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In moving for returns of the charities and schools sup Lordship is to remain for some time on the continent, but ported by charitable contributions, Lord Brougham re it is utterly destitute of foundation marked, that the number of schools in England, sup There were lately in Birmingham, for some days, upported by voluntary contributions, had increased so much, wards of seventy delegates of Trades' Unions, from Lonthat he doubted extremely whether Government ought to don, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Belfast, &c. interfere for the establishment of a compulsory system. The travelling, and other expenses of these men, are paid It was to be feared that those who were compelled to pay by the Unions. a rate, would drop their voluntary subscriptions, and
Meetings have been held in London, Birmingham, thus, on the whole, evil, not improvement, might be the Exeter, and other places, to petition the House of Comresult. Since 1818, the number of scholars in England mons to remit the sentence of seven years' transportation had increased in the proportion of sixteen to seven; and if passed on six members of a Labourers' Union, who were Sunday schools were included, the increase was in a still convicted at the Dorsetshire assizes of administering illegreater proportion. The charitable funds in England, gal oaths. The meeting at Birmingham first assembled notwithstanding all the abuse in their administration, in Beardsworth's Repository, but although it will conwere worth 80,000 per annum; and if the most were tain 20,000 persons it was found to be too small, and an made of the property, they would yield L.1200,000, to adjournment therefore took place to Newhall Hill. A L.1,500,000. A bill introduced by Lord Auckland, to petition was agreed to, in which the sentence was declared put a stop to the practice of sending smugglers to the to be unjust and of unprecedented severity. The petinavy, has been read a second time. The only effectual tioners, very properly reminded the House, that the late means of preventing smuggling, is to resort to the system King, when Prince ot Wales, was, as the Duke of Sussex of Free Trade. Earl Grey, in presenting petitions from is now, head of the Free Masons, and that the Duke of several places in Scotland against Church Patronage, re Cumberland is at the head of the Orange Lodges, both of marked that he did not support the prayer of the petitions. which are secret associations, bound together, like Trades' The Earl of Rosebery admitted there was a strong feel
Unions, by oaths and secret forms of initiation. They ing in Scotland on the subject, but was not prepared to maintained, that it was unfair to punish the members of abolish the present system. The General Assembly had
Trades' Unions, and to allow these associations to escape. the power to make a satisfactory arrangement, and to In the course of the proceedings, there was read, amid that body the public ought to look.
loud cheering, a letter from Colonel Thompson, author of PETITIONS.- From the sixth Report on the Com the Corn Law Catechism, declaring his opinion, that the mittee on petitions, which extends to the 7th of March, case of the Dorsetshire men was one of point-blank ty. it appears that the following petitions have been presented. rauny, which“ would justify any proceedings which For the repeal of the Union, 79 petitions, with 58,164 tyranny can ever justify, subordinate always to taking the signatures; for the removal of the Bishops from the road which leads to the greatest good with the least of House of Lords, one petition (from Linlithgow) with 316 evil.” It is unnecessary to add, that the proceedings signatures ; for the support of the Church Establish. were conducted throughout in the most orderly manner, ments, 46 petitions, 7235 signatures; for the removal of and that the immense multitude dispersed peaceably. The Dissenters' grievances, 192 petitions, 31,800 signatures ; Ministry, however, has paid no attention to the feeling (of these petitions, 56 refer to the alliance of Church and generally expressed in favour of these unfortunate men. State as an evil;) for the abolition of Irish tithes, 113 They were sent off with indecent haste to their destination. petitions, 84,849 signatures; for the commutation of A declaration by the resident members of the University English tithes, 14 petitions, 10,837 signatures ; for a of Cambridge, relative to the admission of Dissenters to better observance of the Lord's day, 32 petitions, 9357
academical degrees, directly adverse to the petitions presiguatures; for the repeal of the Corn Laws, 13 petitions, sented to Parliament by the sixty-three resident members, 104,180 signatures; against an alteration of the Corn is in course of signature. One hundred and one names Laws, 61 petitions, 15,063 signatures.
are already appended to it. This University is resolved ENGLAND.
to keep up the character justly earned by such instituThe opportunity afforded by the recess of Parliament,
tions for bigoiry and intolerance. has been embraced by several members of Farliament to
Sir Thomas Denman has been called to the House of meet their constituents. Mr. E. L. Bulwer dined at Lin
Peers, by the title of Baron Denman of Dovedale, in the coln, on the 31st March, with a numerous body of his
County of Derby. The ostensible reason for this step is, voters. Nearly all the leading Reformers of the town and
that Lord Brougham requires assistance in getting through neighbourhood were present. Mr. Bulwer's speech was
the Scotch Appeals. We never heard that Lord Denman very eloquent, and extremely well received; and those pas
had much knowledge of Scotch Law, and he has been sages of it which had an Anti-Ministerial tendency, were
little employed in Scotch Appeals. loudly applauded. One of the toasts, the best received,
BANK OF ENGLAND.—The account of the liabilities was “ Lord Durham, and an enlightened administra
and assets of the Bank of England on the average of the tion.” The friends of Mr. Blackburne, to the number quarter ending on the 1st of April, shows-Liabilities : of 350, met their representative at Huddersfield, on the
Circulation, L.19,097,000; deposits, 14,011,000; total, 4th April. Mr. Blackburne defended himself from the
L.33,108,000.-Assets : Securities, L.25,970,000; bul. charge of being “a pension-stuffed lawyer," and of seek
lion, L.9,431,000 : total, L.35,401,000. ing a place in Parliament as a stepping-stone for a judge
THE REVENUE.- In the quarter ended 5th April, the ship.
Customs show an increase, as compared with the corresThe opposition to Church rates continues. At the ponding quarter of last year, of 1.183,075; the Excise Lancaster Vestry meeting, held for the purpose of i mpos
of L.102,980; and the Stamps of L.87,412. The increase ing a Church rate for the current year, a resolution was
on the quarter is L.384,107; and on the year L.34,033. carried by acclamation, that the meeting should be ad A numerous meeting has been held at Leeds to petition journed till that day six months. In several other places
Parliament for the vote by ballot. Mr. Baines and sethe opposition to Church rates has been equally success
veral others declared, that it was owing to the practices ful.
of the Tories at the late election, that they had become Captain Rogg has been presented with the freedom of converts to that mode of voting. the city of London, in a box of British oak.
A riot, of a serious description, has taken place at OldLord Durham and Mr. Edward Elice have left Lon. ham, arising out of the apprehension of two members of don for the continent, and have arrived at Paris. This a Trades' Union, at one of their meetings, and their sub. trip has excited some' sensation both in London and sequent rescue. A mill was attacked, and every thing in Paris ; but its object, supposing it has any other object it destroyed, as well as in the dwelling-house of the than pleasure, has not transpired. Lord Durham is to vi
Twelve persons were seized, who will be immesit King Leopold at Brussels, with the view of consulting diately tried. The Unionists, who, in that part of the the King respecting the management of his affairs in Eng. | country, comprise nearly the whole mechanics in every land. The Tories, who abhor Lord Durham for his lj. trade, have had of late several large meetings conducted beral principles, have been spreading a report that his peaceably.
After two days polling, the Dissenters of Lough. upwards of 12,000 signatures,—that in favour of the borough elected their Church Warden, in opposition to union, though every effort was used to procure names, by the candidate supported by the Church party.
going from door to door, had only 4243. jority was 348 to 178. The dissenters offered to give up A numerous and respectible meeting was held in the their candidate, provided the cluim to Church rates from Waterloo Rooms on the 3d April, to petition for the Dissenters was relinquished. This proposal the Church emancipation of the Jews. The Lord Provost was in men, of course, refused.
the chair. The resolutions were moved by Mr. Ayton The Wesleyan Methodists have hitherto refrained from and seconded by Dr. Browne, and carried unanimously. petitioning Parliament for a removal of the grievances Agricultural associations, or, as they ought rather to under which the Dissenters labour. This has arisen from be called, combinations for keeping up the price of food, a notion entertained by many of that sect that they are
continue to be formed. At a ineeting of the Fife land. not Dissenters. How this notion can be entertained when holders at Cupar, on the 27th March, more than the usual laymen were permitted by John Wesley to preach, to say quantity of nonsense regarding the necessity of protecting nothing of other unequivocal characteristics of dissent, is agriculture- that is keeping up ients—was spoken. The incomprehensible; and so a large body of the sect itself
Earl of Leven was in the chair. The resolutions were thinks. A meeting was therefore held at Birmingham,
of the usual tenor. A counter resolution was moved on the 8th April, which was numerously and respectably amidst loud opposition by Major Anstruther. The noble attended. A set of resolutions were unanimously carried, Chairman, however, refused to put it at the commenceto the effect that it was imperative on the Wesleyan Me ment of the meeting, promising to put it after the resolu. thodists to express their opinions on the union of Church tions of his own party had been carried, but he forgot his and State, which they characterized as opposed to the promise. Sir John Oswald distinguished himself by the spirit of Christianity, inimical to the advancement of absurdity of his speech. After inveighing against Free divine truth, and subversive of civil and religious Trade theories, he said, “ A great country like this ought rights. The laws compelling the support of a Church always to produce, at least very nearly, sufficient food establishment, and those regarding inarriage, burial, and for its own subsistence; if it did not, he could only say, the non-admission of Dissenters to the Universities, were that it would be at the mercy of other countries, who denounced as oppressive.
could raise or depress vur markets at their pleasure, and Bribery at elections will never be put down, until that we would soon become a second-rate power among the those who give the bribes, and not those who receive them, nations." Sir John seems to forget, that with all the proas has hitherto been the case, are punished. We there. lection our agriculture enjoys, we are unable to raise suf. fore rejoice to record, that two of the partisans of Sir ficient food for our own subsistence, and we cannot thereCharles Greville, against whom actions were brought to fore avoid being dependent on foreigners, in some derecover penalties for alleged acts of bribery, previous to gree, for food. He might have learned from the case of the last election at Warwick, have been convicted in the articles which are supplied us by foreigners, that how. penalty of L.500 each, with costs,-the counsel, in each ever dependant on them we may be for such articles, we case, taking a verdict for the plaintiff for one penalty can always procure them at a fair price. Look, for in. only, and for the defendant on all the other counts. The stance, to the cotton manufacture, by far the inost im. defendants are also disqualified by the statute, upon which portant in the country, we are wholly dependant on to. the convictions are founded, to vote at any future elec reign countries for the raw material, yet we obtain it tion, or to hold any civil office. The defendants will without difficulty, and the fluctuations in price are much probably care little for the first part of the penalty, as
less than in our corn trade. Fur hemp, flax, tar, the money will no doubt be paid by their employers; but
tallow. We are almost wholly dependant on a single the latter part of it cannot fail to be felt disgraceful and country having no good feelings towards us-Russia humiliating.
yet we have always had an adequate supply of these A respectably and numerously attended meeting was
articles. If Sir John Oswald's doctrine be correct, we held at Worcester, on the 9th April, for the purpose of
must sink, unless we produce not only a sufficient supply petitioning Parliament on the present ruinous state of of grain for our subsistence, but also a sufficiency of ma. the agricultural interest. The Earl of Coventry took the terials for our clothing, ship building, and other useful chair. The speakers did not seem to be able to point out
arts. But why do we not grow a sufficient quantity of the causes of the distress. In the petition which was hemp and flax for our own use-simply because the counadopted, the only causes stated are—The non-existence try is too densely peopled, in proportion to the extent of an adequate provision for the poor of Ireland, the and fertility of our soil, and we must therefore have reconsequent influx of Irish produce, at ruinously low course to foreigners to supply us with what we cannot prices,—and numbers of Irish labourers being driven for produce ourselves It might as well be pretended, that subsistence to this country, and the alteration of the every county, and even city, should produce as much food currency in 1819; but on this latter point much dif as is necessary for its own subsistence, as that every great ference of opinion prevailed. As a matter of course, the country should. Holland, ever since she became a nation, petitioners stated that the removal of the protection of has not produced sufficient food for her population, yet no the Corn Laws would accelerate their destruction.
where has scarcity been less felt, or the price of grain
been more steady. SCOTLAND.
Although the history of nearly all combinations shews A NEW harbour has been projected at Trinity, about a that they are quite unfitted for the purpose they are in. mile to the westward of Leith. The proposed works will tended the permanent raising of the rate of wages the consist of a wet dock, containing forty-three acres, afford working classes almost all over the country still continue ing inner wharfage to the extent of 12,000 feet. This their associations. Two delegates from the London Nadock will be entered by a lock 200 feet in length, and tional Organization Society, met a numerous body of the fifty-five feet in width. The entrance will be protected Trades' Union delegates of Glasgow, on the 2d April, by a breakwater, parallel to the channel of the Frith, and it was resolved that as soon as the workmen of Scut1,100 feet long, founded in eleven feet water at low ebb land were fully organized, they would correspond and of spring-tide. The breakwater will, at the same time, co-operate with their English brethren. The sawyers ut with two check-piers built on arches, secure an outer Greenock, who stuck on the 1st July last, have at length harbour 900 feet long by 300 wide, where there will be seen the folly of their proceedings, and after exhansting a low.water landing-place, to accommodate steam veg. their means, have offered to return to their work uncona sels. The harbour will afford a depth of water even for ditioually, but untortunately for them, their places have ships of the line. The estimated expense is L. 250,000. been generally supplied.
So strong is the feeling in Glasgow against the union STIPENDS.-Fiom a Parliamentary paper just pubof Church and State, that the petition for their separa lished, we find that the ministers of a hundred and ninelytion received 49,411 signatures in a few days. Last year one parishes in Scotland, receive payments from the a similar petition was signed by 15,000 only in three Exchequer to make up their salaries to L.150. The weeks. In Edinburgh the petition for separation had sums vary from L.3 to L.128. Twelve other ministers,
who are without mänses or glebes, receive sums varying as a triumph, and, we believe, they are right, for we have from L.27 to L.50, to make up their stipends to L.200. always suspected that the Greek professor, with all his
The Town Council of Edinburgh have given much satis activity in the cause of reform, and all his professions of faction to the inhabitants, by the reductions they have liberalism, is nothing but a Tory at heart. His conduct made in the salaries of the municipal officers, which had in Parliament will require to be steadily watched. been raised to an extravagant amount during the days of The erection of the monument to Sir Walter Scott, in the close boroughmongering system, when the Councillors Glasgow, is immediately to be commenced. The monuand Magistrates elected each other in endless succession, ment is to be a fluted column, 144 feet high, and sur. and the offices in the gift of the city were the reward of mounted either by a vase or a figure of Sir Walter. The subserviency and political dishonesty. The following site is the centre of George Square. are the principal reductions. The office of Collector of Cess is to be abolished, subject to some retired pension
IRELAND. for Mr. Hill-saving L.633. The Chamberlain's salary The disturbances in King's County have been of so reduced from L.800 to 1.450 ; the first clerk's from serious a nature, that four baronies have been placed under L.210 to L.180, the second clerk's from 1.110 to 1..105, the Coercion Act. Mr. O'Connell, in a letter dated 8th the third from L.100 to L.85. An accountant to be ap April, expresses much dissatisfaction that the petitions for pointed at a salary not exceeding L.300, with a clerk at the Repeal of the Union have only been signed by about L.100 or less ; the previous expense of this office, includ 80,000 persons, instead of a million, as he expected. This, ing extra work being about L.1,051 - the saving will be he says, will ensure the defeat of the motion in the House L.651. The Superintendent of public works is reduced of Commons, by about 450 to 40. Among the obstacles from L.500 to L.350 ; the Dean of Guild Clerk from to success he considers the cholera the most important, L.250 to L.225; the Clerk of Leith Dock Commission hut he hopes that he will have two millions of signatures from L.250 to L.200. The office of shoremaster, jailor, next year. and flagmaster at Leith (one person) to be abolished Fifteen thousand Repealers met at Navan, in Meath, saving L.)50, subject to superannuation allowance; the on the 9th April, to petition for a Repeal of the Union. Bulker's office ditio--saving L. 225, ditto. The Collector Mr. Sharman Crawford, from Belfast, presided at the of Shore Dues, from L.618 to L.400 ; the Ringer of Music meeting. Bells, from L.40 to L.30. Total savings L.2,510, sub The health of the celebrated Dr. Doyle is fast declinject to some deductions. The salaries of the precentors, ing, and it is asserted that he has lately exhibited strong and some of the other officials, have also been reduced, symptoms of an approach to Protestantism. and instead of three assessors at L.200 each, there is only Mr. Robert Maxwell, who was condemned to death for to be one.
shooting at his cousin, has had his sentence commuted to By the death of the Marquis of Breadalbane, his son eighteen months' imprisonment. Much dissatisfaction the Earl of Ormelie, succeeds to the peerage, and a new has been expressed at this leniency, as it is generally supelection for Perthshire must take place. The candidates posed that had the convict been a peasant and not a genare Sir George Murray, who was defeated at the late tleman, the law would have been allowed to take its election by a majority or 1,667 to 1,093, and Mr. Robert Graham, of Redgorton, a relation of Lord Lynedoch. ABSTRACT OF THE POPULATION RETURNS FOR This vacancy has occurred very opportunely for the Mi. IRELAND IN 1833.-Erglish statute acres, 17,183,763; nistry. They have been unable hitherto to fill up the houses inhabited, 1,249,816 ; building, 15,308 ; uuinvacancy occasioned in the office of one of the Lords of habited, 40,654 ; total families, 1,385,066 ; families chiefly the Treasury, by the resignation of Mr. Kennedy ; those employed in agriculture, 884,339 ; chiefly employed in to whom it was offered finding that they would endanger trade, manufacture, and handicraft, 242,359 ; families their seats in Parliament by running the risk of a new not comprised in these two classes, 251,368 ; males, election. Mr. Graham has, therefore, been appointed to 3,749,880 ; females, 3,972,521 ; total number of persons, the vacant office, but whether the appointment will be 7,767,401. advantageous to him in his canvass, or the reverse, is LEGACY DUTY.-The legacy duty of Ireland in the doubtful. Perthshire contains many Dissenters who last year was L.25,424, and the probate duty L.37,457. eagerly supported the Earl of Ormelie; but whether that In England, legacy duty, L.1,093,343,-probate duty, body can be equally relied on now in supporting a Go. L.839,041. In Scotland, legacy duty, L.56,674,-provernment candidate, is doubtful. At all events, it is for bate duty, L.46,422. tunate that a member of the family of Breadalbane, was the first liberal candidate under the reform bill for the
THE CONTINENT. representation of this extensive and aristocratic county, THERE seems much reason for believing that Louis because the registration of votes could not have been pro Philippe wishes to detach himself from the alliance with perly organized, without much influence and the expen. England, and ingratiate himself with the Despots. Marditure of large sums of money.
shal Maison, whom, not long since, the Emperor Nicholas The Earl of Galloway, another Scotch nobleman, is would not receive, has now met with a cordial reception also dead. His decease creates a vacancy in the num at Petersburg. Pozzo di Borgo is constantly at the ber of the Knights of the Thistle. The vacant ribbon Tuileries; and even a marriage of one of the King's sons has been given to the Earl of Errol.
to a Russian Princess is talked of. Louis Philippe has Much interest was created among the nautical people showed, for a long period, that all his inclinations are in London, by the arrival of the splendid steam ship, towards despotism. It remains to be seen, how long the Dundee, which, along with a twin vessel, the Perth, are people of France will submit to his tyranny. The assoto trade between Dundee and London. The Dundee ciation suppression bill has passed the French Chamber measures 180 feet in length on deck, and 51 feet in of Deputies, by a majority of 246 to 154, and the Chamber breadth over the paddles; she makes up 107 berths for of Peers by 127 to 22. No amendment of any consepassengers; and her chief cabin, which is fitted up in a quence has been made on it, and no limit fixed to its dumost splendid style, and contains a library of books, ration. Several members of the “ Société des Droits de is capable of conveniently accommodating 100 passengers l'Homme,” who expect to become the victims of the new at dinner. Her engines are of 300 horse power.
law, have left the country. The Chamber of Deputies, by The Paisley election has terminated in the return of a vote of 176 to 168, has refused to grant the money, about Sir Daniel K. Sandford, Professor of Greek in the Uni one million sterling, which the Ministry had pledged versity of Glasgow. At the close of the poll, the num themselves to pay the United States, as an indemnity bers were,—Sandford, 642 ; Crawford, 509; Gordon, 29. for the injuries inflicted, during the last war, by the Captain Gordon retired some hours before the close of the French, upon American commerce. The Duke de Broglie first day's poll. How the worthy knight is to discharge exerted himself very earnestly to procure the ratification his duties in the University of Glasgow, and in the cha of this agreement by the Chamber, but to no purpose. pel of St. Stephen's, ar the sanje time, has 1107 been ex. The consequence of this refusal was the resignation of plained. The Tories consider the return of Sir Daniel the Duke de Broglie, and of the former foreign minister,
Sebastiani, who was a member of the cabinet, without ple means for repelling any invasion that may be atany specific duties. The Duke is succeeded at the foreign tempted. A serious riot occurred at Brussels on the 6th office by the Count de Rigny, the Minister of Marine and April, in consequence of an ostentatious display on the Colonies; Admiral Roussin, at present Ambassador at part of certain of the inhabitants, of attachment to the Constantinople, is to supply the place of De Rigny; Barthe, House of Orange. When the Prince of Orange fled from the Chancellor, is made President of the Chamber of Ac Brussels in 1830, he left four horses which were lately counts, (Barbe Marbois, the late President, having been ordered by the Belgian Government to be sold. They dismissed ;) Persil, the Advocate General, takes the Seals ; were purchased by some of his partisans and sent to the Thiers is appointed to the interior, in the room of Count Hague. A subscription was then raised to indemnify the Argout, who succeeds the Duke de Gaete as Governor of purchasers, and the names of the subscribers were pubthe Bank of France ; M. Duchatel is the new Minister of lished in an Orange journal. All this exasperated the Commerce ; and M. Martin, the Advocate General. There people beyond measure. Some inflammatory hand-bills has thus been a change of all the Ministers except Soult, were posted throughout the city, and shortly afterwards who continues President of the Council, and Minister of the houses of the principal subscribers were sacked. The War,--Humaun, the Finance Minister, and Gu zot, the garrison of Brussels was too weak to oppose the insurMinister of Public Instruction. It is plain, from the com gents by force. In the course of the day, additional position of the Ministry, that Louis Philippe means to troops arrived, and as the fury of the insurgents seemed adhere to the juste milieu system ; but a relaxation in the to be satiated, tranquillity was restored by night-fall. commercial restrictions of France may be anticipatell, as The damage done was considerable. the new Minister of Commerce is known for his liberal We have abundance of rumours from Spain, but little opinions, and for his advocacy of free trade. He was the intelligence of interest. A new loan for two millions French Minister appointed to discuss with Messrs. Villiers sterling has been decreed, but it is unlikely that conand Bowring the changes in the Tariff.
tractors will be found, until the Cortes' loans are recogThere is nothing which the European governments for nised. M. Sarmento, the Minister from Donna Maria, the last three centuries have been fonder of, than extend has been well received at Madrid. The war with the ing their dominions by planting colonies. Politico-eco Carlists in the north proceeds, with various success, and nomic writers have often pointed out the enormous ex excites little attention at Madrid. Like other civil wars, pense attending such attempts, and the little advantage it is distinguished by much ferocity on either side. A derived from the expenditure. The French have, how body of Carlists entered Vittoria on the 15th March, and ever, had practical experience in the matter, and that put to death 196 prisoners, in cold blood, to retaliate si. experience will, we have no doubt, have some effect, not milar atrocities committed by the Queen's troops. Her only with the government of that country, but in other Majesty has been forced, by the state of her finances, to quarters. In a report made on the budget of the War become a reformer of the Church. A decree has been Department, we find the abandonment of Algiers recom issued, suppressing all prebends, canonries, and ecclesias. mended by M. Passy, the chairman of the committee. tical benefices not connected with the cure of souls, He shows that it cannot be retained with a less army their revenues are to be exclusively applied, in terms of than 25,000 men, that it costs France thirty millions of the Papal bulls on the subject, to the extinction of the francs, or L.1,200,000 annually, and that its own re national debt. The new Spanish Minister, Count Florida venues do not amount to L.60,000, that the natives can Blanca, has arrived in London. A change has taken not be civilized, and that European colonists cannot be place in the Spanish Ministry, which, it is believed, will induced to settle among them. How many of our colonies strengthen the liberals. Burgos and Zarca del Valle would be abandoned, if the only matter considered in re have retired, and the Count de Toreno and General taining them was merely the good of the mother country? Llauder occupy their places. M. Remisa succeeds M.
Serious disturbances at Lyons commenced on the Imaz as Finance Minister. 9th April. In the course of a trial of some weavers for Lord Howard de Walden has gone to Lisbon as Amrioting, the judges were insulted, and threatened by the bassador to Donna Maria. Sensations were created, people in court. They ordered the Court to be cleared, which are said to have been“ very unpleasant,” in conbut the workmen refused to obey. The troops, on being sequence of his Lordship having gone to present himself sent for, refused to act, and the proceedings were ad in boots, contrary to the etiquette of the Portuguese jonrned. The people then erected barricades in the streets. court. Don Miguel is still at Santarem; and as his These were attacked by the military, of whom upwards troops are well clothed, and the Usurper has received a of 30,000 had been quartered in Lyons and the neigh-supply of money, it is supposed, from England, he may bourhood. The fighting continued for five days, and remain there long enough, for neither party has much General Aimard, the Governor, was so hard pressed that appetite for fighting. Admiral Napier sailed with the he was at one time nearly driven out of the city. The view of attacking Figueras, but was prevented by stormy city has been materially damaged by the firing of cannon, weather. An unsuccessful attempt has been made by the and the carnage on both sides is estimated at 5,000 men, British Ambassador and Admiral Parker tó induce Don the greater proportion being Government troops, who Miguel to leave Portugal. He was offered a safe conduct were much exposed to the fire from the houses and out of the country—a liberal income-an ainnesty to his the barricades. The insurgents are supposed to have been followers—and a guarantee of his right of succession to from 7,000 to 8,000 in number. The general body of the the Crown, in default of issue of Donna Maria ; but these inhabitants took no part in the quarrel on either side. terms he rejected. A Spanish force of 2000 men has
At St. Etienne also there was serious disturbances on entered Chaves in pursuit of some of the adherents of the 10th and 11th April, and at Marseilles, Grenoble, Don Carlos. Chalons, Dijons, and Auxerre, there have been demon By a communication made from the Cabinet of King strations which give uneasiness to the Governraent ; but William to the Dutch States General, the delay of the no particulars are mentioned. On the 13th and 14th settlement of the disputes between Holland and Belgium April, there was also a rising in Paris, but of a petty na is pretended to be caused by the refusal of the collateral ture, there not having been more than 800 insurgents. branches of the House of Nassau, who have a reversionary It was not however put down, without bloodshed, and interest in Luxembourg, to accede to the proposed ar. the troops seem to have committed many atrocities. The rangements. This is, of course, a mere excuse. The Republicans kept aloof from the attempt, being aware Prince of Orange has returned from his visit to St. that their time had not yet come.
The Government is Petersburgh. Notwithstanding the confession of Polari, evidently seriously alarmed at all these attempts. A
he is still strongly suspected of having abstracted his considerable addition is to be made to the army, and wife's jewels which disappeared in so mysterious a man36,000,000 francs are asked to defray the expense of it.
The Belgians have been put in alarm by some move The Congress of Despots have been sitting at Vienna, ments of the Dutch troops on their frontiers, and by a but none of their proceedings has transpired. reinforcement of 10,000 men. The Belgian Minister of The Sultan has replied to the questions of our GovernWar has, however, assured the Chamber that he has am ment relative to the treaty with Russia in a decided tone.
He is determined to keep his engagements with the Czar. the ground under more favourable auspices. From the The Russian fleet is lying at Sebasta pol with 25,000 men mildness of the winter, and the heavy rains, clay soils re* on board, and considerable bodies of troops are advancing quired much labour to pulverise them sufficiently. The in the direction of the Danube ; yet Lord Palmerston cold dry weather in April had the double advantage of believes in the pacific intentions of Russia!
checking the growth of the wheat, which the openness of
the winter had, in many instances, forced into premature THE UNITED STATES.
luxuriance, and of enabling the cleaning of the soil to Resolutions against the removal of the deposits from proceed under the most favourable circumstances. Wheat, the. United States' Bank have passed the Senate at Wash thongh in general not so green as during the months of in ton with only one dissentient vote. Since the removal Februarytand March, is however looking well, and there of the deposits, no fewer than ninety-six banks have failed, is no scarcity of plants. The turnip crop has turned out and upwards of a million and a half sterling of silver defective, and hardly any were to be seen by the first of has been shipped from this country to the States. The April. Notwithstanding this deficiency, grass parks, President continues firm, and he is almost unanimously probably owing to the high price of stock, have not let supported by the House of Representatives. On this ques. so high as during the two preceding years. The fail tion, therefore, the two Houses are in direct collision, and may be estimated at from ten to fifteen per cent. In the the result may be of the deepest consequence to the future Fiteshire report it is said that the stack yards are still welfare of the Union.
well stored; but in Berwickshire, Roxburghshire, East
Lothian, and Mid-Lothian, they appear to be emptier TRADE AND COMMERCE.
than usual at this time of the year. The season has been THERE is some reason to hope that by the resignation favourable for stock farmers, but in the grain growing of the narrow-minded and illiberal Thiers, as Minister of districts, much depression and gloom exist. Grain marCommerce in France, and the appointment of M. Duchatel kets continue dull ; no speculation exists in British in his place, that the commercial affairs of that country grain, the present Corn Laws inducing every speculator are placed in hands which can appreciate the benefits of to employ their capital in foreign grain. free trade. The new Minister, being a young man, and Notwithstanding, however, of the present low price of well versed in the modern doctrines of commercial science, grain, not only is there no land going out of cultivation is likely w forward the views which Dr. Bowring and in Scotlaud, as is stated to be the case in England, but Mr. Villiers have been so ably inculcating on the public the land brought under the plough is annually increasing. mind of France; and we look with much hope to the Farmers, certainly, do not at present expend so much early establishment of a commercial intercourse with that money in improving their lands as they did in more proscountry, on a much more liberal footing than has ever perous times ; but still, wherever their landlords will yet existed. The Prussian Government is still eagerly assist them, they show no disinclination to make permaemployed in her project of shutting out British manufac nent improvements. Tile drains are coming extensively tures from the whole of Germany, with the view of sup into use ; in some cases they are placed in every furrow plying their place by the products of Prussia, but has -an operation which is attended with much expense. hitherto only partially succeeded in her attempt.
In many instances, however, the landlord pays the exThe trade of the woollen and worsted districts has been pense of cutting the drains and the price of the tiles, the dull, and many workmen are out of employment. The tenant driving them and placing them in the drains. distress among the working classes at Leeds is represented Trenching, regarding which some experiments were made as being almost unprecedented. The cause appears to be last year in East Lothian, is not extending. It is an the high price of wool, although there has been a decline operation which requires much skill to determine in what in the prices, at the late sales in London, of foreign wools. cases it should be employed, for an unskilful person is as Indeed, the raw material of many of our principal manu likely to deteriorate as to improve the land by resorting to factures has, within the last year or two, been rising in it. We have known land materially and permanently price ; the rise, in all probability, being occasioned by injured by this operation, barren till or gravel being the great additional consumption of late years in this mixed with the soil. country. Thus, in 1820 we imported 2,641,836 lbs. The season has hitherto been favourable for lambing, of silk (raw, waste, and thrown;) in 1832, 4,224,897 lbs. ; though some loss among the ewes has been experienced in 1820, we imported 121,527,826 lbs. of cotton wool, in in England. As long as the weather continues dry, how1833, 296,000,000 ; in the former year we imported ever cold and piercing the wind may be, there is little ap9,775,605 lbs. of sheep's wool ; in 1832, 28,142,489 lbs. prehension of loss among the lambs, tender as they must The same extraordinary increase is to be observed in the be when newly dropt ;- when wet weather comes on, all importation of flax and tow ; in 1820, the importation the vigilance and care of the shepherd are required. was only 382,389 cwts; in 1831, it was 936,411 cwts. Ewes and lambs are in demand, and the supply seems We believe that no country, not even Great Britain ber rather short. At Gifford fair, held on 25th March, they self, at any period, ever exhibited so extraordinary an in. brought about 48. a-head higher than at the same fair crease of her manufactures. Nor is this increase confined
The price of fat stock has rather receded, the to Great Britain. Since the protective system has been supply appearing to exceed the demand. relaxed, the linen trade, in the north of Ireland, has re. Farms continue to let slowly, and at a considerable sumed its former vigour, and new mills are everywhere reduction of rent. Land is almost unsaleable. Though erecting.
the question of the Corn Laws may be held to be at rest The Cotton Trade is very brisk. The factories are for the session, both parties are preparing their forces for working full time. Cotton twist is in great demand, but the struggle, which will be renewed every session, until though hand-loom weavers are wanted in Lancashire, the present restrictive system is either abolished or wages continue very low.
greatly relaxed. It is in vain to expect that the twentyThe LEAD TRADE in the north of England has been tour millions of people of Great Britain and Ireland will for some years in a very depressed state ; and some of the continue to be starved, for any great length of time, to towns and villages in the mining districts have, in conse swell the rent-rolls of some two or three hundred thousand quence, been nearly half depopulated. The trade, how landholders. It appears, from authentic documents, that ever, has of late considerably revived ; and lead, which wheat is 98 per cent, higher in London than in Hamtwo years ago was sold at L.12 per ion, has lately risen burgh,-80 per cent, higher than in Amsterdam, though to upwards of L.18 per ton. At the ironmasters' quar: Holland is almost entirely dependent on foreign countries terly meeting at Birmingham, on the 10th April, the trade for giain,-and 45 per cent. higher than the average of was exceedingly heavy, and recent prices, both for pig all Fiance. How can it possibly be for the advantage and manufactured iron, were not maintained.
of the country to pay so exorbitant a price for food? and
how can our manufacturers continue to compete with AGRICULTURE.
those of foreign countries, under so serious and obvious THE weather has been very favourable for the opera a disadvantage ? tions of the farmer, and the seed has seldom been put in Printed by JouN JONNSTONE, 19, St. James's Square,