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plain-spoken Lord Belhaven, as on the corres so much interested, or so much surprised ponding occasion in Edinburgh, to fill up the In a little work, not much known, of Suesilence with, “So, there's an end of an auld tonius, the most interesting record which sursang !” All was, or looked courtly, and free vives of the early Roman literature, [De illustrifrom vulgar emotion. One person only I re bus Grammaticis,] it comes out incidentally that marked whose features were suddenly illuminated many books, many idioms, and verbal peculiari. by a smile, a sarcastic smile, as I felt it. It was ties belonging to the primitive ages of Roman Lord Castlereagh ; who, at the moment when the culture, were to be found still lingering in the irrevocable words were pronounced, looked ear old Roman settlements, both Gaulish and Spannestly, and with a penetrating glance amongst a ish, long after they had become obsolete (and party of ladies. His own wife was one of the sometimes unintelligible) in Rome. From the party ; but I did not discover the particular ob tardiness and the difficulty of communication, ject on whom his smile had settled. After this the waqt of newspapers, &c., it followed natu. I had no leisure to be interested in anything rally enough that the distant provincial towns, which followed. “You are all,” thought I to though not without their literature and their myself, " a pack of vagabonds henceforward, and literary professors, were always one or two geneinterlopers, with no more right to be here than rations in the rear of the metropolis ; and thus myself.” Apparently they thought so them it happened that, about the time of Augustus, selves ; for soon after this solemn fiat of Jove there were some grammatici in Rome, answering had gone forth, their Lordships, having no far to our black-letter critics, who sought the mather title to their robes, (for which I could not terial of their researches in Boulogne [Gessoria. help wishing that a party of Jewish old clothes. cum,] in Arles, [Arelata,] or in Marseilles, men would at this moment have appeared, to bid [Massilia.] Now, the old Irish nobility—that a shum of moneysh,) made what haste they could part I mean which might be called the rural to lay them aside for ever. The House dis nobility-stood in the same relation to English persed much more rapidly than it had assembled. manners and customs. Here might be found old Major Sirr was found outside, just where we left rambling houses, in the style of antique English him, laying down the law (as before) about manorial chateaux, ill planned as regarded conpocket-handkerchiefs to old and young practi- venience and economy, with long rambling galtioners; and all parties adjourned to find what leries, and “ passages that lead to nothing,” consolation they might in the great evening windows innumerable that evidently had never event of dinner.
looked for that severe audit to which they were Thus we were set at liberty from Dublin. summoned by William Pitt; not unfrequently Parliaments and installations, and masqued balls, with a traditional haunted bed-chamber ; but diswith all other secondary splendours in celebra- playing, in the dwelling-rooms, a comfort and tion of original splendours, at length had ceased “coziness” not so effectually attained in modern to shine upon the Irish metropolis. The “ sea. times. Here were old libraries, old butlers, and son,” as it is called in great cities, was over ; old customs, that seemed all alike to belong to unfortunately, the last season of all that were the era of Cromwell, or even an earlier era than ever destined to illuminate the society, or to his; whilst the ancient names, to one who was stimulate the domestic trade of Dublin. It be- tolerably familiar with the great events of Irish gan to be thought scandalous to be found in history, often strengthened the illusion. Not town: nobody, in fact, remained, except some that I could pretend to be familiar with Irish two hundred thousand people who never did, history as Irish : but as a conspicuous chapter in nor ever would, wear ermine; and in all Ireland the difficult policy of Queen Elizabeth, of Charles there reinained nothing at all to attract, except I., and of Cromwell, nobody who had read the that which no King, and no two Houses can, by English history could be a stranger to the any conspiracy, abolish, viz. the beauty of her O'Niells, the O'Donnels, the Ormonds, [i. e. the most verdant scenery. I speak of that part which Butlers,] the Inchiquins, or the De Burghs. I soon chiefly it is that I know,—the scenery of the found in fact that the aristocracy of Ireland might west-Connaught especially; and in Connaught, be divided into two great sections—the native especially Mayo. There it was, and in the Irish-those who might be viewed as territorial county next adjoining, that Lord A-'s large fixtures; and those who spent so much of their estates were situated; the family mansion and time and revenues at Bath, Cheltenham, Wey. beautiful park being in Mayo. Thither, as mouth, London, &c., as to have become almost nothing else now remained to divert us from entirely English. It was the former whom we what, in fact, we had thirsted for throughout the chiefly visited; and I remarked that, in the heats of summer, and throughout the magnifi. midst of hospitality the most unbounded, and cences of the capital, at length we set off by the amplest comfort, some of these were in the slow and very circuitous movements. Making rear of the English commercial gentry, as to but short journeys on each day, and resting modern refinements of luxury. "There was, at always at the house of some private friend, I the same time, an apparent strength of character, thus obtained an opportunity of seeing the as if formed amidst turbulent scenes, and a raci. old Irish nobility and gentry more extensively, ness of manner, which interested me profoundly, and on a more intimate footing than I had and impressed themselves on my recollection. hoped for. No experience, in my whole life, In our road to Mayo, we were often upon
ground rendered memorable not only by histori- , single battalion of the troops which fought in cal events, but more recently by the disastrous 1812-13 amongst the Pyrenees, was here comscenes of the rebellion, by its horrors or its ca pletely successful. lamities. On reaching W'. House, we found The Bishop of this See, Dr. Stock, with his whole ourselves in situations and a neighbourhood household, and, indeed, his whole pastoral charge, which had become the very centre of the final became on this occasion prisoners to the French. military operations, which had succeeded to the The head-quarters were fixed for a time in the main rebellion, and which, to the people of Eng- Episcopal Palace : the French Commander-inland, and still more to the people of the Conti chief, General Humbert, and his staff, lived in nent, had offered a character of interest wanting the house, and maintained a daily intercourse to the inartificial movements of Father Roche with the Bishop ; who thus became well fitted to and Bagenal Harvey. About two months after record (which he soon afterwards did in an the great defeat and subsequent dispersion of the anonymous pamphlet) the leading circumstances rebel army, amounting, perhaps, to 25,000 men, of the French incursion, and the consequent inwith a considerable though small artillery, at surrection in Connaught, as well as the most Vinegar Hill; a French force of about 900 men striking features in the character and deportment had landed on the western coast, and again stir. of the Republican officers. Riding over the scene red up the Irish to insurrection. Had the de of these transactions daily for some months, in scent been in time to co-operate with the insur company with the Dean of F whose sacred gents of Wexford, Kildare, and Wicklow, it would character had not prevented him from taking that have organized the powerful materials of revolt, military part which seemed, in those difficult moin a way calculated to distress the Government, ments, a duty of elementary patriotism laid upon and to perplex it in a memorable degree. There all alike,-1 enjoyed many opportunities for corcannot be a doubt, considering the misconduct of recting or verifying the statements of the worthy the Royal army, in all its branches, at that period Bishop, and of collecting anecdotes of interest. of imperfect discipline, that Ireland would have The small body of French troops, which under. been lost for a time. Whether the French Govern took this remote service, had been detached in ment, considering the feebleness and insufficiency one-half from the army of the Rhine ; the other of the Directory, would have improved the oppor half had served under Napoleon in his first fo. tunity, is doubtful. It is also doubtful whether, reign campaign—the brilliant one of 1796, which under a government of greater energy, our naval accomplished the conquest of northern Italy. vigilance would not have intercepted or overtaken Those from Germany showed, by their looks and any expedition upon a sufficient scale. But it is their meagre condition, how much they had suf. certain that, had the same opening presented it- | fered ; and some of them, in describing their self to the energy of Napoleon, it would have hardships, told their Irish acquaintance, that, been followed up at whatever sacrifice of men, during the siege of Mentz, which had occurred shipping, or stores.
in the previous winter of 1797, they had slept in I was naturally led, by hearing on every side holes made four feet below the surface of the the conversation reverting to the dangers and snow. One officer declared solemnly that he had tragic incidents of the era, separated from us by not once undressed, further than by taking off his not quite two years, to make inquiries of every coat, for a period of twelve months. The private body who had personally participated in the com soldiers had all the essential qualities fitting them motions. Records there were on every side, and for a difficult and trying service : “intelligence, memorials even in our bed-rooms, of the visit of activity, temperance, patience to a surprising the French; for they had occupied W degree, together with the exactest discipline.' House in some strength. The largest town in This is the statement of their truly candid and our neighbourhood was Castlebar, distant about upright enemy. “Yet,” says the Bishop, with eleven Irish miles. To this it was that the all these martial qualities, “ if you except the French addressed their very earliest efforts. Add grenadiers, they had nothing to catch the eye. vancing rapidly, and with their usual style of Their stature, for the most part, was low,—their affected confidence, they had obtained at first complexion pale and yellow,—their clothes much a degree of success which was almost surprising the worse for wear ; to a superficial observer they to their own insolent vanity, and which was long would have appeared incapable of enduring any afterwards a subject of bitter mortification to hardship. These were the men, however, of our own army. Had there been at this point whom it was presently observed, that they could any energy at all corresponding to that of the be well content to live on bread or potatoes, to enemy, or commensurate to the intrinsic supe drink water, to make the stones of the street riority of our own troops as to real courage, their bed, and to sleep in their clothes, with no the French would have been compelled to lay covering but the canopy of heaven.” down their arms. The experience of those days, It may well be imagined in what terror the fa. however, showed how deficient is the finest com milies of Killala heard of a French invasion, position of an army, unless when its martial qua and the necessity of immediately receiving a relities have been developed by practice ; and how publican army. Sansculottes, as these men were, liable is all courage, when utterly inexperienced, all over Europe they had the reputation of purto sudden panics. This gasconading advance, suing a ferocious marauding policy; in fact they which would have foundered entirely against a were held little better than sanguinary brigands. YOL. 1.NO, III,
In candour, it must be admitted that their con sidelong glance of insidiousness and even of duct at Killala belied these reports ; though, on eruelty: it was the eye of a cat preparing to the other hand, an obvious interest obliged themspring upon her prey. His education and manto a more pacific demeanour in a land which they ners were indicative of a person sprung from the saluted as friendly, and designed to raise into ex lower orders of society, though he knew how to tensive insurrection. The French army, so much assume, when it was convenient, the deportnient dreaded, at length arrived. The General and of a gentleman. For learning, he had scarcely his staff entered the palace ; and the first act of enough to enable him to write his name. His one officer, on coming into the dining-room, was passions were furious ; and all his behaviour to advance to the sideboard, sweep all the plate seemed marked with the character of roughness into a basket, and deliver it to the Bishop's but and insolence. A narrower observation of him, ler, with a charge to carry it off to a place of se however, seemed to discover that much of this curity.
roughness was the result of art, being assumed The French officers, with the detachment left with the view of extorting by terror a ready under their orders by the Commander-in-chief, compliance with his commands. Of this truth stayed about one month at Killala. This period the Bishop himself was one of the first who had allowed opportunities enough for observing indi. occasion to be made sensible.” vidual differences of character, and the general The particular occasion here alluded to by the tone of their manners. These opportunities were Bishop, arose out of the first attempts to effect not thrown away upon the Bishop ; he noticed the disembarkation of the military stores and with a critical eye, and he recorded on the spot, equipments from the French shipping, as also to whatever fell within his own experience. Had
forward them when landed. The case was one he, however, happened to be a political or cour of extreme urgency; and proportionate allow. tier Bishop, his record would, perhaps, have been ance must be made for the French General. şuppressed ; and at any rate it would have been Every moment might bring the British cruisers coloured by prejudice. As it was, I believe it to in sight-two important expeditions had already have been the perfectly honest testimony of an been baffled in that way—and the absolute cerhonest man; and, considering the minute cir- tainity, known to all parties alike, that delay cumstantiality of its delineations, I do not believe under these circumstances, was tantamount to that, throughout the whole revolutionary war, ruin, that upon a difference of ten or fifteen any one document was made public which throws minutes, this way or that, might happen to $0 much light on the quality and composition of hinge the whole issue of the expedition ;—this the French Republican armies. On this consi. consciousness, I say, gave, unavoidably to every deration I shall extract a few passages from the demur at this critical moment, the colour Bishop's personal sketches; a thing which I of treachery. Neither boats, nor carts, nor should not have done but for two reasons,-lst,
horses, could be obtained; the owners most That the original pamphlet is now forgotten, imprudently and selfishly retiring from that though so well worthy of preservation ; 2dly, service. Such being the extremity, the French That my own information from the Hon. D General made the Bishop responsible for the B -, and from the Dean of F
who execution of his orders: the Bishop had really both rode with his Majesty's cavalry during that no means to enforce his commission, and failed. service, and personally witnessed many of the Upon this General Humbert threatened to send most important scenes in that local insurrection his Lordship, together with his whole family, of Connaught, as well as in the furious and more prisoners of war to France, and assumed the national insurrection which had terminated in air of a man violently provoked. Here came effect at Vinegar Hill, enabled me to check the the crisis for determining the Bishop's weight Bishop's statements. It was upon the very estates amongst his immediate flock, and his hold upon of these gentlemen, or of their nearest relatives, their affections. One great Bishop, not far off, that the French had planted their garrisons ; would, on such a trial, have been exultingly conand the Deanery of F was not above six signed to his fate: that I well know ; for Lard miles from Enniscorthy, close to which was the en W. and I, merely as his visiters, were attacked campment of Vinegar Hill. So that both enjoyed so fiercely with stones, that we were obliged to unexampled opportunities for observing the most forbear going out, unless in broad daylight. circumstantial features in each field of these two Luckily the Bishop of Killala had shown himself local wars,
a Christian pastor, and now he reaped the fruits The Commander-in-chief of the French arma of his goodness. The public selfishness gave ment is thus delineated by the Bishop:
way, when the danger of the Bishop was made “ Humbert, the leader of this singular body known. The boats, the carts, the horses, were of men, was himself as extraordinary a personage now liberally brought in from their lurking as any in his army. Of a good height and shape, places; the artillery and stores were landed ; in the full vigour of life, prompt to decide, quick and the drivers of the carts, &c., were paid in in execution, apparently master of his art, you drafts upon the Irish Directory, which (if it could not refuse him the praise of a good officer, were an aerial coin) served at least to mark an while his physiognomy forbade you to like him unwillingness in the enemy to adopt violent as a man. His eye, which was small and sleepy, modes of hostility, and ultimately became avail(the effect, perhaps, of much watching,) cast a able in the very character assigned to them by
the French General ; not, indeed, as drafts upon five days and nights together, when the rebels the Rebel, but as claims upon the equity of the were growing desperate for prey and mischief, English Government,
did not appear to sink his spirits in the smallest The officer left in command at Killala, when degree." This particular sort of strength has the presence of the Commander-in-chief was re. nothing in common with strength of muscle: I quired elsewhere, bore the name of Charost. shall have occasion to notice it again in some reHe was a lieutenant-colonel, aged forty-five marks, which I may venture to style important, years, the son of a Parisian watchmaker. Hav on the secret of happiness, so far as it depends ing been sent over at an early age, to the un upon physical means. The power of supporting happy island of St. Domingo, with a view to some long vigils is connected closely with diet. A few connexions there by which he hoped to profit, great truths on that subject, little known to men he had been fortunate enough to marry a young in general, are capable of making a revolution woman, who brought him a plantation for her in human welfare. For it is undeniable that a dowry, which was reputed to have yielded him a sane state of the animal nature is the negative revenue of £2000 sterling per annum. But this, condition of happiness : that is to say, such a of course, all went to wreck in one day, upon condition being present, happiness will not follow that mad decree of the French Convention, which as the inevitable result; but, in the absence of proclaimed liberty, without distinction, without such a condition, it is inevitable that there will restrictions, and without gradations, to the un. be no happiness. prepared and ferocious negroes. Even his wife Contrasting with the known and well-esta. and daughter would have perished simultaneously blished rapacity of the French army in all with his property, but for English protection, its ranks, (not excepting those who have the 'which delivered them from the black sabre, and decoration of the Legion of Honour,) the setransferred them to Jamaica. There, however, vere honesty of these particular officers, we though safe, they were, as respected Colonel must come to the conclusion that they had Charost, unavoidably captives ; and “his eyes been selected for their tried qualities of abstinence would fill,” says the Bishop, “ when he told the and self-control. Of this same Ponson, the lastfamily that he had not seen these dear relatives described, the Bishop declares that “ he was for six years past, nor even had tidings of them strictly honest, and could not bear the absence for the last three years." On his return to of this quality in others ; so that his patience France, finding that to have been a watchmaker's
was pretty well tried by his Irish allies.” At son was no longer a bar to the honours of the
the same time, he expressed his contempt for remilitary profession, he had entered the army, andligion, in a way which the Bishop saw reason for had risen by merit to the rank which he now ascribing to vanity—“ the miserable affectation held. “ He had a plain, good understanding. of appearing worse than he really was.” One He seemed careless or doubtful of revealed reli officer there was, named Truc, whose brutality gion ; but said that he believed in God; was in. recalled the impression, so disadvantageous to clined to think that there must be a future state ; French republicanism, which else had been parand was very sure, that, while he lived in this tially effaced by the manners and conduct of his world, it was his duty to do all the good to his comrades. To him the Bishop (and not the Bi. fellow.creatures that he could. Yet what he did shop only, but every one of my own informants, not exhibit in his own conduct he appeared to to whom Truc had been familiarly known) ascribes respect in others; for he took care that no noise a front of brass, an incessant fraudful smile, nor disturbance should be made in the castle
manners altogether vulgar, and in his dress and (i. e. the Bishop's palace) on Sundays, while the
person a neglect of cleanliness, even beyond the family, and many Protestants from the town, affected negligence of republicans.” were assembled in the library at their devotions. Truc, however, happily, was not leader; and the
“ Boudet, the next in command, was a captain principles or the policy of his superiors prevailed. of foot, twenty-eight years old. His father, he To them, not merely in their own conduct, but said, was still living, though sixty-seven years also in their way of applying that influence which old when he was born. His height was six feet they held over their very bigoted allies, the two inches. In person, complexion, and gravity, Protestants of Connaught were under deep oblihe was no inadequate representation of the Knight gations. Speaking merely as to property, the of La Mancha, whose example he followed in a honest Bishop renders the following justice to the recital of his own prowess and wonderful ex enemy :-—" And here it would be an act of great ploits, delivered in measured language, and an injustice to the excellent discipline constantly imposing seriousness of aspect.” The Bishop maintained by these invaders while they remainrepresents him as vain and irritable, but dis- ed in our town,—not to remark that, with every tinguished by good feeling and principle. Ano. temptation to plunder, which the time and the ther officer was Ponson, described as five feet number of valuable articles within their reach six inches high, lively, and animated in excess, presented to them in the Bishop's palace, from a volatile, noisy, and chattering, a l'outrance. sideboard of plate and glasses, a hall filled with “ He was hardy," says the Bishop, “and patient hats, whips, and great-coats, as well of the guests to admiration of labour and want of rest." And as of the family, not a single particular of private of this last quality the following wonderful illus. property was found to have been carried away, tration is given: A continued watching of when the owners, after the first fright, came to
look for their effects, which was not for a day or rebels held many hostages in their hands, they once two after the landing." Even in matters of de- recommenced the old system practised in Wexford licacy the same forbearance was exhibited : and Kildare, of hanging and shooting without tria!, “ Beside the entire use of other apartments, and without a thought of the horrible reprisalsthat during the stay of the French in Killala, the attic might be adopted. These reprisals, but for the story, containing a library, and three bed-cham- fortunate influence of the French commanders, bers, continued sacred to the Bishop and his fa and but for their great energy in applying that inmily. And so scrupulous was the delicacy of the Auence according to the exigencies of time and French, not to disturb the female part of the place, would have been made: it cost the whole house, that not one of them was ever seen to go weight of the French power; their influence wa higher than the middle floor, except on the even stretched almost to breaking, before they could ing of the success at Castlebar, when two officers accomplish the purpose of neutralizing the sensebegged leave to carry to the family the news of less cruelty of the Royalists, and of saving the the battle ; and seemed a little mortified that trembling Protestants. Dreadful were the anxie. the news was received with an air of dissatisfac ties of those moments: and I myself heard per. tion." These, however, were not the weightiest sons, at a distance of nearly two years, declare instances of that eminent service which the that their lives hung at that time by a thread; French had it in their power to render on this and that, but for the hasty approach of the Lord occasion. The Royal army behaved ill in every Lieutenant by forced marches, that thread would
Liable to continual panics in the field, have snapped. “ We heard with panic,” said panics which, but for the overwhelming force ac they, “ of the madness which characterized the cumulated, and the discretion of Lord Cornwallis, proceedings of our soi-disant friends : we looked would have been fatal to the good cause, the for any chance of safety only to our nominal ene. Royal forces erred, as unthinkingly, in the abuse mies, the staff of the French army." of any momentary triumph. Forgetting that the
(To be continued.)
THE DUCHESS D'ABRANTES AND THE COUNTESS OF
BLESSING TON. We cannot but regard the contemporaneous that of Josephine and Maria Louisa,—the appearance of the Duchess d’Abrantès and Lady Duchess must needs proclaim herself to the Blessington in the literary annals of England world a descendant from the Emperors of the and France, as affording a very singular coinci. East,-a Comnena of pure race; and a consider. dence. Both ladies have been elevated from an able portion of this lady's "Memoirs of Napoleon"
the aristocracy;—both have been eminently re- tension. Since the death of Junot, (who threw
markable for their personal charms ;—both, on himself out of a window* in the paroxysm of a becoming “fat, fair, and fifty,” renounced their brain-fever, after the disastrous issue of the title as beauties, only to take out a diploma of Russian campaign,) his widow has experienced bel-esprit ; and both have suddenly attained re strange vicissitudes of fortune ; and having nown or notoriety by appearing in the literary been at length persuaded to turn to account the firmament under shelter of an eagle's wing, the valuable resources afforded by her personal re. former as the historian of Napoleon, the latter miniscences of one of the most eventful epochs of Byron. Considerable analogy, moreover, may of universal history, she has wisely called to her be traced in the character of their minds and aid the recollections of a large circle of friends, manners; a retentiveness of memory scarcely both literary and political ; and in this manner less than miraculous; a faculty (like that of were the soi-disant “ Memoirs of the Duchess Esop's human painter of the vanquished lion) of d'Abrantès” collated. It is understood in Paris, giving to themselves the best of the argument, in that the nominal authoress has done little more all their recorded conversations with the first than furnish notes for the work ; the compilation men of the age ; great plausibility in the com of which is attributed to two or three eminent monplaces of moral philosophy; and a specious French littérateurs. But the very notes. must and amiable tone of candour, which might have have been copious and circumstantial; for cer. perhaps imposed upon unsuspecting critics like tain traits of vanity and egotism,-certain femiourselves, had not Sheridan's inimitable matron nalities, (as my Uncle Toby would have thought,) in the “School for Scandal,” held a mirror up peep through every page; feminalities such as the to nature, worthy to enlighten the most unwary. | joint efforts of Messrs. De la Croix, St. Berrve,
Madame d’Abrantès (we give due precedence Janin, and Balzac, would never have availed to to the Duchess) is the widow of one of the most produce. But amid all this waste of frivolity, distinguished of Bonaparte's Marshals, -at one and parade of personal consequence, the work is time Generalissimo of the Peninsular armies ; at highly amusing, and has been completely sucanother, Governor of Paris ; and, at all epochs cessful ; -and without a single qualification to of the Empire, a brave soldier and energetic
• It is remarkable, that a siinilar end is said to have man. But not content with these distinctions
befallen Mr. Fariner, the first husband of Lady Bleswith having occupied a rank secondary only to sington.