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was Margaret's voice, bidding me come in, and “My poor wife won strangely upon my feelings see how peaceful and how lovely was our de. in those early days of bereavement. ller tears parted friend in death. But I could not comply. for the departed were so tender and true, and I went forth, and wandered about the fields till her devotedness to the motherless babe so touchnightfall ; and then, on my return, crept up in- | ing, that I became at last fully conscious of her to the silent chamber of Liesby, where no one excellence. To yourself, I had thought her lingered now but the hireling watchers, with a cold and careless parent,--to little Liesby she their solitary deathlight. And there lay the was all goodness and consideration. But she cold, narrow, sorrow-wasted form, beneath the survived not longer than to train the poor innofolded sheet, with the long, fair tresses extended cent in the earliest paths of childhood. The over either arm. The moan of pain was hushed; spectacle of Madame Brenzel's untimely end had the tears of bitterness were wiped away ; no. shaken her health-our house was now cheerless; thing was left, but the smile on the marble lips nor had I the heart to devote to her those atten—the dew on the tranquil brow, and the holy tions which she so much needed. Within a few halo of immortalized humanity. I ventured not years of the great event, she died, leaving me even to imprint a parting kiss upon the face I doubly desolate ; and with her last breath, she loved. Our last had been a kiss of sin. I would commended to me our girl,' with no less love not blight the purity of her resurrection with and fervour than our boy, and entreated, as a the stain of remorse.
parting request, that her remains might be laid "Margaret it was who, with gentle persuasions, by those of Liesby. But in this, as no one but led me away from the dead; she was eager to myself had heard the petition, I ventured to place the infant of her friend in my arms, and frustrate her wishes. I felt that compliance claim for it a father's protection. Poor trusting would have been a new.injury—that I had no Margaret !-how little did she dream what agony right to mingle the tears I shed for the woman was indicted by every word she uttered! But I I had loved, with those due to the memory of did take the babe to my bosom; I did swear to the wife I respected.
A space of many tombs provide for it as my own; and Dietrich sat by, separates their places of sepulture; and when I weeping in all the helplessness of grief; while go hence, my beloved son, lay me not, oh ! lay you, Gottfried, you alone, my son, unconscious me not where they lie ! of the calamity which had befallen, kept bestow “And now, Gottfried, I was left alone with my ing unnumbered welcomes on your new com motherless children; and dearly did I love ye panion – Your own pretty little Liesby!' both, and fervently did I pray that in your
“I had still one awful duty to discharge. The virtues the errors of your father might be rebitter task was mine to support her husband's deemed. You were ever hand in hand, --heart faltering steps, when, on the following day, we in heart ; when, one day, half earnest, half ban. proceeded to lay her head in the grave; and tering, Dietrich, who remained by necessity my loved as she was by all, and respected as were constant companion, was pleased to designate those of whom she died the inmate, hundreds of Flzbeth by the name of your little wife. A the townspeople of St. Gall joined in the sad thousand perils were revealed to me in the word. procession. The white emblems that proclaimed Often, unable to bear the weight of my burthen her death in child-birth-so young, so fair, so of hypocrisy, when I saw him lavishing his cagentle—appeared to touch the hearts of the very resses on Liesby, and Liesby bestowing her's in rabble with compassion; and, lo! when the ser return, I longed to divulge the truth tu him and vice began, with my eyes fixed upon the coffin claim my own. But pride overcame the promptthat contained her remains, I heard the tenderings of my heart. I dreaded lest, in his indignachant of the young choristers proclaim that, tion, he should rush forth into the city and pro• When the ear heard her, then it blessed her,' claim me an arch impostor, and cry aloud, Such and the voice of the preacher declare that, and such is the man whom you honour with your Happy were they, who died, like her, in the
One only means, therefore, remained Lord;' and I knew that her spirit was standing to prevent the possibility of further evil. Liesby at the tribunal of God, stained with the plague was a tender girl,—I had pledged myself to my spot of sin; and that her body was going down victim to watch over her with more than a mo. to the dust, with the milk congealed in her bo ther's reverence; and to estrange her from the som, which had been destined to nourish the off- security of my roof-tree was impossible. It was spring of adultery; and as the author of this your fate, therefore, to be exiled from home in great wickedness, I trembled, rebuked by judg- retribution of your father's offences,--and such, ment to come.
Gottfried, was the motive of your alienation from “ Oh! Gottfried, Gottfried ! little dreamed I your sister's side. how soon, how heavily, that judgment would “ But the fatal sentence was recorded ! Both overtake me! Little dreamed I, when day after were to suffer; and all my efforts to keep you day I entered your chamber of childhood, and asunder have failed to frustrate the vengeance of you flew to lead me to the cradle, and uncover God! You came to Engafeld; yuo saw and to my kisses the brow of the babe, and point out loved her; and even then, but for the prompito me how fair she was, and how like to the ings of my pride, I should have pointed out the mamma Liesby, who was dead and gone, -- that, precipice you were approaching. But the dread in your person, the curse would be accomplished. I of disclosure—of betrayal ---of forfeiting the es
teem and applause of the world, overcame the the national liberties of the Canton. It was perbetter suggestions of nature. Forgive me, my haps to accident that nothing was added in tesson-forgive me! I have rendered you more timony to his virtues as a husband and a father. miserable, if less guilty, than myself. I have The unhappy Gottfried returned no more to broken my word to her—to those I loved! The St. Gall; and Liesby, ignorant to the last of the reflection maddens me! Adultery,—incest,-a horrible truth, attributed his estrangement torebroken vow,-a broken heart. Oh, mighty God! morse for having caused by his disobedience the for what am I not accountable !
dreadful catastrophe of his father's death. Havstrength to bear with this new trial ; or the ing accepted a commission in the French army, struggle of my despair must seek refuge in the he fell, the very first victim, in the attack upon darkness of the abyss of eternity.
Algiers. “ I rave, Gottfried ; but can you marvel at my The English traveller, therefore, who pauses distraction? That I could but see you once at St. Gall to admire the fabric of its delicate more before I die! That I could but hear yon | Argandy, and the creamy tissues of its Swiss pronounce my pardon! Yet, wherefore did you muslin, is duly informed by the foreman of the disobey my injunctions ? Said I not-sware I establishment that the factory is the valuabıe not—that there existed an all-powerful obstacle property of the Widow Morier; and should he to your marriage ? And you attributed all to subsequently become a wanderer on the shores of pride, to avarice, to an old man's wanton covet the Wallensee, there is every chance that he will ing! Oh, shame! shame! shame!
behold, seated on the granite steps of the landing“ Farewell, then, my children! my miserable place at Engafeld, the slender figure of one who children! The peace and pardon of God be seems to be looking out upon the lake, in expecwith you!”
tation of some distant boat. But it is Gottfried's Inferring from the incoherence of these last coming which the bewildered soul of Liesby sentences some new calamity, Gottfried, whom expects, and will long expect in vain. She has the fatal intelligence conveyed by the earlier refused to attire herself in mourning; she has pages of his father's letter had stricken to the refused to give ear to the tidings of his death. dust, strove to regain sufficient mastery over his | But, at five-and-twenty, her hair is wbite as feelings to enable him to reach Berne, and pacify snow with watchfulness and grief; and no man the agony of his guilty parent. But he arrived passes her by, without a suppressed exclamation too late. A livid corse had already been with of pity. The young marksmen of the Canton, in drawn from the waters of the Reuss, which the deference to her sorrows, have removed their officials of the city recognised as the body of place of rendezvous for the annual Tirage from the respected representative of St. Gall. His the adjacent meadow; it having been noticed that disastrous end was, of course, carefully attributed the discharge of the rifles, or the sound of distant to accident, lest the dignity of the senatorial music, excites her to frenzy. For Liesby is now estate should be infringed by the admission of alone in the world. Father, brother, friend are an act of suicide, and his remains were interred gone! and hard indeed must be the heart that in the Cathedral with military and civil honours. entertains not a sensation of sympathy for the In due time a handsome monument was erected terrible destinies of the sister-wife,-the blameto his memory, as a member of the Helvetic Se less victim,--the gentle widow of Engafeld. nate, a friend of the people, and a defender of
AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE CLERGY OF THE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN ENGLAND AND IRELAND.*
“ Ye cannot serve God and Mammon."-New Testament.
Let Bishop, Priest, and Deacon, have a clear view of the guilt laid to their door. We accuse them not of avarice, or extortion, or graediness, or insolence, or servility, or gluttony. With what forehead should we so assail them? Are we nationally so careless of lucre, such contem
This alternative is not addressed to the Clergy of the Scottish Establishment. There is no such discrepancy between what they preach and what they practise, as exists in the case of the English and Irish Establish. ments. Our Scottish Establishinent we believe to be the cheapest and most efficient in the world. With the flagJant exception of the Edinburgh Clergy, the very mo. derate incomes of the Clergy of Scotland are raised in the least objectionable of ways ; and are scarcely felt as a burden. The strong feeling of hostility to a State Church, which prevails in Scoiland, arises chiefly from a conviction of the injury of such an institution to the interests of true religion.
ners of pomp and luxury, such cynics in the mat. ters of the kitchen and cellar, so austerely temperate, so severely simple, so unpurchasably honest, that we are entitled to arraign the clergy', or any other set of men, for bowing down to the golden image, or hankering after the flesh. pots? We trow not. What, then, is our charge against reverend, and right reverend men? Why, no more than this, that the declaration of their lips is unsustained by the evidence of their livesthat deeds are unattuned to doctrine--that there is one god upon their lips, and another in their hearts. In a word, the sin of churchmen is inconsistency. It is this that has made their name a stench in the nostrils ; it is because of this that men wag their heads at mitres, and cry “ Fie !" in the streets on the shovel-hat. The Establish
ment has no party. The worldly are for the drew Agnew would have a sinecure ; Robert clergy no more than the unworldly. The latter Taylor would hang himself on the nearest lampmight tolerate them had they the straightfor-post; the crusades of the Attorney-General in wardness to preach Mammon—the former would the King's Bench would be heard of no more in respect them had they the decency to practise this holy land; the Church would resemble no Christ ; but preaching Christ and practising longer Atalanta, in the classic legend, losing the Mammon, they have the countenance of neither race while she stooped to the glittering alluresaint nor sinner : the saint turns them out, and ments flung into her path by the wily advertha sinner takes them not in. This is, perhaps, sary : as ugly a predicament as ever a church, or a “ Declinat cursum, aurumque volubile tollit." clergy, was placed in. There are obviously but
There would be an end of stooping for mitres, two ways of getting out of it ; and it is for re and of the picking up of fat livings. Heaven verend and right reverend men, not for us, to
would outstrip earth in the race for souls. say which is the more eligible.
But a truce to these Utopian visions, and dreams The two ways are obviously these :- The first of the ivory portal ! Bishops cease to love pelf! is, To keep the doctrine and reform the practice:
Deans imitate evangelists! Rectors change estate the second, To keep the practice and reform the
with curates! The Church pass “ a self-denying doctrine.-And, now, a word or two upon each
ordinance !” Suggestions of Mab! Speculations plan.
of Laputa! Amiable projects, but resolvable into Upon the former we enter with fear and much
air—“ into thin air !" Imagine Philpotts tenttrembling, not unapprehensive of a cell in St.
making; conceive Blomfield saying, with truth, Luke's ; for to what does the proposal amount,
as St. John said at the gate of the temple,but to a call upon the body Ecclesiastic--of all
Silver and gold have 1 none;" figure to yourbodies of men, the Ecclesiastic !-to assimilate
self the Fowlers and Beresfords sitting down to their lives to the gospel model, and regulate
incorruptible Marvel's blade-bone of mutton, and their doings by the canon of the New Testament;
wetting their episcopal lips with the drink of the renouncing the world, the flesh, and the devil;
Nazarenes. The Flying Island hath no flight like this!
“ midsummer madness!” discharging their cooks and cup-bearers ; tread. ing vanity under their feet ; turning the deaf How shall we escape a cell and keeper? adder's ear to the syren voice of the strumpet
Have mercy upon us, good churchmen ! our lucre, their old and obscene love? Amounts it
Lords the Bishops, have mercy upon us !-the not to this?--Rectors, forswear tithes; Deans,
other side of the alternative is made of the metal forsake your dinners ; venerable Archdeacons,
you love. It is a golden project. Your hearts think of the widow and the orphan; right re
will dance within you as we unfold it. Good verend Prelates, alight from your chariots, come
churchmen! pardon us for the mention of the down from the upper chamber, adorn your lives
blade-bone of mutton, and we shall try to please with holiness, and your brows no more with
you. mitres ; lay by pride, and assume humility ; di
What we now propose is, to reform the creed vorce wealth, and wed godly poverty ; remember,
and doctrine of the Church, so as to make them with the “Good Parson,”in Dryden's or Chaucer's
conformable with the structure of that edifice, fable, (alas! it is but in fable the “Good Parson” and with the lives and conversations of the clergy. is to be met with,) that
The first step, then, (since the Gospel neither is, “ The Saviour came not with a gaudy show,
nor is capable, by any ingenuity, of being twisted
parsons living sermons" on the truths they Are not his sons, but sons of Zebedee."
utter,) the first step, we say, must be, to declare A shuddering comes upon us, as we talk in this
Mammon the god of the Establishment ! Let John strain to churchmen. To be sure, were this ad.
Milton be amongst the blasphemers, when he device taken, many fair results might come of it.
scribes that Deity as The spectacle, for instance, of a clergy, not
-“ The least erected spirit that fell merely embellishing their hebdomadal discourses
From Heaven;" — with the praises of Christian morality, but actu let the New Testament be repealed by Act of ally decking out their daily lives with its practice | Parliament; let a new liturgy be composed ; let -who can say what reformation it might not work the golden image be set up; let the furnace be in this world? Who can tell what wondrous thrice-heated; and let the starveling curates, amendments might not be wrought in the ways like Shadrach, Meshac, and Abednego, be conof this money-worshipping, rank-adoring nation, signed to it, as so many affronts to the god of by the exhibition of an eminent piety, spurning fatness and the genius of the reformed faith. with the scorn, and rebuking with the power, of With the exception of the curates, who must be a Paul, a Peter, or a Stephen, the contumely of burned, not a stone of the fabric need be disriches, the arrogance of pedigree, the pride of turbed. The money-theory will render all square. rank, the futility of fashion? How might not The godship of Mammon will make all things religion enlarge her borders, were there to be a regular, symmetrical, and comely. Anomaly will revival of apostolic sanctity, and a relapse into disappear from the altar ; the end will make the manners of the fishermen? Why, Sir An- | music with the means; the shrine suit the dies
vinity; the opulence and the splendour, the he to turn critic of Churches, could find a flaw, pride and the luxury, the vast domains, and the No doubt the purity of the creed would be open full coffers, that to Christianity are disgraces to attack, and the morality of the whole systein and wounds, will be of the new dispensation the would be very questionable; but the grand point appropriate ornaments and needful supports. would be secured,—there would no more exist When pelf shall be piety, who shall find fault the slightest foundation for charging the Estawith a spiritual peerage, or the princely affluence blishment and its ministers with the foul crime of of the see of Durham? The Bench of Bishops which they are now so clearly guilty--a repugwill be, of the creed of lucre, true defenders ; nance between the words they preach and the and it shall no more be said of the Church with deeds they do, irreconcileable as the spirit with justice,—“ Take away its battlements, for they the flesh, or the hate of the Theban brothers, are not the Lord's.” Then extortion will be whose very ashes refused to mingle in the funezeal, and rapacity holy fervour ; accordingly, the
The Church would still have foes; a reproach of the rector will be taken away, and few schismatics would obstinately cling to the the very tithe-proctor will be a sacred personage. Cross, and resist all the seductions of the “god There will be no more talk of wolves in sheep's of the world ;" but then the hostility even of clothing, or
these would be mitigated by a feeling of respect. -“ Of those who for their belly's sake,
All men respect candour. It is only when vilCreep, and intrude, and climb into the fold;
lany goes vizored that the measure of our detesOf other care they little reckoning make, Than how to scramble at the shearer's feast,
tation is full. Satan affecting the angel is twice And drive away the worthy bidden guest.
Satan. Philpotts assuming the apostle is twice Blind moths !"
Philpotts. Let the renovation we propose get a The character of the “ good parson” will no more fair trial; let the Mammon of unrighteousness, be a poet's raving; for the best divine will be (now served only in thought and act,) be once the largest maw, and the closest shearer the openly, avowedly, simply, honestly worshipped most faithful shepherd. Non-residence will be in the reading desk, preached in the pulpit, and no scandal ; pluralities no shame; fox-hunting have his praises and hosannahs chanted by the no abomination; a reverend magistrate no in vocal clerk, and pealed from the organ-loft in decorum; a ghostly gormandizer or a spiritual swelling antbem, and—we do not say the change swindler nothing offensive or disgusting. The would be an elixir of life, and operate as a grant Church, in a word, by the simple substitution of of immortality—but we do say that the radical Mammon for Christ, instead of an enormity at would be deprived of one of the levers, which, which decency revolts, will be considered a model even while we write, he is introducing under of a moral edifice; in the propriety of whose arch the pillars of the temple, with a view to open to itecture, and the adaptation of all the parts to the ecclesiastical antiquary of a century hence a the effect of the whole, not Zoilus himself, were very interesting field of speculation and inquiry.
SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH'S HISTORY OF THE
REVOLUTION OF 1688.
As soon as Sir James Mackintosh had abjured, have recently seen how much more powerful a his early principles, he chose to be considered a check the prospect of a speedy day of account Whig of the Revolution; which, now that the old with constituents proves, than any other counterbreed of Tories is extinct, the Passive obedi. vailing force whatever. The history of this Revoence and Divine right men, differs in nothing lution forms the ostensible and prominent part of from a modern Tory, save the letters that com this large quarto volume. It is a fragment of that puse the word. Sir Robert Peel, and even the history of England, for so many years promised member for Oxford University, are exactly by Sir James Mackintosh ; and on the faith of Whigs of the Revolution : that first Reform which some ill-natured people now say he long Bill, which established a great Constitutional drew wind-bills on fame. The fragment, which principle, but bore few fruits in the reform occupies only about 350 pages of lordly print, ar of institutions; and of which the most remark less than a half of the volume, unluckily for able consequence, as concerned the people, “ the immortal memory," closes at a very tickwas, that the Whigs ousted the Tories. The lish juncture; as the editor and biographer of Glorious Revolution of 1688 has been shorn of Sir James Mackintosh does not sympathize in his its beams in these latter days. The Septennial unqualified and inordinate adıniration of the Act alone neutralized its best advantages ; as the Prince of Orange. principle of cashiering Kings" for misconduct, To the volume is prefixed a life of Sir recognised by the Revolution, is only to be acted James Mackintosh, and a notice of his writupon in extreme cases, and at long intervals, ings and speeches, which will probably be the while the power of the people over their repre- portion of this expensive work, most genesentatives, secured by short Parliaments, is the rally read. It is well written, in a candid and wnstantly circulating life's blood of liberty. We liberal spirit, and contains a fair and impartial
estimate of the man in public and in private / farm of Aldourie, a spot of enchanting beauty life. The notices of a private kind are, however, at that end of Loch Ness which is next the town so very meagre that we feel inclined to increase of Inverness. Sir James discovered that early pasthe amount, though we should travel somewhat sion for reading which is the uniform symptom of out of the record.
talent, wherever there is the least opportunity for The very first sentence assigns the memory its development. He was sent to the Grammar of Sir James the exact place it will occupy School of Fortrose, then the most reputable sewith posterity. “ Sir James Mackintosh will minary in that country, and made such profibe remembered as man of letters, and a ciency that his friends resolved to train him for menuber of the House of Commons.” He one of the learned professions, instead of the held that prominent station in public life, in army, the ordinary destination of the great heads which a man is sure to be either over-estimated of small Highland Houses. Ile accordingly went to or unduly depreciated, and both, probably, at dif. Aberdeen, where he was supported by a legacy ferent periods of his course ; and though this left him by an uncle; his father, with the free quarto is a favourable augury, we should not and careless habits of his profession, being unimagine that his reputation, which, to some ex able to do anything for his children. At King's tent, was that of society, of juxtaposition, and College, Mackintosh became the intimate friend of talk, is likely ever to be much higher than at of his fellow-student, the late illustrious Robert present. The fervent admirers of Sir James, if Hall of Leicester the Baptist minister. Though the rising generation numbers many, may consi- they rarely met in after life, they occasionally derthe estimate of his biographer frigid, if not un corresponded, and their friendship remained ungenerous, though it will be more difficult to point impaired. One of its worst consequences was, out inaccuracy either in the facts or reasoning; that Sir James, on his political defection, for a and the sceptics to the overweening merits as time, drew young Hall after him. The matter cribed to a Whig oracle of long standing, may offensive to the friends of freedom, in the celeconceive the praise tending to excess; leaving brated sermon on Modern Infidelity, was but an the author of the memoir in that juste milieu, eloquent and powerful amplification of the new which is generally as true a position, in a moral ideas imbibed by the author of the Vindiciæ Gal. sense, as it is equivocal in a political one. The licæ, suddenly and inexplicably converted, not former class cannot say that his summing up alone into the enthusiastic admirer of the genius and judgments are not candid and impartial ; of Burke, but also into an admirer of his opinions. but the latter may object that he throws in too Having fimished his classical education at Aber. many words for the prisoner.
deen, Mackintosh came to Edinburgh to study The most remarkable feature in the public medicine : and, in the Speculative Society, first character of Sir James Mackintosh, was, that, essayed the art of oratory. “ The study of methough he hung loosely on party, no one ever dicine is said to have occupied the lesser, whilst dreamed of calling him an independent member literature, philosophy, and dissipation occupied of Parliament. A very moderate Whig, as we the greater portion of his time;" and so much have seen, ever after he abandoned the unthriv. was he distinguished among the students, that it ing opinions of his youth, he seemed to stand became a fashion to copy the negligence of his upon neutral ground; but he stood fettered by dress. In 1787, he took his degree as Doctor of contingencies, expectations, and the difficulties Medicine ; and having spent the whole of his of his personal affairs. No man in England need uncle's legacy, “ the world was all before him.” set up pretensions to disinterested patriotism, if, After thinking of Bath as a place to commence like Mackintosh, a political adventurer without practice, he came to London, and began practice fortune, unless he make up his mind, with Andrew by writing a pamphlet on the Whig side of the Marvel, to live in a garret, and dine on a blade. | Regency question, which then divided the nation. bone of mutton. There is no disrespect intended in Dr. Mackintosh was now left to his own re. styling Sir James Mackintosh a political adventu. sources, and, at the age of twenty-four, an unrer, while the same term is applied to the most dis friended adventurer for fame and fortune,—but, tinguished of his contemporaries; the true ques in the first place, for bread. Having nothing tion being how he and they conducted themselves better to do, he fell in love, and married, -not as in the field of adventure open to every man, and the prudent would call wisely, but, as it turned not the equipments which graced their entrance. out, most liappily and fortunately, for his rash
Sir James Mackintosh was the son of Captain marriage proved his salvation. The brothers of Mackintosh of Killachie, an officer in the army, the lady, Miss Stuart, were displeased with and the representative of one of the families of the their sister clandestinely allying herself to a Clan Mackintosh. No Highland gentleman need young man who had neither fortune nor industry, want a goodly-spread family-tree. Sir James and of whose capacity they had yet no idea. was born to a long pedigree and a narrow patri. “ Young, careless, and dissipated," he had squanmony. His mother was named Macgillivray ; | dered all his own means; and his family shewed she was a native of Carolina, and died at Gib their resentment at his marriage in the manner raltar, whither she accompanied her husband ungenerous relatives too often do,—by withholdfrom Scotland, while her eldest son, James, was ing all assistance at the moment it became most still a child. He was born upon the 24th Octo necessary. His wife had some little fund, and ber, 1765, at liis grandmother's residence, the the young couple went to the Netherlands, and