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deed, and in no country more signally or satis gaged in preparing the constitutional organizafactorily than in Portugal.

tion of his own states. This fact is worth reAnd if we turn to BELGIUM, and to ITALY, to cording. Its parallel may be found in the conDENMARK, and to SWITZERLAND, shall we find the duct of William IV., King of Great Britain, who revolution stationary? Let us see.

was at the same moment urging forward the Bill In Belgium there is much to deplore, much to of Reform in England, and, as King of Hanover, regret, much to censure, and much even to disc assenting to those protocols of the German Diet hearten; but yet in Belgium the revolution is which are the bases of all the attacks now making progressing. The Belgians have maintained their on German freedom. Such anomalies are far from position as against Holland,—have convinced the being encouraging or consoling to us, and supply Court of the Hague, that for it, at any rate, there us with a not very edifying picture of our poor is no chance,-no ground for hope. The Belgians humanity. But let us examine, for a few minutes, have had their revolution recognised even by the the various steps by which the Danish nation power's most opposed to the division of the Pays has arrived at the late most happy result, and what Bas; and that Holland and Belgium cannot be have been the circumstances which have decided reunited is now pretty generally admitted, even the Government, hitherto so monarchical, to take by the Courts of St. Petersburgh and Vienna, so large and liberal a determination, for it is a Belgium has a charter, has Chambers, has an in- strange and a wondrous spectacle to behold a , dependent press, and has, above all, representa- people of Northern Europe thus receiving, from tive, viz. elective institutions, which have all the hands of its sovereign, generous national emanated from the principle of popular sover institutions, after two centuries of absolute poeignty. I admit that Belgium would be much

litical apathy. happier if united to France, and I do not cease Weary with the oppression of an arrogant to insist that such will and must be the final re aristocracy, the Danish people resolved, at all sult of all the contests in the Low Countries. But, risks, to rid themselves of such burdens; and in the meantime, and till that period shall arrive, in 1665, threw themselves into the arms, or popular principles are gaining ground in that at the foot of their King. His power was country, and Belgium is making rapid progress declared unlimited, and the monarchy of Denin the revolution. It is true, that Leopold is a mark was absolute. The King was even bound, drawback,—it is true, that the priests have too whatever might occur, never to relinquish his much influence in the affairs of the state,—it is prerogatives, and was made more despotic than true, that the trade and commerce of Belgium he desired. This convention was extraordinstill suffer greatly,—and it is true, that Belgium ary and unparalleled; but the cause of civi. has not arrived at the state most desirable lization had progressed in Denmark, more than for her, or to which she aspires.

in any other part of Northern or Western compare the present state of Belgium with that Europe ; and the evils which might have been of 1829 and 1828, and even 1830, and we must apprehended from such an abandonment of power admit, that she also is progressing in the revo did not arrive. The nobility sought, indeed, to lution.

maintain their privileges, and in the last cenLook at Italy, and above all at Naples! It is tury had begun to move and to murmur, when a fact, an avowed fact, and a fact deplored Struenzée, a minister, who belonged to the people, greatly by the northern Courts of Europe, and and also had come out of their ranks, undertook especially by that of Vienna, that the King of the task of destroying the roots of aristocracy, Naples is preparing to grant a constitution to his and of putting an end to the numerous abuses subjects, and preparing to enter into a western which that aristocracy had engendered. His alliance, which shall embrace England, France, heroic resolution was defeated, and himself and Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Naples, and Switzer the Queen, the sister of the then monarch of land, even if other powers may not speedily be England, fell victims to their courage and pajoined to it. This is a vast alliance. This is an triotism. At this epoch Christian VII, was deundeniable proof of the progress of the revolu clared incapable of reigning ; and the present tion in Europe ; and the “ quadruple” alliance King, who was then but a child, seized the reins will very soon be at least septuple” one. of Government. Too young to govern, he aban

Look at Denmark! Even since I have com doned the power to old courtezans; and during menced this essay the King of Denmark has the first period of the first French Revolution, come forward to substantiate, in a most unan they made the people pay dearly for their forswerable manner, the truth of my declaration, mer attempts to destroy the Danish aristocracy. that the revolution in Europe is progressing, and Every attempt at independence, on the part of that Louis Philip was right, in 1830, when he the people, was put down. Every effort was unpredicted, « La revolution fera le tour du successful; and Cramer, Heiberg, Malte-Brun, monde."

and other patriots, quitted their native land, Whilst the Conference of Vienna was occupy and sought in France an asylum and a home. ing itself with discussing the best means of re A vacillating and feeble policy led to the bomstraining the prerogatives of the Representative bardment of the Danish capital by the English ; Chambers in Germany, the King of Denmark, but the King, with talent and loyalty, appeared who in his quality of Duke of Holstein, is a at that time in the breach ; and although bankmember of the German Confederation, was en ruptcy and ruin threatened the country, by con

But yet

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cessions and prudence it was saved. In 1813 the hereafter as the private property of a dynasty. King of Denmark remained firmly attached to the people's rights are recognised, and the peoNapoleon, and for that attachment was punished | ple must do the rest. The country is to be diin the Treaties of Vienna by the loss of the vided into four parts: each portion is to have whole kingdom of Norway.

its particular representative. The Danish Isles The Danes have not observed all these events are to elect about 70 members. Jutland about either with indifference or want of knowledge. 55. The Duchy of Schleserg, 44. Holstein, 41. Nothing which has passed in Europe has been And thus 210 members are to constitute the nalost upon them; and although they have not tional representation, of whom about 25 will be made revolutions, in the sense of those in named by the monarch, and the rest by the peoFrance, Belgium, and Poland, they have advanced ple. The people of all classes will be represented. with the age, and are philosophical, enlightened, The peasants are to elect four-ninths of the memand attached to liberty. The Revolution of bers, the proprietors, or rich men, two-ninths, 1830 roused them to action, to energy, and to and the inhabitants of towns, or trades-people, strong, but moderate measures.

The governor,

three-ninths. or bailiff of the Isle of Sylt, named LORNSEA, It must be admitted that this is a most cheering had, in 1830, the courage and patriotism to lay and satisfactory result, and no event of modern before the King the wants and demands of the times has afforded so much pleasure to the lovers Danish people. He was arrested, tried, and of freedom, and the advocates of the “ greatest punished hy condemnation to prison ; but the happiness principle.” Yes,-yes,-the revoluKing was not satisfied that this was any answer tion in Europe is progressing. to the demands made by the country, and in Of Switzerland, we have little to record; but 1831 he declared his intention of creating “ pro that little is, on the whole, satisfactory. Since vincial states” in the kingdom and the duchies. the Revolution of 1830, the canton of Tessico has The most distinguished legists and publicists of freed itself of its local tyrants. The cantons of that and other countries were consulted by the Basle and Scharitz have been divided, in accormonarch; and for several months the commis dance with popular feeling and the demands of sion, charged with the examination of this subject, the oppressed. The aristocratical party has been laboured incessantly in acquiring facts and opi-rooted out of office in Berne, Lucerne, Vaud, and nions. In 1832, public opinion became agitated : Zurich. The Bernese Government is most libethe promised institutions were not granted, the ral and most popular. The Jesuits and priests demands of the people were not complied with ; have been got rid of in Fribourg; and the Swiss and the commission made a report. Since that en masse have protested so nobly against any time no public agitation has been manifested, foreign intervention in their affairs, that all the till the beginning of this year, when from all threats of Austrian, Prussian, Piedmontese, parts of the country, the King received letters German, and Russian Ministers and Governand protestations against a further delay. The ments have ended in smoke, sound, and empti. physical and intellectual state of the hereditary The Polish refugees have not been banPrince, the nephew of the King, offered no gua ished from Berne. Switzerland is still the land rantee for the future to the people. His son of refuge for the unfortunate and persecuted ; and successor, by his dissolute and deplorable and the spirit of Tell yet presides over her desconduct, had drawn down upon him public in- tinies and watches over her fate. Switzerland dignation and contempt; and the people feared, has marched with the revolution, and is more inas well as the King, that his own death might dependent, dignified, and respected than ever. lead to anarchy and wo. This was the state of I admit that the state of Neufchatel is unsatisthings a few months back, and the King there- factory. I admit that the new Federal Pact has fore hastened the commission and his ministers yet many adversaries. I admit that in Geneva in their constitutional labours. A few weeks much has to be done to enlighten its juste-milieu since, the Prince Frederick, baving threatened government ; but still Switzerland is progressing, the life of his wife, the daughter of the King, and certainly in that portion of Europe the rethe eyes of the monarch were opened, and he volution has not been arrested. resolved that the Danish nation should not be But has the revolution progressed in Russia ? exposed to the absolute power and caprices of Yes ! in the districts of Lithuania, Podalia, and such a successor. The Prince is exiled, and the many military colonies. Has it progressed in King has conferred on Denmark REPRESENTA Austria ? Yes, in Modena, Parma, Venetian TIVE INSTITUTIONS. I am not about to set up as Lombardy, and Gallicia. Has it progressed in an example for general imitation, the character Prussia ? Yes, in Posen, and in the Rhenish or composition of the Danish provincial states. circle. Has it progressed in Bohemia and HunI am far from saying that the report of the King's gary? Yes, and much more so than is generally council perfectly satisfies me, or that the funda believed or felt. Has it progressed in Turkey? mental dispositions are large and liberal enough Yes,—and there are now journals, books, corresto meet my views of Danish wants, and Danishpondents of English and French papers, Nationdesires. I am willing to admit that the conces. al Guards, and almost representative institutions. sions made are still monarchical, and much re Old things are passing away even in these coun. mains to be done hereafter. But the principle tries ; and though slowly, too slowly, still all is conceded. The people are not to be treated | things are becoming, and will become new.



And shall I not, before I terminate my That country is POLAND! And her regeneration sumé," of the Revolution and its progress, ask -her nationality-her independence-should be one question of Great Britain ? Is not the Re- demanded by all and above all.

But though volution making its way in the classic land of Poland has made no progress-though her castles constitutional freedom, in spite of the influence are deserted—her plains uncultivated-her fields of the aristocracy ; in spite of the anathemas of white with the bleached bones of her martyrsthe endowed clergy, and in spite of the faults of and the banks of her rivers yet strewed with the the Government ? Is it nothing to have passed | remains of the carnage ;—though Poland is notthe Reform Bill ? Is it nothing to have abolished and her name is blotted from the map of Europe all religious tests? Is it nothing to have attacked -still her cause has progressed ; and a British the corporations, those sink-holes of iniquity and Parliament and a British Government have voted crime? Is it nothing to have reformed the Law a sum of money to relieve the starving refugees. Courts ; to have attacked the poor laws; and to Let Poland be the watchword and rallying-cry have measured swords with that most brazen of of British reformers ! all Goliahs, the Established Church ? I admit But I must close. My review has been faithyou have more to do than you have done. I ad- | ful, though it has been rapid. I have stated the mit that you must overthrow hereditary legisla causes of our joy, and the sources of our deprestion, or you will not effect anything. I admit sion. Have we most reason to rejoice or to that there is a reaction amongst the “rich and mourn? Decidedly to rejoice. If the French the powerful,” in favour of the Tories and against and British Governments had understood their the Whigs. This is not surprising nor discourag- moral, their civilizing, and their glorious mission, ing. Quite otherwise.

the question would never have been asked. They But do the Tories dare to take place ? Does have not done so; and yet the Revolution in Lord Aberdeen dare to renew his foreign policy ? Europe is progressing. Yet, though our joy Does the Duke of Wellington dare to affirm his must predominate over our grief, and our satissystem of rotten burghs, is the best possible faction over our disappointment, still we must mode of representation ? Can the Tories undo not forget that the cause of civil and religious that which has been done, or the Whigs conduct liberty in Europe is in a state of jeopardy; and you back again to the votes of Winchelsea and of must be so, whilst the Governments of France Bedford ? Be not, then, discouraged. With the and of England are in the hands of men who are reform bill you may overthrow all corruption, all timid, selfish lovers of place,-rich, and lovers of oligarchical institutions, all sinecures, all plura- ease, and who hope to form alliances between the lities, all tithes, and all oppression. Patience, Kings of Old and the people of New Europe. patience, but perseverance and zeal—and you Representative, elective, free principles, can will be paid all the debt which is owing to you alone place the happiness and rights of the people for centuries of bad government !

out of danger, and secure that principle of right There is one country in Europe, however, over might—of freedom over oppression and of which has made no progress—there is one coun the happiness of the mass over the privileges of try “which seems destined to perish ;" and yet the few, so ardently desired by, her sons are the bravest-her love of liberty the

Your obedient servant, strongest—her cause the justest—and her situation the most deplorable and unmerited of all. Paris, July 1834.

0, P. Q.


Mr. Thomas PRINGLE, a gentleman well known In 1829, his Majesty's Government, who are to the literary world of Scotland, has just put seldom without some small scheme or other on forth a pleasing, miscellaneous volume, consisting hand, obtained a vote of 1.50,000 from Parliaof his personal adventures, as an emigrant and ment, to defray the expense of settling a new resident at the Cape, which he entitles African colony in South Africa. Among the applications Sketches. Unlike Dr. Lang's work on New from 80,000 individuals, were those of Mr. Pringle South Wales, this will be of little practical in behalf of his family. His father was a respectutility to emigrants as a guide; but to com able old farmer in Teviotdale. Four brothers pensate for this, it will afford much pleasure had been bred to the same honourable trade. and entertainment to them, and to all the rest The fifth, Mr. Thomas Pringle himself, was a of the world besides, A considerable portion scholar, and a man of letters, and held a small of the volume is in verse, and very beautiful appointment in the Edinburgh Register House. verse it is-smooth and flowing ; but this we The elder Mr. Pringle, and his sons, had suf. take leave to skip, joyfully however, and bear. fered much by the times, and by the agricultu. ing a hasty passing testimony to its merits, to ral depression which followed the forced, unna. get at the Crusoe parts; which we, choosing all tural, and feverish prosperity produced by the our modern poetry in prose, find more to our war. Their capital was fast diminishing, their tastes. These parts we must take leave to pull prospects were gloomy; the hitherto united, reto pieces and put together in our own way. spectable family, was about to be broken up and

scattered over the world, and their scholar on all sides by an amphitheatre of steep and brother formed the generous and affectionate sterile mountains, rising in the background into design of building up the breach of his father's sharpcuneiform ridges of very considerable elevahouse, and of establishing the affectionate circle tion; their summits being at this season covered in all its integrity, in social independence, though with snow, and estimated to be from 4000 to in a new and distant scene. Yes !-Knowledge 5000 feet above the level of the sea. The lower is power; not but that some rather romantic declivities were sprinkled over, though someelements mingled in this patriarchal scheme. what scantily, with grass and bushes. But the

As a man of literary talents, Mr. Pringle was bottom of the valley, through which the infant slightly known to Sir Walter Scott, to whom he river meandered, presented a warm, pleasant, explained his object and views of guiding the and secluded aspect ; spreading itself into verfamily-party to Africa ; and Sir Walter entered dant meadows, sheltered and embellished, withinto them with characteristic cordiality, and out being encumbered, by groves of mimosa promptitude. The band of relations and friends, trees, among which we observed in the distance led by Mr. Pringle, consisted of twenty-four herds of wild animals,-antelopes and quaggas, souls,—twelve men, including three farm servants, pasturing in undisturbed quietude. six women, including his own wife and her sis «« Sae that's the lot o' our inheritance, then?' ter, and the wives of his brothers, and six chil. quoth one of the party, a Scottish agriculturist. dren. About the very last days of the year 1819, Aweel, now that we've really got till’t, I maun they embarked at Leith, singing, we presume, say the place looks no sae mickle amiss, and in Mr. Pringle's fine words,

may suit our purpose no that ill, provided thae Farewell to bonny Teviotdale,

haughs turn out to be gude deep land for the And Scotland's mountains blue !

pleugh, and we can but contrive to find a decent And on the 30th April, 1820, behold them at road out o' this queer hieland glen into the lowSimon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope ; and, next, lands, like ony other Christian country.' landed, and conducted in bullock-waggons to “ Descending into the middle of the valley, their location, 170 miles in the interior. As we unyoked the waggons, and pitched our tents presumed mountaineers, they were offered a in a grove of mimosa trees, on the margin of the hilly district, where it was intended to locate river; and the next day our armed escort, with 500 Highland settlers that were expected ; and the train of shattered vehicles, set out on their this location they preferred to Albany, where the return homeward, leaving us in our wild domain miscellaneous hordes of England were to be to our own courage and resources." poured out to the amount of 5000.

There is as pretty and picturesque a situation The journey from the coast to their settle as any Robinson Crusoeing party, from between ment, was both difficult and extremely tedious. Kelso and Hawick, could desire. One detachIt was made under an armed escort. The lands ment was left to guard the women and the stores, allotted to the emigrants had formerly been while another made on foot, as they had no horses part of the extensive grazing grounds of the nor any animal of any kind, a tour of survey, Dutch oors on the frontier, and had been for and beheld this fine African landscape. feited by rebellion against the British, after the “ They found the valley sprinkled over, as has cession of the Cape. They were entirely in a been already noticed, except at the extremities state of nature.

of its subsidiary cleughs, with beautiful clumps The location lay in the upper part of the val and groves of mimosa trees, interspersed with ley of the Baviaans or Baboons' River. It re open grassy pastures; while the river, a gurgling ceived the name of Glen-LYNDEN. 'To penetrate mountain-brook, meandered placidly through the this wild glen took the emigrant party five fertile meadows. Ever and anon, as they ad. days in clearing a way through the jungle, with vanced up the trackless vale; some of the wild pick-axe and hatchet, and in lashing their teams animals, which were then its only inhabitants, of twenty or thirty bullocks, to plough the path came in view, giving animation to the sequesonward. It took two of these days to win a way tered landscape. A troop or two of quaggas of five miles, through a rugged defile now named appeared trotting away with the gait of the wild Eildon-Cleuch.

ass, over the lower declivities of the hills ; the “At length, after extraordinary exertions and hartebeest and the duiker, bounded gracefully hair-breadth escapes,--the breaking down of two from among the groves and thickets; while the waggons, and the partial damage of others,-we rietbok and the wild-hog (riet-vark) rushed got through the last poort of the glen, and found from their secret lairs among the reeds and sedge ourselves on the summit of an elevated ridge, that occasionally fringed the stream. Having commanding a view of the extremity of the val- inspected the whole extent of our territory, we ley. “And now, mynheer,' said the Dutch fixed upon a spot about three miles above our African field-cornet, who commanded our escort, camp, for the temporary settlement of the party, daar leg uwe veld,—there lies your country.' | until such time as it should be considered safe Looking in the direction where he pointed, we for the several families to occupy separately beheld, extending to the northward, a beautiful their respective farms.” This spot (which on a vale, about six or seven miles in length, and division of the lands fell into Mr. Pringle's favarying from one to two in breadth. It appears ther’s allotment and is now called Clifton,) aped like a verdant basin, or cul de sac, surrounded | peared to be the most central position, and like

wise the best adapted for immediate cultivation. While they were singing their last psalm in Here, therefore, they resolved to erect their the afternoon, an antelope, (oribi,) which ap temporary hamlet.

peared to have wandered down the valley, stood The same day they were formally settled in for a little while on the opposite side of the their lands by the district magistrate, who ar rivulet, gazing in innocent amazement, as if yet rived for the purpose. He considered their posi- unacquainted with man, the great destroyer. tion an exposed one, and advised maintaining a On this day of peace it was, of course, permitted nightly watch against the attacks of the Bush to depart unmolested. men and Caffers. This was done, the men tak Thus was the second day hallowed. The next ing the duty in turns. The second day of their was not so happy. “On the third July, the night sojourn in the wilderness was a Sabbath-day. was extremely dark, and the rain fell so heavily

The whole party were accordingly assembled that in spite of the abundant supply of dry fireafter breakfast, under a venerable acacia tree, wood, which we had luckily provided, it was not on the margin of the little stream which mur. without difficulty that we could keep one watchmured around our camp. The river appeared fire burning. Having appointed the watch for shaded here and there by the graceful willow of the night, (a service which all the male adults, Babylon, which grows abundantly along the masters as well as servants, agreed to undertake banks of many of the African streams, and in rotation,) they had retired to rest, and, exwhich, with the other peculiar features of the cepting the sentinels, were all buried in sleep, scenery, vividly reminded them of the pathetic when about midnight they were suddenly roused lament of the Hebrew exiles:- By the rivers by the roar of a lion close to the tents.

It was of Babylon, there we sat; yea we wept when we so loud and tremendous that for a moment Mr. remembered Zion. We hanged our harps upon Pringle actually thought a thunder-storm had the willows in the midst thereof.'

burst upon them.” “It was, indeed, an affecting sight," con


can well believe, with Mr. Pringle, tinues Mr. Pringle,“ to look round on our little that the roar of the lion is much more appalling band of Scottish emigrants, thus congregated, for at midnight, to the sleepers in tents, in a wild the first time, to worship God in the wild glen African glen, than in the Zoological Gardens. allotted for their future home, and the heritage This was rather an awkward welcome given of their offspring. There sat old with by the monarch of the desert to the Scottish sethis silvery locks, the patriarch of the party, with tlers; but if people will run into the den of the his Bible on his knee, a picture of the high- lion, they are lucky to escape with the terprincipled, grave Scottish husbandman ; his re ror of his roar. spectable family seated round him.

On Monday morning all had mustered to set the widow

with her meek, kind, and to work in building huts for temporary shelter, quiet look, (the look of one who had seen better at a spot they named Clifton. One detachment days; but who in adversity had found pious re cut willow-poles, another cut and carried home signation,) with her three stalwart sons, and reeds for roofing, and Mr. Pringle and Mr. Peter her young maiden daughter, placed beside her on Rennie kept watch ; and very naturally, as we the grass. There, too, were others, delicate fe think, saw Bushmen on the hill-tops, which, males,-one of them very nearly related to my however, turned out to be baboons. On the self, of whom I need not more particularly speak. fourth day, the weather looked gloomy, and proThere was

the younger brother of a visions fell short, which was surely early. We Scottish laird, rich in blood, but poor in fortune, fear the commissariat department in Mr. Pringle's who, with an estimable pride, had preferred a encampment had been but indifferently managed. farm in South Africa, to dependence on aristo On the fifth, a wild boar was shot. On the cratic connexions at home.

seventh, the huts were still unfinished ; there Having selected one of the hymns of the na came on a heavy fall of snow; and a lion was tional church, all united in singing it to one of heard roaring in all the majesty of his forest the old pathetic melodies with which it is usually voice. We could now give Mr. Pringle's proconjoined in the Sabbath worship in Scotland. tegés leave to grumble a little ; but they all The day was bright and still, and the voice of exercised patience,—even the ladies, who had expsalms rose with a sweet and touching solemnity pected to find oranges growing on every tree, among those wild mountains, where the praise of all, so far as we can learn, save Sandy the true God had never, in all human probabil. who fairly told his master, that though engaged ity, been sung before. The words of the hymn, to be his servant, he had not engaged to watch (composed by Logan) were appropriate to the by night, and work by day, and be scalped by situation, and affected some of the congregation savages, and devoured by wild beasts into the very sensibly :-

bargains This grumbling rascal was afterwards "O God of Bethel! by whose hand thy people still are fed ; drummed out of the glen, Who through this weary pilgrimage hast all our fathers led; Through each perplexing path of lite our wandering footsteps Temporary supplies were obtained. Mean

guide; Give us each day our daily bread, and raiment fit provide.

while, the poor women and children were but 0! spread thy covering wings around, till all our wanderings indifferently off, as we may learn from this entry And at our Father's loved abode our souls arrive in peace.” of the 14th day in Mr. Pringle's diary.

Mr. Pringle has here sketched a picture for “ 14th. Departure of Engelbrecht, the SomerHarvey, to fill up.

set waggon, &c. Wet and sleety weather.

There was


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