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ber of officers more than our army requires, as has mission of Colonel, about £500 a-year, should been kept up since the peace. But these pay be considered as amply sufficient, and the emoments do not form the whole of the expense lument from clothing should be discontinued. imposed on the public, by having so many
This would make a saving of £70,000 a-year. officers; for there can be but little doubt, that the army has been increased, staff appointments In the estimates of 1833, the sum of £47,883 created, and various projects adopted, not be was voted for the charge of that establishment. cause there was any kind of necessity for any Of that sum about £23,000 is applicable to that of these arrangements, but merely to find em part of the establishment which manages the outployment for the officers.
pensions of soldiers; the remainder is expended Clothing the Army.— In 1833 the sum of on the salaries of governors and other officers on £255,000 was voted for clothing the army. This the establishment, the repairs and gardens of the business is placed in the hands of the Colonels hospital, and maintaining about 500 soldiers as of regiments. A Colonel of cavalry is allowed in-pensioners. £1,636 a-year, and a Colonel of infantry £2,186, As the warrants, under which the Governors each with the right to put as much of these and Commissioners of Chelsea Hospital act with allowances in his pocket as he can ; provided he respect to paying the soldiers' pensions are furnish clothing according to the prescribed re. prepared at the War Office, and as in the regular gulations. It is impossible that any plan of course of conducting the business of the army, executing a public service can be more objec the information which is necessary for a proper tionable than this is. It may be true that the superintendance of the granting of pensions is Colonels find good clothing, and do not abuse deposited in the War Office, it is obvious that the power which is given them of sacrificing the the Secretary-at-War is the proper officer for comforts of the soldier to their private interests ; carrying the provisions of the warrants into exebut, however correct the working of the plan cution, and for doing what is requisite for secur. may be, this circumstance can never justify con ing a proper application of the money voted for tinuing to act on so vicious a principle as that pensions by Parliament. The great extent, as upon which it is founded. The committee, lately discovered, to which abuses have been therefore, on Army Appointments of last ses carried with respect to soldiers' pensions, makes sion, came to a very incorrect decision, when it highly expedient that the whole of the busithey determined to recommend that this plan ness belonging to the out-pensioners should be should still be acted upon.
transferred to the War-Office, Another reason for discontinuing it is the cir If this measure were adopted, there would be cumstance that the Board of Ordnance has no reason for continuing any longer to keep up proved, by having to furnish the clothing of the establishment at Chelsea. The soldiers desome parts of the military force, that it can pro rive no advantage from being admitted as invide equally good clothing as that provided by pensioners. The rules of the hospital exclude the Colonels, at a smaller expense. The differ all those soldiers who are incapable of taking ence in favour of the Ordnance may be taken at care of themselves; and experience shows that 148. a man; and this, on the number of men in men of good character and industrious habits are the army, would make a saving of about £70,000 rarely candidates for admission. After being ada-year. The right course, therefore, to be pur mitted, many apply for and receive permission to sued, is to place the clothing of the army under leave the hospital. In point of fact it is notothe Ordnance Board. The evidence given by rious that it is a matter of some difficulty to get Colonels of regiments, and army clothiers, be pensioners to come into the hospitals. fore the Committee on Army Appointments, Tne military establishment of the hospital, with a view of showing that the Colonels are which manages the in-pensioners, consists of the able to provide as cheap clothing as the Board following persons: of Ordnance, will have no weight with any one
Pay. capable of forming a correct judgment on these
£500 matters; because it is morally impossible that
400 individual Colonels, dealing with army clo
300 thiers, each for a small number of men, could
100 make such advantageous bargains as the Board
500 of Ordnance could make by well-managed con.
(And from other sources £600 a-year.) tracts, if it had to clothe so large a number as
£500 100,000 men.
(And from other sources, £173, 78. od.) There is still another reason for getting rid of
£150 the present system of clothing, and that is, there
300 being no grounds to justify continuing to give
100 to any Colonel of a regiment, hereafter appointed, the emolun.ent which a Colonel now receives In addition to their salaries, every officer has from the clothing allowance. His office as Colo apartments in the hospital; also supplies of sta. nel is a perfect sinecure; and if it should be tionery, coals, wood, and candles, and an allowdecided not to abolish this class of sinecures,
ance in lieu of diet and furniture. In 1807, acthe pay a Colonel receives for holding the com cording to a return to the Committee of Finance
of 1828, £137, 138. 6d. was paid for the expense the nature of pensions, half-pay, and retired al. of the Governor's garden.
lowances, has been regulated. The offices of Physician and Surgeon are sine In order to protect the public, for the future,
from this system of making provision out of the The charge incurred for each pensioner for public purse for so many thousand persons who, pay, food, and clothes, is about £31 per annum. while in active service, receive full remuneration
If the system of in-pensioners were abolished, for their time and trouble, it may be well to and the establishment put down, there would be consider whether any individual not now in puba saving to the public of about £13,000 a-year. lic service, who shall be hereafter appointed to
NON-EFFECTIVE MILITARY EXPENDITURE. any civil or military employment, should be al. This expenditure in 1832 was as follows. On the lowed to receive any pension, half-pay, or suArmy,
£2,790,091 perannuation allowance, except in special cases, Navy,
1,613,328 and under the responsibility of Government. Ordnance,
At all events the present rates of all kinds of
non-effective pay should be reduced, and the reTotal, £4,754,896 gulations under which they are granted, revised, The charge for the army has been diminished, and made much more strict. No officer should in four years, from 1828, only L.350,000. The be allowed to receive half-pay till after five years charge for the navy has been incr sed, since 1828, active service in the field, or fifteen years' other by L.77,000; and that for the ordnance dimic service. The pay of all soldiers who hereafter nished, since 1828, only by L.189,000. The pre- enter the army should be reduced twopence a day, sent charge for the non-effective expenditure of and their pensions should be reduced one-half; the ordnance, is nearly what the whole charge and all other military pensions should be reduced for this service was before 1793.
at least one-fourth. This statement makes it evident that unless the plan is soon changed, according to which Since the foregoing pages were put in types, this charge on the public has been established, the army estimates for 1834 have been voted by and is now going on, that it will become a per the House of Commons. They show some im. manent charge, instead of being one which should provement. Seven thousand men are to be rehave been diminishing considerably every year duced. The office of Comptrollers of Army Acsince the war.
counts is to be abolished, and the in-pensioners If to the above non-effective expenditure be of Kilmainham are to be removed to Chelsea ; but added what is annually paid for civil pensions, all this is very little in comparison with what and superannuation allowance, the account of ought to be done. what is paid by the public for non-effective The House of Commons by their votes this ses. services of all kinds will be as follows:
sion, on the Navy and Army Estimates, has disNon-effective military expenditure, £4,754,896 played either excessive ignorance of these subPensioners, (taken as the same
jects, or most culpable neglect of its duty. If in 1828)
772,762 the constituent body suffers it to vote away the Superannuation, do. do.
485,990 public money in this manner, they have no right
to call on ministers to repeal taxes. The diviTotal
£6,013,688 sions on Mr. Hume's motions for reductions This great amount of the non-effective expen. in the Naval and Army Establishments, prove diture in the army, navy, and ordnance, shows that the present House is much inferior to any the profusion and the want of due consideration former House of Commons in promoting effectual for the public interests, with which everything in l economy.
SKETCHES OF LIFE AND MANNERS; FROM THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY
OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM EATER.
Continued from last Number. IRELAND was still smoking with the embers | Park, where the Lord Lieutenant was then reof rebellion; and Lord Cornwallis, who had siding, and were privately presented to him. I been sent expressly to extinguish it, and was had seen an engraving (celebrated, I believe, in said to have fulfilled his mission with
and its day) of Lord Cornwallis receiving the young success, was then the Lieutenant, and was re Mysore princes as hostages at Seringapatam; and garded at that moment with more interest than I knew the outline of his public services. This any other public man. Accordingly I was not gave me an additional interest in seeing him : sorry when, two mornings after our arrival, my but I was disappointed to find no traces in his friend's father said to us at breakfast, " Now, if manner of the energy and activity 1 presumed you wish to see what I call a great man, go him to possess ; he seemed, on the contrary, slow with me this morning, and I will take you or even heavy, but kind and benevolent in a to see Lord Cornwallis ; for that man, who has degree which won the confidence at once. Him given peace both to the East and to the West, I we saw often ; for Lord A-took us with him must consider in the light of a great man.” We wherever and whenever we wished ; and me in willingly accompanied the Earl to the Phænix particular, it often gratified highly to see persons
of historical names,—names, I mean, historically | tion. By the way, I remember that one morn. connected with the great events of Elizabeth's ing at breakfast, on occasion of some conversaor Cromwell's era, attending at the Phænix tion arising about Irish Bulls, I made an agreePark. But the persons whom I remember most ment with Lord A to note down in a medistinctly of all whom I was then in the habit of morandum-book every thing throughout my stay seeing, were Lord Clare, the Chancellor, the late in Ireland, which, to my feeling as an EnglishLord Londonderry, (then Castlereagh,) at that man, should seem to be, or to approach to a bull. time the Irish Chancellor of the Exchequer, And this day, at dinner, I reported from Lady and the Speaker of the House of Commons, (since, Castlereagh's conversation, what struck me as a I believe, created Lord Oriel.) With the bull. Lord A - laughed, and said, My Speaker, indeed, Lord A— had more intimate dear X. Y. Z., I am sorry that it should so hapconnexions than with any other public man; both pen : your bull is certainly a bull :* but as cerbeing devoted to the encouragement and personal tainly Lady C. is your countrywoman, and not superintendence of great agricultural improve an Irish woman at all. This was a bad beginning ments. Both were bent on patronizing and pro- certainly : but was Lord A — quite accu. moting, by examples diffused extensively on rate? Lady C. was a daughter of Lord Buck. their own estates, the introduction of English inghamshire; and her maiden name was Lady E. husbandry,-English improved breeds of cattle, Hobart. -and, when it was possible, English capital One other public scene there was about this and skill, into the rural economy of Ireland. time in Dublin, to the eye less captivating, but Amongst the splendid spectacles I witnessed, as far more so in a moral sense. This was the final the most splendid I may mention an Installation ratification of the Bill which united Ireland to of the Knights of St. Patrick. There were six Great Britain. I do not know that any one pubknights installed on this occasion: one of the six lic act, or celebration, or solemnity, in my time, was Lord A-, my friend's father. He had did, or could so much engage my profoundest no doubt received his ribbon as a reward for his sympathies. Wordsworth’s fine sonnet on the Parliamentary votes, and especially in the matter extinction of the Venetian Republic had not of the Union; yet, from all his conversation upon then been published, else the last two lines would that question, and the general conscientiousness have expressed my feelings. After admitting of bis private life, I am convinced that he acted that changes had taken place in Venice, which in all along upon patriotic motives, and his real views manner challenged and presumed this last (whether right or wrong) of the Irish interests. and mortal change, the poet closes thusOne chief reason, indeed, which detained us
“ Men are we, and must grieve when even the shade in Dublin, was the necessity of attending this Of that which once was great has pass'd away." particular Installation. Atone time he designed to But here the previous circumstances were far take his son and myself for the two esquires who at different from those of Venice, nay opposite. tend the new made knight, according to the ritual of
There we saw a superannuated and paralytic this ceremony; but that plan was subsequently laid State, sinking at any rate into the grave, and aside, on learning that the other five knights were
yielding, to the touch of military violence, that to be attended by adults: and thus, from being only which a short lapse of years must inevitably partakers as actors, my friend and I became simple have yielded to internal decay. Here, on the spectators of this splendid scene, which took
contrary, we saw a young eagle, rising into place in the cathedral of St. Patrick. So easily power, and robbed prematurely of her natural does mere external pomp slip out of the memo.
titles of honour, only because she did not comry, as to all its circumstantial items, leaving be prehend their value, and because at this great hind nothing beyond the general impression, that crisis she had no champion. Ireland, in a poliat this moment I remember no one incident of
tical sense, was surely then in her youth, conthe whole ceremonial, except that some foolish sidering the prodigious development she has since person laughed aloud as the knights went up experienced in population, and in resources of all with their offerings to the altar, apparently at kinds. Lord A-, who happened to be lame: a
The day, the important day, had been long singular instance of levity to exhibit within the looked forward to by me ; no doubt also by my walls of such a building, and at the most solemn
young friend ; for he was a keen lover of Irepart of the whole ceremony. Lord W. and I. sat with Lord and Lady Castlereagh. They were
The idea of a Bull is even yet undefined ; which is then both young, and both wore an impressive applied all her tact and illustrative power, to furnish the
most extraordinary, considering that Miss Edgeworth has appearance of youthful happiness; neither, for
matter for such a definition ; and Mr. Coleridge, all his tunately for their peace of mind, able to pierce philosophic subtlety, to furnish its form. But both havo that cloud of years, not much more than twenty,
been too fastidious in their admission of bulls. Thus, which divided them from the day destined in
for example, Miss Edgeworth rejects, as no true bull, the
common Joe Miller story, that, upon two Irishmen one hour to wreck the happiness of both. We reaching Barnet, and being told that it was still twelve had met both, on other occasions; and their con miles to London, one of them replied,—“ Ah! just six versation, through the course of that day's miles apace." This, says Miss E., is no bull, but a sen, pomps, was the most interesting circumstance
timental remark on the maxim, that friendship divides
our pains. Nothing of the kind : Miss Edgeworth can. to me, and the one I remember with most dis.
not have understood it. The bull is a true, perfect, and tinctness, of all that belonged to the Installa- almost ideal specimen of the genus.
land, and jealous of whatever appeared to touch siderations ; first, that the evils likely to arise her honour. But it was not for him to say any- (and which in France huve arisen) from what is thing which should seem to impeach his father's termed, in modern politics, the principle of cenpatriotism in voting for the Union, and promot. tralization, have been for us either evaded or ing it through his borough influence. Yet often neutralized. The provinces, to the very furthest times it seemed to me, when I introduced the nook of these "nook-shotten” islands, react subject, and sought to learn from Lord A upon London as powerfully as London acts upon the main grounds which had reconciled him and them ; so that no counterpoise is required with other men, anxious for the welfare of Ireland, to us, as in France, to any inordinate influence at a measure which at least robbed her of some the centre. Secondly, the very pride and jealsplendour, and, above all, robbed her of a name ousy, which could dictate the retention of an and place amongst the independent States of independent Parliament, would effectually preEurope,—that both father and son would not clude any modern “ Poyning's Act,” having, for have been displeased, had some great popular its object, to prevent the collision of the local violence put force upon the recorded will of Par with the central government. Each would be liament, and compelled the two Houses to per- supreme within its own sphere, and those spheres petuate themselves. Dolorous they must of could not but clash. The separate Irish Parliacourse have looked, in mere consistency; but I ment was originally no badge of honour or in. fancied that internally they would have laughed. dependence : it began in motives of convenience, Lord AS, I am certain, believed (as mul or perhaps necessity, at a period when the comtudes believed) that Ireland would be bettered munication was difficult, slow, and interrupted. by the commercial advantages conceded to her as A Parliament which arose on that fuoting, it an integral province of the empire, and would was possible to guard by a Poyning's Act, makhave benefits which, as an independent kingdom, ing, in effect, all laws null, which should happen she had not. I doubt not that this expectation to contradict the supreme or central will. But was realized. But let us ask, Could not a large no law, in a corresponding temper, could avail part of these benefits have been secured to Ire. to limit the jurisdiction of a Parliament which land, remaining as she was? were they, in any had been confessedly retained on a principle of sense, dependent on the sacrifice of her separate national honour. Upon every consideration, thereParliament ? For my part I believe that Mr. fore, of convenience, and for the public service Pitt's motive for insisting on a legislative union generally, and for the quick despatch of business, was, in a small proportion perhaps, the some the absorption of the local into the central Par. what elevated desire to connect his own name liament was now loudly called for; and that with the historical changes of the empire; to Irishman only could consistently oppose the have it stamped, not on events so fugitive as measure, who should take his stand upon prin. those of war and peace, liable to oblivion ; butciples transcending convenience; looking, in fact, on the permanent relations of its integral parts. singly to the honour and dignity of a country In a still larger proportion I believe his motive which it was annually less absurd to suppose to have been one of pure convenience, the wish capable of an independent existence. to exonerate himself from the intolerable vexa. Meantime in those days, Ireland had no ade. tion of a double Cabinet and a double Parliament. quate champion : the Hoods and the Grattans In a government such as ours, so care-laden at were not up to the mark. Refractory as they any rate, it is certainly most harassing to have were, they moved within the paling of order and the task of soliciting a measure by management decorum; they were not the Titans for a war and influence twice over,-and two refractory against the heavens. When the public feeling gangs to discipline, instead of one. It must also beckoned and loudly supported them, they could be conceded that, neither management nor trea follow a lead which they appeared to head ; but sury influence could always avail to prevent in they could not create such a body of public feel. jurious collisions between acts of the Irish and ing, nor lead and head where they seemed to fol. the British Parliaments. In Dublin, as in Lon low. Consequently that great opening for a turdon, the Government must lay its account with bulent son of thunder passed unimproved ; and being occasionally out-voted ; this would be likely the great day drew near without symptoms of to happen peculiarly upon Irish questions. And tempest. At last it arrived ; and I remember acts of favour or protection, would, at times, nothing which indicated as much ill-temper in pass, on behalf of Irish interests, not only clash. the public mind as I have seen on many hun. ing with more general ones of the central govern dreds of occasions, trivial by comparison, in ment, but indirectly also, [from the virtual con London. My young friend and I were detersolidation of the Irish territory with the larger mined to lose no part of the scene, and we went island since the æra of steam,] opening endless down with Lord A to the House. It was means for evading British acts, even within their about the middle of the day, and a great mob own acknowledged sphere of operation. On filled the whole space about the two houses. As these considerations, even an Irishman must Lord A---'s coach drew up to the steps of the grant that public convenience called for the entrance, we heard a prodigious hissing and absorption of all local or provincial supremacies hooting; and I was really agitated to think that into the central supremacy. And there were two Lord A-, whom I loved and respected, would brief arguments which gave weight to those con- I have to make his way through a tempest of pube
lic wrath; a situation more terrific to him than caused to be shed. Then were summoned to the to others, from his embarrassed walking. I found, bar-summoned for the last time-the gentlehowever, that I might have spared my anxiety ; men of the House of Commons; in the van of the subject of commotion was simply, that Ma- whom, and drawing all eyes upon himself, stood jor Sirr, or Major Swan, I forget which, so ce Lord Castlereagh. Then came the recitation of lebrated in those days for their energy, as lead many acts passed during the session, and the ers of the police, had detected a person in the sounding ratification, the jovial act of mistaking some other man's pocket hand " « Annuit, et nutu totum tremerecit Olympum," kerchief for his own. No storm of any kind contained in the Soit fait comme il est desiré, or awaited us, and yet at that moment there was the more peremptory Le Roi le veut. At which no other arrival to divide the public attention ; point, in the order of succession, came the Royal for in order that we might see every thing from assent to the Union Bill, I do not distinctly refirst to last, we were amongst the very earliest collect. But this I do recollect--that no audible parties. Neither did our party escape under any expression, no buzz even, testified the feelings mistake of the crowd ; silence had succeeded to which, doubtless, lay concealed and rankling in the uproar caused by the tender meeting between many bosoms. Setting apart all public or pathe thief and the Major; and a man who stood triotic considerations, even then I said to myin a conspicuous situation, proclaimed aloud to self, as I surveyed the whole assemblage of those below him, the name or title of members ermined Peers - How is it, and by what unac. as they entered. “ That,” said he, “ is the Earl countable magic, that William Pitt can have of A--,-the lame gentleman I mean.” Per- prevailed on all these hereditary legislators and haps, however, his knowledge did not extend so heads of patrician houses, to renounce so easily, far as to the politics of a nobleman who had with nothing worth the name of a struggle, and taken no violent or factious part in public affairs. with no indemnification, the very brightest jewel At least the dreaded insults did not follow, or in their coronets? This morning they all rose only in the very feeblest manifestations. We from their couches Peers of Parliament, indivi. entered ; and, by way of seeing everything, we dual pillars of the realm, indispensable parties went even to the robing room. The man who to every law that is passed. To-morrow they presented his robes to Lord A-, seemed to will be nobody-men of straw-terræ filii. What me, of all whom I saw on that day, the only one madness bas persuaded them to part with their who wore a face of grief; his voice and manner birthright, and to cashier themselves and their also marked a depression of spirits. But whe children for ever into mere titular Lords? As to ther this indicated the loss of a lucrative situa the Commoners at the bar, their case was differtion, or was really disinterested sorrow; and, if ent: they had no life estate at all events in such, whether for a private loss, or out of a pa their honours ; and they might have the same triotic trouble at the knowledge that he was now chance for entering the Imperial Parliament officiating for the last time, I cannot say. The amongst the hundred Irish members, as for reHouse of Lords, decorated (if I remember) entering a native Parliament. Neither, again, with hangings, representing the battle of the amongst the Peers was the case at all equal. Boyne, was nearly empty when we entered. Several of the higher had English titles, which Lord A-- took this opportunity of explaining would, at any rate, open the central Parliament to us the whole course and arrangement of pub to their ambition. That privilege, I believe, atlic business on ordinary occasions, and also of tached to Lord A—. And he, in any case, rehearsing the chief circumstances in the coming from his large property, was tolerably sure of ceremonial.
finding his way thither-[as in fact for the rest Gradually the house filled: beautiful women of his life he always did] tamongst the twentysate intermingled amongst the Peers ; and, in eight representative Peers. The wonder was in one party of these, surrounderl by a bevy of ad the case of petty and obscure Lords, who had no mirers, we saw our fair, but frail enchantress of weight personally, and none in right of their the packet. She, on her part, saw and recoy estates. Of these men, as they were notoriously nised us by an atfable noil; no stain upon her nut enriched by Mr. Pitt, as the distribution of cheek, indicating that she suspected to what ex. honours was not very large, and no honour could tent she was indebted to our discretion ; for we countervail the one they lost,—of these men I had not so much as mentioned to Lord A could not, and cannot fathom the policy. Thus the scene which chance had revealed to us. much I am sure of, -that, had such a measure Then came a stir within the house, and an up been proposed by a political speculator previ. róar resounding from without, which announced ously to Queen Anne's reign, he would have been the arrival of his Excellency. Entering the sevuted as a dreamer and a visionary, who cal. house, he also, like the other Peers, wheeled culated upon men being generally somewhat round to the throne, and made to the vacant worse than Esau, viz. giving up their birthrights, seat a profound homaye. Then commenced the and without the mess of pottage. However, on public, business, in which, if I recollect, the this memorable day, the Union was ratified ; the Chancellor played the most conspicuous part, Bill received the Royal assent, without a mur.
that Chancellor, of whom it was affirmed in mur or a whisper one way or other. Perhaps · those days by a political opponent, that he there might be a little pause, silence like that
might swim in the innocent blood which he had which follo's an earthquake; but there was no