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How glad the heart of Eve would be,
In Eden's glorious bowers, To see the first, first Humming-bird,
Among the first spring flowers.
The star-wort is a fairy flower,
The violet is a thing to prize, The wild-pink on the craggy ledge, The waving sword-like water-sedge, And e'en the Robin-run-i’-the-bedge,
Are precious in mine eyes.
Yes, yes, I love them all, bright things!
But then, such glorious flowers as these Are dearer still,—I'll tell you why, There's joy in many a thousand eye, When first goes forth the welcome cry,
Of “ Lo! the Crocuses !”
Thou little shining creature,
God gaved thee from the Flood,
And the Tiger of the wood ! The “Squirrel,” the “King-Fisher,” the « Dormouse,” the “ Titmouse Nest,” are each exquisite ; the latter,—but,
Look at it near, all knit together,
Saw ought before so soft and clever!
-An English flower
The little toiling children leave
Their care, and here by thousands throng ;
To say that they do wrong.
They bring their infant brethren here;
This first joy of the year.
Pours out like to the earth's o'erflowing ;
I love to see them growing ! Beautiful spirit of humanity ! may thousands on thousands, old and young, listen to your gentle teachings!
It is but fair to say that the publisher and artist have executed their respective departments as if desirous of doing due honour to these sweet inspirations of maternal love.
The engraver almost deserved to have had his name on the title page, in company with that of Mary Howitt.
May we, in conclusion, entreat that those in. considerate, or prejudiced persons, who identify all that is vulgar, virulent, and atrocious, with the epithet Radical, will reflect that Dr. Bowring, the author of these juvenile lessons, breathing benevolence, purity, and the unfallacious virtues, bears that dishonoured name; and that Mrs. Howitt is the wedded partner of one of the boldest of our reformers, the avowed and open enemy of priestcraft in all its subtle forms, but especially as it is entrenched behind the corruptions of the Church of England Establishment.
But in our meadows it is growing.
And now it is the early spring, And see from out the kindly earth How many thousands issue forth, As if it gloried to give birth,
To such a lovely thing.
I love the odorons hawthorn flower,
I love the wilding's bloom to see, I love the light anemonies That tremble to the faintest breeze, And hyacinth-like orchises
Are very dear to me!
ON MARINE INSURANCE.
It is a singular feature in civil polity that those measures which, in the infancy of human institutions, are necessary to the success of va. rious undertakings, are found, after a certain stage, not only to be unnecessary, but in some cases to be absolutely pernicious. It becomes a question whether, in curing one evil, they have not created a greater. In this class we have no hesitation in ranking marine insurance.
In order to a right understanding of the subject, it will be necessary to explain what marine insurance is. We cannot do this better than in
the words of the preamble to the statute, 43 Eliz, c. 12, which recites that, By means of policies of insurance it cometh to pass, upon the loss or perishing of any ship, there followeth not the undoing of any man; but the loss lighteth rather easily upon many, than heavily upon few ; and rather upon them that adventure not, than those that do adventure: whereby all merchants, especially of the younger sort, are allured to venture mere willingly and more frecly."
It is pretty clear, from the alove description, that whoever may suffer by the loss or perishing
of a vessel, with the merchandise on board, the what was anticipated and intended. Strong and shipowner and merchant are not of that number. safe ships not being in request, were not built. The shipowner may, and indeed generally does, Every shipbuilder knows full well before he keep his ship insured to the full value, and the proceeds to build a merchant vessel, that if he merchant generally insures to the full value of build a strong and safe one it is unsaleableme his goods.
simply because there must, of necessity, be more Now, although in the infancy of naval archi material and labour in it than in a weak one, tecture, when the art was but very imperfectly and consequently the price must be higher; and understood, and when it might be alleged that because he himself could build a weak and unthe risk of foreign voyages was too great for safe vessel, which would be perfectly saleable, any individual to take upon himself, it might (safety being, in fact, proscribed by the system,) then have been proper for the community to pro at a half or a third of the price. A shipowner, tect such individuals from loss, it is evident that too, or a person about to become one, knows fuil the case is now completely altered. In the progress well, that there is no inducement for him to of time, the art of ship-building has become bet- purchase or contract for the building of a strong ter understood : and there is no doubt that sea and safe ship, because she must, of necessity, cost risk would be greatly diminished in consequence, him more than a weak and unsafe one ; and as were it not for marine insurance, which, it is he will get no abatement of the premium of inpretty clear, has been the main instrument in pro surance, in consequence of the additional strength hibiting all improvements in marine architecture. and safety of the vessel, he has no interest in
To carry marine insurance into effect, a class getting a safe one, but the reverse. He finds of persons is necessary, who, for certain sums paid that he can earn as much freight with the merest to them as presents, called premiums of insur sieve which can be made to float, as with the ance, agree to bear the risk, and to pay for all strongest and safest ship; and as he has less losses of vessels and merchandise. These per- capital embarked in the one case than the sons are technically called underwriters, from other-even although, in consequence of the di. the circumstance of their subscribing, or under minished risk to the strong ship, he did not inwriting a paper, bearing faith in law, called a sure it to the full value-his profits are, of policy of insurance, which sets forth the amount course, greater. He, therefore, provides a cheap of premium or present paid to them, and the and unsafe ship accordingly, instead of a strong risk which they consent to bear. These parties and safe one. quickly perceived that it was absolutely neces But it may be said, Cannot he provide a strong sary for the success of their trade, that there and safe vessel, and as the sea-risk will be therea should be frequent shipwrecks and damages to by greatly lessened, dispense with insurance alvessels and goods. They reasoned thus, If there together? Here, however, he finds that underbe no losses or damages of and to vessels and mer writers have taken most effectual measures chandise at sea, there will be no sea insurances ; against him. They reduce his ship, however hence it is necessary to the very existence of strong and safe it may be, to the second class, our trade that losses and damages to vessels and or, in other words, put a mark of proscription goods should take place. Again, if we counten on it, implying want of safety, in a limited numance the building of strong and safe vessels, ber of years, generally about nine on an aveshipowners will provide them accordingly; and rage of the whole shipping of the kingdom, as premiums of insurance will, as a matter of equally with the most worthless. A book of course, rise or fall with the risk, if it be greatly classification is annually published by underdiminished, merchants and shipowners will then writers, said to be for their own use only, contake the risk of their own merchandise and taining these marks of proscription ; and upon vessels on themselves, and will thereby with applying for freight or charter for his vessel, he draw the business of insurance from us alto is immediately asked if his be a first or a segether. On the other hand, the more the sea cond class vessel. If she has passed the fatal risk is increased, the higher the premiums of climacteric, although she should possess the insurance will, of necessity, rise ; and as it is a strength of a rock, or a castle, it is quite in vain clear principle, that we must receive in premiums for him to allege her strength, safety, and suor presents more than we pay in losses—other-perior equipments. A merchant cares nothing wise we would become bankrupt—we will take about these things, and has the ready objection, steps to increase, instead of diminish, sea-risk. I can get my goods carried at the same rate of
Accordingly, a system of classification of mer. freight, and at a lower premium of insurance, in chant vessels, having been adopted for the conve a first class vessel. Nor will an underwriter nience of underwriters, it was soon seen that the make any abatement in his demand of premium most effectual way to increase sea-risk, and pre on either ship or cargo, on account of additional vent strong and safe ships being built, would be strength and safety-merely because he does not to take away all inducement from a shipowner wish strong and safe ships to be built, or to exto get a strong and safe one, by classing it, how ist ; and the shipowner finds that he cannot ol. ever strong and safe it might be, after a certain tain employment for his safe ship. The books age, with the most unsafe and worthless fabric of classification, or rather of proscription, too, which could be made to float. This system was are sent to all parts of the world ; so that let him accordingly adopted, and the effect proved to be go where he may, wherever British commerce
has been carried, and winds blow, and oceans from a pointed bit of coral, a scratch of its own roll, he will find that these books have preceded anchor, is sufficient at any time to drown, with him. Although, therefore, he might be inclined, all its contents, the proudest British merchantin consequence of the additional safety of his man that ever Aloated ! Destroy by any means ship, to take the risk on himself, and dispense that fragile defence, and the Royal George is with insurance, he cannot convince a freighter as much at the mercy of the waves, as was against the evidence of his pocket, that it would the Coracle of Caractacus, when the cow hide be to his advantage to send his goods by his that covered its wicker work was destroyed. ship, and of her additional safety. He there Can such a system be persevered in ? From fore finds that a strong ship, instead of being it proceeds interminable drownings, ships founan advantage, is a curse to him. He cannot sell dering at sea, wrecks, and abandonments, without her, because for the same reasons that she is un number and without end. We are informed, but remunerative to him, she would be unremune we do not vouch for it as a fact, that a vessel rative to a purchaser ; and he cannot keep her called the Lady Nelson, which was built by the without great expense, loss, and deterioration. late Admiral Shanks, as a model, and a model of What then is he to do? His only alternative which is in the Naval Museum at Somerset House, is to follow the example of others; that is, to was bought up by a party, and sent out of this withhold repairs and supplies from her, to keep country, lest the advantages of additional safety her insured to the full value, and let her be lost. shewn in its construction should become too ap
But it may be said, since the underwriters parent to be resisted, and should be generally have to pay for all losses, would it not be for adopted. their advantage that vessels should be built In fine, we confess we do not very clearly see stronger and safer, and they would have fewer how the evil is to be remedied. It is clear that, losses to pay for ? It has already been said that if sea insurance could be effectually prohibited, the premiums must exceed the losses, otherwise all parties interested-merchants, shipowners, the underwriters would become bankrupt; and shipbuilders, and the public-would unite their as all these premiums come eventually out of the interests most cordially and zealously to get pockets of the consumers, or in other words of the strong and safe vessels ; and they would be got public, whatever hands they may pass through, accordingly. This is, in some degree, in pracit is a received maxim in marine insurance that tice, in the case of smacks belonging to Scotland, high risks and high premiums, are preferable to the owners of which do not insure them. There low risks and low premiums. The loss of human is proof, too, in the case of the Royal Navy, after life attendant on the speculation never enters an experience of twenty-four years, that there is for a moment into consideration.
no difficulty in making stronger and safer ships, Such we conceive has been the practical ef and, in a great degree, preventing shipwrecks. fects of a system, which, originally intended, in The same means, if applied, would produce the the infancy of commerce, for the protection of same effect in the mercantile navy. But the those who embarked their capital for what was prohibiting of marine insurance would be vioconsidered the public good, has come in the lently opposed by the parties interested, and course of time to be an evil of immense magni. would be very objectionable. It might be enacted tude. From it has proceeded the unsafe and that, no person should be allowed to insure either dangerous condition of the whole mercantile ma his vessel or goods to beyond a half or two-thirds rine of Britain. Hence every attempt to im of their marketable value. The less amount that prove the structure or condition of the mercan proprietors were allowed to insure for, the greater tile navy, has been directly opposed. It is stat. would be their anxiety to get strong and safe ed in an article on the subject, in the Edin- ships, and they would be got accordingly. Or burgh Encyclopædia, that no attempts have been surveyors might be appointed under the control made to improve the mercantile marine of this of the Board of Trade, to superintend and recountry. This is not true. Various, strenuous, port on vessels while building, and before proand persevering efforts have been made to im- ceeding to sea, whose certificates of seaworthiprove it; but, owing to the above mentioned ness should be exhibited at the Custom-house, causes, hitherto without effect. It is to be hoped, before vessels are permitted to set sail, which however, that the day is not far distant, when a would afford a security to the public, both as rebetter order of things will arise. A British mer gards the safety of those embarked, and the chant vessel of the present day, is put together merchandise committed to their charge. The with less art, or attention to scientific princi- losses borne by the public in consequence of the ples, and regard to safety, than the rudest ma system, we estimate at far above a million a-year, chine of ancient or modern times. Hence, when while we have reason to think it also causes the it is roughly handled by the winds and waves, or death of above two thousand British subjects gets stranded, we find its component parts dis-annually. The ships lately foundered and wrecklocated, separated, and spread along the beach. ed with emigrants to Quebec, are clear proof of In a vessel of a thousand tons, the utmost de. the effect, and part and parcel of the nefarious fence that is placed between the crew, the pas- system. This subject calls loudly for public insengers, the cargo, and destruction, even in its terference, and it is ardently to be hoped that first voyage, and in its best and soundest state, the agitation of the matter will have the effect is three inches of oak timber ! so that a touch of awakening the attention of the community,
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE POLITICAL STATE OF EUROPE,
AND THE PROGRESS OF THE MOVEMENT.
“ La Revolution fera le tour du monde."-Louis PHILIP IN 1830.
My Dear Tait,
and an improved state of social order and social I have three objects in view in writing this life:—but they fear that the kings will be essay, and I feel no sort of hesitation in avowing stronger than the people; they fear that what them.
they call the faults of the Radicals, and the erFirst, I am desirous of shaking, of troubling, rors of the Republicans, will fortify the absolute of disturbing the confidence, optimism, selfish and despotic cause; and already they are preness, quietism, ignorance, conceit, prejudices, / paring, not to vote for Tory or for Royalist can. and love of ease and repose, of those who think didates, but to prefer Campbell to Aytoun, Leor desire, who hope or believe, that the revola febvre to Garnier Pages, and Chateaubriand to tion in Europe is making no progress, and that Marrast,—or, in other words, property, and the people are preparing to submit to a new con wealth, even with a little less of liberty, and a spiracy against their liberties and their happiness. | little more of repose, to continued agitation, and
Second, I am anxious to enlighten, to inform continued exertions for the benefit of the millions. those who, because justly disappointed and justly The third category is composed of British Ragrieved, at many of the present results of the dicals, of French Republicans, of German Libepolitical movements of the last three years, are rals, of Polish Democrats, of Spanish Constitudisposed to imagine that the revolution in tionalists, of Swiss Federalists, and of “ Young Europe is at an end ; that the liberal party is Italy ;" and I will add,—for it is a fact,-of the crushed; that the age of selfishness, avarice, finest spirits, of the most valiant soldiers, of the gluttony, and animalism has begun; and that most educated citizens, and the most generous, not only the past and the present, but that futu-noble, and enlightened portion of the population rity likewise, are against the people. They wish of the Continent. it were otherwise, but they have ceased to hope. The first category hate the revolution in Eu
And, third, I am solicitous to impress upon rope—the second love, but fear, its progress-the those who, ardently attached to the cause of the third love and glory in it; but, unfortunately, people, and willing to spend and be spent in their are often too precipitate in their movements, and service, are too much disposed to look for an not unfrequently are too speedily discouraged. earlier realization of their hopes, and a more In the first category I have placed Whigs and speedy accomplishment of their wishes and their Tories, Royalists and “ Juste-Milieu,” together; prayers, than the past history of governments because the Whigs and the “ Juste-Milieu" are and of society justify them in indulging, or au. quite as much opposed to the progress of the Re. thorize them in expecting.
volution as are Lord Winchelsea and the Mar. The Carlists, the Legitimists, the Miguelites, quis de Dreux Brézé, and desire quite as ardently the Tories, the Whigs, the men of the “ Juste the destruction of that democracy, which yet milieu,” the Doctrinaires, and the Orleanists, saved the revolution of 1789 from annihilation, and belong to the first category. For them the title which has for it a glorious and a certain futurity. of this essay may, perhaps, alone be sufficient; The first class we are bound to make unhapand it is not improbable that they may refuse py, by pointing out to them the progress of the to have their slumbers disturbed, or their peace revolution. The second we are bound to enlighten interrupted, by the accents of truth, or the and encourage, by showing them the fact, so conwarnings of experience.
soling and so true, that the revolution is proThe enlightened Liberals of France, Great gressing. The third we are bound to restrain, Britain, Germany, Poland, Italy, and the Penin. and to direct their exertions to practicable good; sula, but who are not Republicans either in heart discouraging their impatience on the one hand, or practice, belong to the second category. They but yet exciting a zeal to be wisely directed on wish well to liberty,--but they are rich, they are the other. I can scarcely hope to succeed in all magistrates, they are landed proprietors, they these objects; and yet my apprehension of fail. are large manufacturers. They hate oppression, ure must not discourage my efforts. and they would arm against any flagrant act of look at the whole question without fear and with. despotism and intolerance. They hailed with out anxiety. The revolution in Europe is proenthusiasm the Revolutions of France, Poland, gressing ; and we have reason to rejoice and take and Belgium ; and they hope to see established courage. by peaceable, orderly, Parliamentary means, li. Yes! the revolution in Europe is promited monarchies, representative governments, gressing! Take the following rapid sketch of
the Facts of the last four years. Of opinions • De la Revolution en Europe. Par. M. Laurentie. Dentu, Palais Royal. I vol. 8vo.
we will speak hereafter,
VOL. 1,NO, VII,
Look at FRANCE !—The Emperors of Russia man beings,—yet we must give him credit for and Austria, the Kings of Prussia, Holland, sincerity, and admit him to be honest. How Sweden, and Denmark, the Princes of the German came it, then, that a popular revolt at Paris, Confederation, and the petty monarchs of Italy, which occupied but three days,—which, when have not dared to attack her revolution. Com- | begun, had no other object than the overtbrowpare this fact with a twenty years' European ing of the ordinances of July, and the subversion war against France, for the events of 1789, and of the Polignac administration,—but which, in the years which succeeded,—and then admit the consequence of the ignorance of the Court, the progress of the Revolution.
And let no one helplessness of the Ministry, the cowardice of the imagine that the characters of the sovereigns of Royalists, and the timidity of the eldest branch these countries have been changed—that their of the House of Bourbon, became not a revolt, aversion to liberty is diminished—or their igno- | but a revolution ;-how came it to pass, that the rance of the wants of man and the rights of hu Duke of Wellington hastened to acknowledge man beings removed. Quite the contrary of all the fact of this revolution,-hastened to admit this ; but the monarchs of this old Europe dread its validity,--hastened to censure Charles X. and a contest in which they must be worsted,-post the Polignac Cabinet,—and hastened to announce pone a battle in which they must be defeated, to England that, as Louis Philip had expressed and gain time, in growling out their dissatisfac- his desire to cultivate a good understanding with tion, their submission, and at last even their ac Great Britain, he had counselled the King his quiescence. No sooner did the fact of a revolution master, to continue with France his ancient reat Paris reach St. Petersburgh, Vienna, and Ber lations? Was the newly-elected monarch a per. lin, in 1830, than an alliance was formed by sonal friend of the Duke of Wellington ? Certhose Courts against the progress of that revolu- tainly not. Were their avowed principles and tion; and yet it has progressed ever since. It political views and opinions the same ? Directly was agreed in the first moments of alarm and the reverse. During the Restoration, the palace horror, between the governments of Prussia, of the Duke of Orleans had ever been the renAustria, and Russia, to oppose force by force-dezvous of those who were on public, and even to put a million of soldiers on foot against on personal grounds, the avowed enemies of the France-to cross the Rhine-to surround this Duke of Wellington and of his political friends country by Austrian troops in Savoy, Piedmont, and supporters. Why, then, did the Duke of Weland Switzerland,—to form a cordon of Prussian lington hasten to acknowledge the revolt of Paris, troops from Basle to Carlsruhe, and from Carls- and to recognise in it a French revolution ? rhue to Treves; and to enter the Ardennes, the Was Louis Philip, in the eyes of the Tories, of Pas de Calais, and the Moselle, with a Russian whom the Duke was the chief, less of an usurper army of 400,000 men ; and thus bind France of the crown of France than was Napoleon? Was hand and foot, and divide, destroy, and counter- the principle of popular sovereignty in 1830, less revolutionize the country. If the Duke of dangerous and less subversive in the eyes of the Wellington, in August, 1830, had encouraged Duke, than it had been when Napoleon placed these projects, had refused to recognise even the crown on his own head, and when the people the fact of the Revolution at Paris of the pre shouted Hallelujah ? Was the Duke less satisceding month, and had counselled the ambas-fied than he had been in former periods of his sadors of the Northern Courts to follow out life, that “ legitimate governments” are those their projects,—there would have been no ne which are alone durable,—that kings are the cessity on his part to have supplied a soldier-representatives of Heaven,—and that to resist sent out a ship of war-or demanded a pound them is to resist God? By no means. All his intisterling more for military or naval expenditure. macies, all his correspondences, all his friendships, The fact that the Duke of Wellington did not all his publicas well as private associations, proved, encourage these counter-revolutionary measures that not only the kings of Europe regarded him on the part of the Northern Cabinets, was an as their champion, but that they were prepared evidence which could not be disputed of the pro to follow, in all respects, his directions and in. gress of the revolution.
spirations. If, in 1830, the Duke of Wellington The Duke of Wellington was the same man, had required Russia, Austria, and Prussia to furthe same officer, the same commandant, who had nish him with a million of soldiers in six months, not only fought with bravery and skill against or even double that number, they would have the revolution of the 18th century, but who so been stationed in battle array before the period fought with all his education, his principles, his named, to have obeyed his decisions. I repeat, convictions, and his wishes on the side of his then, the question : How came it to pass, that, courage and his talents. The Duke of Welling-with the destinies of Europe in his handston was not less certain than he was in 1814 and knowing the forces he could command-aware of 1815, that the treaties to which he was then a the dispositions of the Northern Cabinets to obey distinct party, contained the best, and indeed the any impulse he should give them—how came it only basis of a true settlement of Europe,-and to pass that the revolt of Paris was unattacked, although we, the people, lament his ignorance, and that it was even recognised by his Grace as deplore his prejudices, and weep over the evils a French Revolution ? There is but one answer which the policy then adopted has entailed on so to this question; and that is, That the revolumany countries, and on so many millions of hu tion was progressing. The Duke of Wellington