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good faith and earnestness, or swamp, amid an ineffective instrument, without an amended the bitter cheers of the disappointed, insulted, House of Peers ; and the one must produce the and exasperated nation, hailing the downfal of a other. The entire question resolves itself into predestined faction, whom no danger could warn, the old proposition of What is to be done with and no power could save.

the Peers? And on this topic, Earl Grey must Could Ministers even, for a few months longer, consult the people, and take counsel of that spi. contrive to baffle the demands of the people, for rit of the age to which he sometimes affects to the reform of notorious, proved, and acknowledged do reverence. No one longer asks, What will abuses, the measures to which they are themselves the Lords do ? Their Lordships have made that directly pledged in the present Sossion,-the Local point so plain, while the Whigs have been spoil. Courts' Bill, in any event, however it fare withing them, that many want the patience even to in. their other Cabinet measures,-must precipitate quire what they ought to do. How the handthe collision of which they show such dread. ful of hereditary legislators, the less than 500,With how much more vigour and confidence existing as such, by opinion and sufferance, can could this awful day-so very awful to the Whig be made to act in sympathy with the millions, aristocracy-have been met earlier,—than now is now a question for persons of remarkable mo. when their pitiful course of trimming, temporiz deration only. It is, however, one which involves ing, and expediency, has swollen the ignorant the very existence of its subjects, as an order in Ultra-Tory Peers into tenfold conceit, and ac the State. It is in fact of small importance to tually lessened the power of their moderate any part of British society, save themselves; and leaders, for managing and restraining them? An they must, as an Assembly, either be led gently to amended Cabinet, admitting it were substan apprehend what a few of their body are reluctially and extensively improved, must remain tantly discovering, or Bide their Time.

PRINCIPLE AND INTEREST.

There are two things which regulate men's do nothing so foolish. Principle, too, will adhere in movements in this life,—Principle and Interest. allegiance to his Sovereign, through good and The first is professed by the few, the last by the through bad report; never tarrying to inquire million, or, at least, in the ratio of two to one,-as whether his private affairs are likely to culminate or for corroboration,

depress by his attachment; or whether his King There were two who lov'd their neighbours' wives, be a tyrant or bigot, it makes no difference to And one who lov'd his own!!"

him ; feal and leal he will be to the end. Yes, Iu rank, Principle is a poor, clever, half-fed with his last breath, he will do homage to him, curate, with L.20 per annum; a house full of and cry, "Vive le Roi !" on the scaffold. In some smoke, wet clothes, and soap suds ; sixteen great of these points, Interest will not act dissimilarly, and small children, two pigs, a fat wife, and a Though he is not such a goose as to follow any seedy coat, whose colour the village tailor re one through bad report ; yet so far is he alike, members to have been black, or at least pepper.

that it is not of the least consequence to him and-salt, when he was a boy! On the other whether his Sovereign is a tyrant or not, so long hand, Interest is the fat, portly Vicar of Bray,

as he is anointed with the oil of place and palms. residing in a “ weel stocket farm” and mansion, But should the cruise dry up, and the throne filled, like himself, with good things; and who, begin to totter,-a la minute, he will cry, Vive instead of sixteen bantlings, has one sickly boy, la Republique !" to the first sans-culotte who “ My son, sir ;” a compound of all the sweets of has the audacity to unfurl the tri-coloured flag, the adjacent cake shop ;-while, as to the mat and clap the night-cap of liberty on his pole. ter of coats, he has more changes of them than Of yore, Principle, was Fabricius,-was Reguthe Roman, Lucullus, had of cloaks. • Consis- lus; while Interest, in every age and clime, was tency is my motto," says the curate, as he inks the always a Talleyrand. Among nations, Principle seams of his diseased garment hebdomadally, every is the Jew, whose faith centuries have not shaken; Sabbath morning. “ What, the rectory of

Interest, the Carthaginian, who had never any if I'll change my coat?” monologues the vicar:

to shake. “ This is all very rare for Principle;" “ Here it goes then;" and he turns his sleeves “but mutatis mutandis :« Who is it that steals inside outwards, after the esteemed method of lit. the hearts of all the beauteous women?"-Intle boys when they celebrate their races.—But terest! “ And has the fat legacies left him?"to proceed : Principle is always on the weak side ; Ditto, Interest. " What then does poor Princicatch Interest on any but the strong! Again, ple get?" Answer, vice versa:—the scorn of all Principle really has patriotism, though he obtains the ugly ones; and, by way of remembrance in no credit for it. But it is Interest who is loud the will, permission to lament, like the fellow in his professions of it, and who sometimes gets who, Horace tells us, had believed, till, in a luckless hour, the money-bag falls

“ Nil sibi legatum præter plorare." from beneath his cloak and discovers the cheat. Query,

Query,—“ Then has Principle no advantages ?" Principle will uphold his creed, let it be moral Yes: “ He may inflate the indignatory muscle of or political, in spite of ridicule, persecution, gal. his mouth, and, - ore rotundo,' proclaim Interest lows, guillotines, and auto-da-fes. Interest will to be a turn-coat, an ambidexter, a Jack of both

e Conferinciple, too, like many other stanch, old

sides, &c. &c. &c.”_ Pshaw! But does he ob ter" in Euripides, “ has been a virgin a long tain nothing for his disinterested conduct ?" time,” cruelly persists upon Principle (lege ne“ No ; nothing at all. Yet stay :-Yes; bro cessity) not to marry. But here let it not be supken windows, brick-bats, and pebble stones .'posed that we think principle incompatible with “ Hum! this is not a very agreeable prospect any one but a gowned Roman, or that it is for the incipient professor of Principle, it must be out of its sphere in the domestic circle,-far confessed.” “ There you are wrong: Is the ho- | from it. On the contrary, our heart will ever nour of the thing nothing? As, take an instance : beat in unison with his, who is true to his first -Suppose the Tories, at this present hour, love, though that first love's beauty, by time or extinct, (they will sans doute shortly be so,) accident, has faded,—and constant to his friend, and that only a few organic remains are left, though that friend has sunk beneath the “ sumwho are followed, as they stalk along the streets, mer's sun” of good report, and, perhaps, is no in their dreadnoughts and Leripoop shoes, like longer worthy of esteem. an Italian with a dancing poodle,--say, would it be nothing to be one of these same organic re out-and-outers, is often apt to be left-headed; mains, and to have the opportunity of exem and then, when he has seized the wrong opinion plifying, in your own person, the moral gran- by the ear, he is as tenacious of it as an eel in deur of knocking down your enemies with one a frying-pan; never supposing that the hair hand, while, a la Sir Charles Wetherell, you hold which suspended the sword over the head of the up your inexcusables with the other? Would voluptuary, was less narrow than the line which it be nothing, too, to possess the blissful privi- separates true principle from its three tributary lege of lowering contemptuously on all around streams,—prejudice, obstinacy, and bigotry. Notwhose political tenets are in antipodes to your withstanding, however, this perverseness, so in. own, while your breast heaves and swells with cident as an alloy even to the sublimer qualities conscious rectitude and moral dignity, never of our nature, we revere a steady principle, if deigning to vent a sigh, save when memory it is only exemplified in our servant's handing brings back to you a vision of the good old days wine to our guests, without saturating their haof Wellington and Peel, and the dear King, who biliments. And, in accordance with this our perpetrated the best bows and worst puns of veneration to the man of steady principles, we any man in his three realms ? But onwards

say, • Pursue your virtuous course, waver not ; Principle, if it has its white side, has also, like -but then, do not persecute those who differ Pythagoras's relations, (bears,) its black one. In from you. For is it requisite, because you love a word, it may become ridiculous ; as in the case, cream that you should blaspheme custard ? On when some small, “ wee” trades-body, with eyes the contrary, bear in your mind, that man's polike saucers, full of milk and water, assumes litical as well as his moral creed, isthe "atrocem animum Catonis," and outrageously

« Between him and his Maker !" refuses, upon principle, (lege interest,) to deal out his wares to one whose moral or political and that, if that man's opinions are bad, they creed is at variance to his own; or, when in do

will not become a whit better, though you burn, mestic life, an old maid, who, like “ our sis- roast, toast, or smoke him !

LETTER TO LORD BROUGHAM ON THE QUESTION OF

QUESTIONS.

MY LORD,—So Henry Brougham, the man of Who, but must laugh, if such a man there be ? the age, the man of a European reputation, the

Who would not weep, if Atticus were he ? man in the vanguard of modern civilization, the But beyond the mere pain and mortification of very genius of improvement, the man whose name, witnessing the fall of a great man, to conscientia if not "a tower of strength,” at least has been

ous voluntaries the thing is of small import,thought " a pillar of light,” even this man has nay rather, it is cause of gratulation. Moderate, consented to fight the battles of the dark ages, indeed, would the claims of Henry Brougham -even this man, from an amplitude of fame have been to the respect and admiration of his and honour, enough to gorge the ambition of countrymen, had he not, by his industry, energy, any twenty of earth's choicest spirits, has con

and inspiring example, taught other minds to sented to

start onwards in the race of intelligence, and, by Shrink his thin essence

discerning what was for their true good, at into an apologist for the imposition of articles, length to become the teachers of their teacher, and the compulsory pay of whatever religion the detectors of his fallacies, and the rebukers the learning, or the ignorance, the temper or the of his backsliding. When, therefore, so great a bile, the passion or the policy of Kings, Priests, master of reasoning as your Lordship is found and Peers, may have chosen three hundred years blundering, when a cause sustained by such ad. ago, to inflict upon the passive and implicit na- vocacy is found wanting, when arguments, imation ! Such has become the once proud and gined to be convincing, are stripped of their con. peerless Henry Brougham!

If so,

dent verbiage, and their intellectual nakedness | have withdrawn themselves from connexion with exposed to the land, can it be otherwise than a the Established Kirk ;* and that in England and cause of gratulation to the lovers of truth and Wales, on a moderate computation, a full moiety freedom, never more earnest in their love than of their fourteen millions of people, worship under at this hour,—that the strength of that truth is the influence of that “Voluntary principle” which more conspicuously seen in your failure, and the brings such“ dismay” to the mind of Lord basis of that freedom the more firmly rooted, by Brougham? Behold, then, the amount of the relithe very force which was prepared to over gious destitution which would result from the whelm it?

abolition of the so-called national hierarchies. Hitherto it has been not easy to inflict a At this present moment the Dissenters arewound, for our enemies kept beyond the reach of In Ireland,

7,000,000 a blow. Assertions we have had, and sic volos,

Scotland,

1,000,000 sic jubeos, with unwearied iteration and em.

England and Wales, 7,000,000+ phasis, from the Premier to the placeman, from the placemen to the intolerant, through every

Total,

15,000,000 grade of pensioned or unpensioned bigotry ; but Leaving out of the general population of 24,000,000 hitherto a dexterous, and, to voluntaries, a most a balance of only 9,000,000 in England, Ireland, perplexing avoidance of all discussion.

But at

and Scotland, depending for religious instruction length, « The Lord hath delivered them into our on the hierarchies respectively there established. hand ;" at length a change has come over their What, then, becomes of the estimate unblushingly counsels; their camp is broken up, their tents imagined to sustain a hopeless and indefensible have been struck; and as they show a disposition JOB? and where the grounds for the “ alarm and to come to close quarters, may our right hand dismay,” with which the fictitious result was so forget her cunning, before we forget our duty ! piously and painfully predicted ? Fifteen mil

Some have been known to exclaim, “ Oh that lions of people are at this moment dependent for mine enemy would write a book !" we are con their spiritual sustenance upon the unextorted tented to exclaim, “Oh that our enemy would contributions and religious sensibilities of the produce an argument !"-And upon the arguments respective societies into which they are divided. of most recent authority, if not of most recent Will the nine millions which have been hitherto invention, I propose to expend a word or two fed from the patrimony of the State, be the only of comment, addressed to your Lordship ; con denomination among whom the piety of its memvinced as I am, that the more industriously all

bers will be inadequate to its exigencies, supsuch arguments are sifted, the more sure will be posing that patrimony to be withdrawn? the triumph of that cause which has heaven for what an evidence is here of the soul-destroying its ally, happiness for its aim, and equity, tendency of Establishments ! righteousness, and truth for its demonstrable But whether or not the fact would be as my matter.

noble opponent presumes, at least it is clear to It is, then, credibly reported, that, on the even his philosophical mind that it ought to be so: ing of May 12th, surrounded by the hereditary just as clear as it was to the mind of Napoleon, wisdom of the land, the following proposition that by the rules of strategical art, the British found egress from the lips of the intellectual pa

* The number is very considerably greater, but let this ragon of his times :—That “ a dissolution of all

pass. hierarchies in England, Scotland, and Ireland + The number of Dissenting congregations in England would leave seventeen or eighteen, or perhaps and Wales are 8,000; and taking 300 as the average twenty millions of his fellow-subjects without

number of each, the result would be 2,400,000 of actually being provided with the means of religious in- attending worshippers. But allowing that only one-third

of the gross numbers of each denomination attend at pub. struction.” Now it vehemently occurs to me, lic worship, we would then have for the Dissenting po. that if the extinction of these hierarchies would pulation of England and Wales, a total of 7,200,000. And be the cause of from eighteen to twenty millions there, for the present, I leave the matter. of the people being thrown out of the means of

It has been a boast of the preposterous Tories, (Slan

dard, 1st January, 1834,) that, on the Fast-day in 1832, religious instruction, it must follow, per contra,

more than half a million of persons in the metropolis that their existence is the means of whatever re alone, partook of the holy communion, in the several ligious instruction those millions are now enjoy- churches and chapels of the Establishment. It so happens, ing: that is to say, it is gravely contended that

however, that in that same year, the Bishop of London

had deposed before a Committee of the House of Comfrom eighteen to twenty millions of the popula

mons, that the whole of the churches in his diocese would tion of the United Kingdom, are at this moment not accommodate so much as one-tenth of the population. deriving religious instruction under the endowed It, then, we estimate the aforesaid half million of Comhierarchies of England, Ireland, and Scotland. municants as one-twelfth of the population, (for we must I confess I hardly know how to apply myself suppose some few to have retired) we should

have, for the to the correction of so enormous an assumption !

whole Church population of London, 6,000,000 of people!

But supposing the attendants at worship to have gone only It is almost too extravagant for a serious refuta one-half at a time, the result would be 3,000,000 of pertion. Will it, however, be too much to affirm, in sons in communion with the Church of England alone, opposition to this estimate, that of these twenty

in the City of Londong-leaving Dissenters out of the millions, seven at least are independent, in Ire

question! Such is Toryism, when it has the luck to

be handled by arithmetic. Ever*swelling up the numbers, land, of all State religious instruction ; that of

or fibbing down the profits, of the most odious monopoly the population of Scotland, at least one million on earth.

ought to have been beaten on the plains of Wa- which your Lordship, with unaccountable inad. terloo. What then are the rules which have vertency, would seem to have wholly left out of guided your Lordship’s judgment on the point in calculation. The disposition of the mass of question? Why, they are these : That “there mankind, to attach themselves to religion, in were some things, such as hunger, thirst, &c., some form or other, has, I would hope, been which the animal constitution of their nature sufficiently established ; and the right to select would prompt men to provide for,—but it was for themselves, to which of these forms they shall otherwise with the wants of the more refined adhere, I do not believe Lord Brougham as yet parts of our constitution ; for the more ignorant prepared to withhold from the members of the the people were, and the less they knew the use Christian pale. To what end, then, I ask, the of learning, the less they would bestir themselves civil endowment of a worship for a people so cir. to obtain the means of religious instruction." cumstanced? Will it be said, in order to enable And yet, your Lordship, conspicuous as you once those to participate in its benefits, who are un. were for zeal in the cause, has consented, up able to afford the pecuniary means for its supto the last session of Parliament, when the first port? But how is this effect produced by the feeble step was reluctantly taken, to resign to system in favour with the high and low Churchthis same indolence and ignorance, the task of men of the day? True, you offer them a reli. providing by its voluntary efforts, for its educa- gion which you very liberally endow at their ex. tional wants: intermeddling, and dictating pense, but you give them no prcvious choice in where human intrusion is least to be endured, the matter. You give them a religion cut and and forbearing to organize, forbearing to aid, dry. You string together a set of theological urge, insist, where the secular and palpable dogmas, comprising, if I remember aright the interests of the nation are so plainly and pro-analysis of Paley, some two or three hundred very minently implicated ! “ Go, my son,” exclaimed debateable propositions. You point to “ the another Chancellor, " and see with how little wis- Princes, the Governors, and the Captains, dom this world is governed !"

the Judges, the Treasurers, the Counsellors, But passing this by, I am prepared to contend, the Sheriffs, and all the rulers of Provinces," that if there be any one fact in the history of who are, every soul of them, ready to gwear our race, more firmly established than another, it to them all You array before their wondering is this—That in all ages, and nations, the mass eyes, a regiment of Archbishops, Bishops, Priests, of mankind have been eminently prone to some

Deacons, Deans, Arch-Deacons, Convocations, or other modification of religion. So much so, Chancellors, Treasurers, Precentors, Prebendathat this fact has not unfrequently been resorted ries, Canons, petty-Canons, Rectors, Vicars, Cuto-injudiciously, I admit-as an argument in rates, Chaplains, Choristers, Organists, Parish favour of the existence of the Deity, who it was! Clerks, Vergers, Sextons, &c., &c., &c.; and, supposed had thus universally conveyed some having adjusted a creed for them, according to intimationlof himself, by imprinting it on the the length and breadth of your own belief, or, original constitution of man. Be this as it may, perhaps, a little beyond, you straightway com. assuredly it was nothing peculiar to Athenian mand them to fall down and worship. Now, one habits, which rendered that people, in the lan of two things must hereupon follow. Either guage of St. Paul,

they implicitly comply, and, with all the good “ Very much disposed to a reverence for su nature of dancing-dogs, and the precision of perhuman powers”-for so the epithet, duos puppets, gesticulate according to the word of daruon otipors, has been more correctly under command, ----prostrating, kneeling, and rising,

,stood, among others, by the present distinguished professing and believing, as they are enjoined, Metropolitan of Dublin : nor do we see any rea -or else, with the martyr spirit of the captive son to doubt that intelligent and most useful Jews of old, they retort,-“Be it known unto writer, when he says that “ man, except when thee, O Chancellor, that we will not have thy unusually depraved, retains enough of the image creed, nor worship before the golden stalls which of his Maker, to have a natural reverence for thou hast set up ! religion, and a desire that God should be wor But should the former be the case, we have yet shipped.”*

It is a remark of Adam Smith, in the to learn wherein religion is advanced—wherein course of an argument which might have ren the souls of men are one atom advanced, except dered even your Lordship less confident in your to be debased — wherein they cease to be idolaviews on this subject, that “ Almost all religious tors, worshipping “ the work of men's hands,"sects have begun among the common people, or in what way a thing altogether so gross, mefrom whom they have generally drawn their ear chanical, and earth-born, can presume to claim liest, as well as their most numerous proselytes." affinity with a system, whose distinguishing and Assuming then such to be the fact, I desire to exalting characteristic it is, that every man liv. know what more can be wanting to assuage the ing “ shall be fully persuaded in his own mind;" “ dismay" which so unaffectedly oppresses the and whose undying declaration we have, that heart of your Lordship? Yes! there is one " Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is u. thing more, which is essentially wanting, and BERTY.” If, however, the latter alternative

should result--if it should happen that men, dis. Errors of Romanism, traced to their origin in Hur tinguishing their duty to Cæsar and to God, man Nature. By Archbishop Whately. Ch. 2. S. 2.

should forbear to accept of the proffered religi

ous instruction, and should tell their civil rulers, chartered creed, is about as efficaciously emthat, while in reference to all outward obedience, ployed as if he were to undertake to send a they are willing to be subject, “ not only for river up a hill, or to stop an avalanche in its wrath, but for conscience' sake;" they reserve, fall. under God, for their own exclusive regulation Either, therefore, your Lordship's “religious and control, the things pertaining to the Spirit, instruction" must confine itself within the pale as holy ground, on which it is profane for any of the Establishment, and therefore fail to meet earthly power to tread. What, the friends of the the wants, because it will be incommensurate voluntary principle desire to know, is to become with the religious denominations of the people ; of your Lordship’s “ Provision for Religious In or else it must conform itself to the exigencies of struction,” designed, as it is, by the form of the case, and find its way to the people, under the existing Establishment, for the spiritual wants the auspices of an Establishment no longer con. of one single sect only ?

fined to the temporal luxury, or spiritual behoof, It may, indeed, perfectly accord with the com of a single favoured sect. plexion of some men's minds, to draw satisfac Whenever so great and salutary a modification tion, and to augur security to themselves, from of the principle advanced by the Parliamentary the spectacle of a people in the bonds of mental advocates of a religious establishment, as it now no less than of bodily subjection; and it may exists, shall have been embraced, we will admit even suggest itself as partaking of arrogance no that much, indeed, has been achieved for the less than of mischief, that, when so many of their peace, happiness, and good order of society. betters exhibit an alacrity first to decide and But we do not disguise from our opponents, then to judge, first to subscribe and then to ex that even such a concession would not satisfy amine; when so many of the grave and the great, the principle for which we contend ; and that the rich and the learned, are ready to “ believe the necessity and the right of the intervention everything, subscribe to everything, and vote of the State, even to the extent which the modi. for everything,"* the ignorant and subject many fication supposes, would still remain to be proved. should presume to have a will or an opinion of For the present, I would content myself with their own. Now, we grant that all this would observing that, taking into consideration the be well, and these reflections in perfect consis- alacrity with which the expense of voluntary tency, were it only a little more frankly revealed, religious instruction is at this moment susthat the “ religious instruction" of our bewil- tained,-recollecting that from the hamlets of dered and semi-liberal rulers—if any meaning it Devon to the plains of Leicester—from the have-meant only, after all, a something in aidvalleys of Wales to the teeming sectarianism of the civil police, a sort of succedaneum to the of the north, and its still more prodigal exHome Office, an expedient solely to keep the hibition in the metropolis,--there is evidence People in order. But until this be declared, and not to be lightly laid aside, of the over-shadowuntil we shall be called distinctly to discuss so ing influence of the multitudinous rivals of the interesting a theory, we consent to understand Parliamentary sect, I do not think it too much your Lordship in the popular meaning of your to affirm, that they who have hitherto incurphrase. And in the strong conviction of the red, in the exercise of their liberty of protruth, stronger from every assault it encounters, phesying, the expense of maintaining two sets of we tell you, and your parti-coloured allies, Whig, ministers, could hardly be expected to shrink Whigling, and Tory--the politician, the world. from the minor burden of contributing to the ling, and the bigot,—the sticklers for systems, comfortable subsistence of one. Look where we the hunters for preferment, the sycophants will, and inquire where we may, at home or for place, and the dreamers over creeds,- abroad, whether we regard their colleges, their that mind has a living, salient principle within chapels, their schools, or their missions - -everyit, which scorns to be bound down to any num where the fruits of the Voluntary principle, tre ber or description of theological tenets ever inexhaustible energy of sincere, however rrisyet devised by Prince or Parliament; that a taken belief, in its numerous and ofte, con irathinking people, and a religious establishment dictory forms, arrest the attention, an ( ins' ruet so constructed, are incapable of existence to us in the practical lesson of leaving this selfgether; that in speculative truth, the conclu- working process to its own support. sions of one age will not be those of the next; For the present, I have done with your Lord, that a people, all external unanimity to day, so ship. The friends of the Voluntary principle soon as the privilege of communicating and pub- feel that you have gained no triumph ; and with lishing thought shall have been conceded, will all your aberrations and occultations, we feel too split (for a time at least) into interminable di- respectful a recollection of the luminous career versities, and unanimity be no more ; and that, you have hitherto run, to desire any triumph such being the incurable tendency of mind, dur, over you, any further than you may be found, ing the period of its probationary process, and accidentally we would hope, and for no long time, installed in its native freedom, the ruler who opposed to a change a inevitable as the sun of proposes to arrest it by the intervention of a

to-morrow ; and indispensable, we devoutly be

lieve, to the happiness, repose, and advancement • We quote from a memorable speech of the excellent

of the human race. and honoured Bishop Shipley on the repeal of the Test Act.

A VOLUNTARY.

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