Parliament, and other
men; that is, nearly 15,000 men less than our great concessions to public opinion, cannot have present establishment, and only 5000 more than failed to diminish the danger to be guarded the number of men which is now proposed as the against, which is immediately under consideration. number of which the army ought to consist. With respect to Ireland, the various measures
In the year 1923, the army, as it appears from which have been passed, and are likely to be pass
this same document, was distributed as follows: ed, for improving the political condition of the
Effectives, great mass of the people, cannot fail of producing a great change, with respect to obedience to In Great Britain,
13,062 the laws, and internal tranquillity. It is ex Ireland,
19,928 tremely easy to show, that a vast deal of the commotion there has been altogether owing to the At home,
32,990 erroneous conduct of Government; and that there is not the least doubt that if Ireland were In the colonies,
27,831 more wisely managed, she would become a quiet In India,
20,892 country. If no more than 17,000 men were kept up there, this force, with nearly 7000 armed po Abroad,
48,723 lice, 31,000 yeomanry, and the militia staff, would be able to do all that can be required to be done
81,713 in giving assistance to the civil power in carrying The difference between this number of men the laws into execution.
which composed the army in 1823 and the num. If the number of men to be kept up abroad ber which is now proposed, consists in the proand at home were fixed, as now proposed, the posed plan, allowing fewer men, by 440, for the several parts of the army should be distributed army at home, and fewer, by 1831, for the army as follows:
in the colonies, and by 3,412 for the East Indies.
Rank and File.
But as the number now proposed to be kept in This would be the most effectual way; and there India, is the number which is now there, and ought to be no hesitation about transferring which is considered sufficient, the only substan some of them to other countries, and placing tial difference between the proposed number of others under the East India Company. If this men and the number in 1823, is the smaller were done in a complete and perfect manner, and numbers to be kept, of 440 men at home, and of if also what has been suggested with respect to 1831 men in the colonies. This difference is so reducing the number of troops in our foreign possmall, as to be in reality no difference at all; sessions, and substituting a local police in the and therefore if the reduction of the army, West Indies for part of the soldiers now emwhich is now proposed, were carried into execu ployed, the number of rank and file to be voted tion, the effect of it would be nothing, more or annually for the army would on this plan be less, than bringing back the army to what it was 65,000, instead of 95,791,—the number of the in 1823; when we know, by experience, it was establishment of the army as it now exists.” quite large enough for all the services it could
Staff and General Officers of the Army.—There be called upon to perform in a state of peace. is no part of our expenditure where profusion is
Those military statesmen who, in Parliament more palpable, than in that part of it which beas well as out of it, are always endeavouring to longs to what is paid for the service of commandkeep up the army to the highest possible point, ing our army. There are 436 General Officers; never cease asserting that it was too much re of these, 135 are colonels of regiments, who reduced in 1822 and 1823; and they quote letters ceive annually, according to the Report of the from general officers, acting as governors of co Committee on Army Appointments, the followlonies, in support of their asseverations. But | ing annual rates of pay :nothing can be more silly than to give any credit Colonel of 1st Life Guards,
L.1,800 to this kind of testimony. Every military go Do.
1,800 vernor considers his importance as vastly in Do. other Regiments of Cavalry, 1,255 each creased by the number of men he can produce Do. a Regiment of Cavalry in in a review, and the number of red coats he can
1,516 show at a levee or ball; and these governors Do. Grenadier Guards,
3,040 never fail in finding specious excuses to send Do. Coldstream do.
2,135 home, for an addition to the garrison or colony Do. Fusileer do.
1,516 under their command. Our statesmen always Do. Regiments of Foot, 1,050 each take care, when they compare the present army These salaries make 135 perfect sinecures ; as with what it was in 1822 and 1823, to suppress it is well known that a colonel of a regiment the addition made to our marine force in 1823, never does any duty with it. by which 5000 men are always on shore, doing A great number of other general officers are the duty of the garrisons of Portsmouth, Ply employed on the Foreign Staff. 270 general offimouth, Chatham, and Woolwich ; and, in so do. cers, who are not colonels of regiiftents or other. ing, relieving the regular army to that extent; or, wise employed, receive amongst them L.114,000 in other words, adding 5000 men to it. They also a.year, in addition to their half-pay, under the suppress the fact of nearly 7000 armed and disci.
warrant of 1814. The sinecure garrisons are held plined constables having been embodied in Ireland, by general officers; and all the rest receive the under the command of half-pay officers, forming half-pay of the rank they held when they were a force in point of effectiveness, for the purpose made Generals. The total sum received by the of enforcing submission to the laws in Ireland, general officers, by one means or another, may superior to the same number of regular troops ; be calculated at £424,000 a-year.* so that between the two forces of Marines on shore, and the Irish constables, a virtual addition The office of the Commander-in-Chief at the has been made to the army of 12,000 men, since Horse Guards is one that most particularly stands 1822 ; a circumstance which proves, beyond all in need of reform. His salary is £9 a day. Bequestion, that if our army were now reduced to sides this the present Commander-in-Chief rewhat it was in 1822 and 1823, it would be amply ceives £1800 a-year as Colonel of a regiment of sufficient for every national purpose.
Life-Guards, £1221 as Governor of Plymouth, In now proposing no greater reduction than
and £2000 from a pension charged on the Conso20,000 men, it is not by any means intended to lidated Fund,-in all, £8,497 a-year. He has convey an opinion that no greater reduction
four aides-de-camp, and is allowed forage for sixshould hereafter be made. On the contrary, measures should be immediately taken for esta The following estimate will be found to be nearly blishing a sufficient militia and police force in the West India Islands and Canada, so that in
Generals having regiments,
£150,000 Generals on half pay,
60,000 a short time the regular troops in our colonies
20,000 may be reduced to 10,000 men; and if Ireland Annual vote of Parliament,
114,000 shall become tranquil, 5000 of the men in the
Pensions under Acts of Parliament,
20,000 army at home might also be reduced. Sir Henry
Governorships of Garrisons, Chelsea and Parnell says, in his work on Financial Reform:
30,000 _" Another mode of reducing the army is by
Governorships of Colonies, the getting rid of some of our foreign possessions.
£424,000 VOL. 1.-N0. III.
teen horses. In addition to all this he has a the consent of the Commander-in-Chief. AN Chief Secretary with a salary of £2000, who is a the world also knows how Mr. Wynn, Sir Henry General in the army and a Colonel of a regiment ; Parnell, and Sir John Hobhouse, were succes. and two Assistant Secretaries, with salaries of sively defeated in various attempts which they £1400 a-year.
made to reduce the expense of the Army; and at The charges for Clerks, Office-Keeper, Mes the present moment we see the Secretary-at-War sengers, &c., amount to £3,300 a-year; making unable to give effect to a strong recommendathe whole annual charge of the office of Com tion of a Committee of the House of Commons. mander-in-Chief £12,512.
The proper remedy for all this is to bring back Connected with the office of Commander-in the office of the Commander-in-Chief to what it Chief, there is the office of Adjutant-General.formerly was, and always ought to have been ; He has a salary of £1,383, with an allowance of namely, only to perform the duty of command£500 a-year, and forage for five horses. This ing the army, as an Admiral commands the officer is a General in the army, and a Colonel Channel Fleet; and to form a Board like the of a regiment, with forage for five horses. He Admiralty Board to transact all the other busihas under him a Deputy-Adjutant General, with ness of the army, including promotion, and to a salary of £840 a-year. This officer is also a discharge all the duties now performed by the General in the army and Colonel of a regiment. Ordnance and the Commissariat departments. There are besides two Aseistant-Adjutants Ge- There exists no reason whatever for keeping neral; also Clerks, Office-Keepers, Messengers, up the office of a Commander of the Forces in and other charges ; making in all £8,393 for this Ireland. The army in Ireland could be more office.
effectually managed and commanded by the Com. But there is farther connected with the office mander-in-Chief at the Horse Guards, and with of Commander-in-Chief the office of Quarter Generals of Districts acting under him. Master-General. He has a salary of £1,583,
The establishing of steam post-office packets, with an allowance of £500 a-year, and forage for and the expedition and certainty of communicafive horses. He is a General in the army, a tion in consequence of that and other post-office Colonel of a regiment, and Governor of Chelsea arrangements between London and Dublin, renHospital. The Quarter-Master..General has der the intermediate authority of an Irish Com. under him three Deputy-Quarter-Masters. The
mander of the forces in Ireland unnecessary. salaries of this office, with the charges for The whole of the financial concerns of the Clerks, Office-Keepers, Messengers, &c. amount army have been transferred from Dublin to the to £6,514 a-year; so that the total charge on the War Office; and the advantage which has been public for the office of Commander-in-Chief is derived from this arrangement, and similar ar. £27,419 a-year.
rangements in other public affairs, makes it ex. The Committee of last Session on Army Ap-tremely desirable that the same principle of con. pointments made a recommendation in their solidation should be acted upon with respect to Report, suggesting the propriety of reducing this the command of the army in Ireland. expense ; and this in a very decided manner, by Number of Officers in the Army. The number referring to the evidence of a late Secretary at of officers in the army on 1st July, 1831, was War, who had given an opinion that several 14,368 ; of these 5,842 were on full-pay, and thousand pounds might be saved. But when the 6,834 on balf.pay. This inimense number of present Secretary-at-W'ar brought forward the officers, being at the rate of one officer for every Army Estimates this year, he informed the seven private soldiers, which costs the public so House he had not been able to give effect to the large a sum in half-pay, &c. is the result of the recommendation of the Committee.
profuse and extravagant manner in which our This cireumstance makes it proper to remark, military affairs have been conducted since the that the vast expense of the office of the Comman peace. If proper measures had then been taken, der.in-Chief is not the only matter to be complain. this number of officers would, by this time, have ed of, respecting it. What is of still greater in been reduced within a proper limit; but, instead jury to the public interest, is the influence of this of this, no less than 1,700 were appointed to office in controlling the Secretary-at-War, and commissions, without purchase, between 1815 preventing a number of reductions which ought and 1831 ;* and the system of filling up all death to be made to bring down the expenditure on vacancies is still persevered in. A stop should the Army to a proper point. Formerly, the Se. be put to this practice altogether for three or cretary-at-War was an officer of as uncontrolled four years, and afterwards only one death vaauthority over the Army, as the first Lord of cancy in five should be given away. Steps the Admiralty is over the Navy. But the Duke should also be taken to prevent officers who of York put the Secretary-at-War, by a course have obtained their commissions without pur. of long overbearing influence, in a situation of chase, from selling them. It is only by promptly being little better than a head clerk. All the / taking these measures that the public can be world knows how he defeated Lord Palmerston relieved from the immense charge to which it in his attempt to maintain the proper powers of is now subject for hall-pay, pensions to officers' his office, by obtaining an order from the late widows, and similar payments, which have their King, prohibiting the Secretary-at. War from origin in our keeping up such an excessive numtaking any step of a financial character, without
See Parliamentary Returu.