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teracting that law,-just, said he, as in leaping, carried to excess; and this beauty becomes a the law of gravitation concurs to that act in its source of endless affliction to him, because everylatter part ; but no leap could take place were where he sees it liable to the touch of decay it not by a counteraction of the law.” One re and mortal change. During one paroxysm of mark of the Bishop's let me into the secret of this sad passion, an angel appears to comfort his very limited reading. Coleridge had used him; and, by the sudden revelation of her imthe word “apperception ;"—apparently without mortal beauty, does, in fact, suspend his grief. intention ; for, on hearing some objection to the But it is only a suspension ; for the sudden reword, as being "surely not a word that Addison collection that her privileged condition, and her would have used,” he silently substituted another exemption from the general fate of beauty, is word. Some months afterwards, going with only by way of exception to a universal rule, reCharles Lloyd to call at Calgarth,'during the stores his grief : “ And thou thyself,” he says time when The Friend was appearing, the Bishop to the angel, — again noticed this obnoxious word, and in the “ And thou thyself, that com 'st to comfort me, very same terms :—" Now, this word appercep

Wouldst strong occasion of deep sorrow bring, tion, which Mr. Coleridge uses in the last num

If thou wert subject to inortality !" ber of The Friend, surely, surely it would not

Every man, who has ever dwelt with passionate have been approved by Addison ; no, Mr. Lloyd, love upon the fair face of some female companion nor by Swift ; nor even, I think, by Arbuthnot. through life, must have had the, same feeling ; Somebody suggested that the word was a new

and must often, in the exquisite language of word of German mintage, and most probably Shakspeare's sonnets, have commended and addue to Kant,-of whom the Bishop seemed never

jured all-conquering Time, there, at least, and to have heard. Meantime the fact was, and to

upon that one tablet of his adoration, me an amusing one, that the word had been “To write no wrinkle with his antique hand.” commonly used by Leibnitz,—who is really a Vain prayer! Empty adjuration! Profitless classical author on such subjects.

rebellion against the laws which season all things In the autumn of 1810, Coleridge left the for the inexorable grave! Yet not the less we Lakes; and--so far as I am aware—for ever. rebel again and again ; and, though wisdom I once, indeed, heard a rumour of his having counsels resignation and submission, yet our hu. passed through with some party of tourists, man passions, still cleaving to their object, force some reason struck me, at the time, for believing us into endless rebellion. Feelings, the same in it untrue, but, at all events, he never returned kind as these, attach themselves to our mental to them as a resident. What might be his rea powers, and our vital energies. Phantoms of son for this eternal self-banishment from scenes lost power, sudden intuitions, and shadowy rewhich he so well understood in all their shifting storations of forgotten feelings, sometimes dim forms of beauty, I can only guess. Perhaps it and perplexing, sometimes by bright but furtive was the very opposite reason to that which is glimpses, sometimes by a full and steady revelamost obvious : not possibly because he had be tion, overcharged with light,—throw us back in a come indifferent to their attractions, but because moment upon scenes and remembrances that we his undecaying sensibility to their commanding have left full thirty years behind us. In soli. power, had become associated with too afflicting tude, and chiefly in the solitudes of nature; remembrances, and flashes of personal recollec- and, above all, amongst the great and enduring tions, suddenly restored and illuminated,-recol features of nature, such as mountains and quiet lections which will

dells, and the lawny recesses of forests, and the Sometimes leap

silent shores of lakes, features with which (as From hiding places ten years deep,”

being themselves less liable to change) our feeland bring into collision the present with some ings have a more abiding association—under long-forgotten past, in a form too trying and too these circumstances it is, that such evanescent painful for endurance. I have a brilliant Scotch hauntings of our past and forgotten selves are friend, who cannot walk on the sea shore,-with most apt to startle and to waylay us. These in sight of its ανη/οιθμον έλασμα, the multitudinous are positive torments from which the agitated laughter of its waves, or within hearing of its mind shrinks in sear; but there are others negaresounding uproar, because they bring up, by tive in their nature, that is, blank mementos of links of old association, too insupportably to his power extinct, and of faculties burnt out within mind, the agitations of his glittering, but too And from both forms of anguish—from this fervid youth. There is a feeling,—morbid it twofold scourge-poor Coleridge fled, perhaps, may be, but for which no anodyne is found in in Aying from the beauty of external nature. all the schools from Plato to Kant,- to which In alluding to this latter, or negative form of the human mind is liable at times : it is best de suffering,--that form, I mean, which presents not scribed in a little piece by Henry More, the the too fugitive glimpses of past power, but its Platonist. He there represents himself as a blank annihilation, Coleridge himself most beaumartyr to his own too passionate sense of beauty, fully insists upon, and illustrates the truth, that and his consequent too passionate sense of its all which we find in nature must be created by decay. Everywhere,-above, below, around him, ourselves; and that alike, whether Nature is so in the earth, in the clouds, in the fields, and in gorgeous in her beauty as to seem appareled in their garniture of flowers, -he beholds a beauty her wedding garment, or so powerless and ex

us.

tinct as to seem palled in her shroud,-in either and intoxicating liquors of every sort. Not out case,

of parsimony, or under any suspicion of inhospi. “O, Lady! we receive but what we give,

tality, but in mere self-consistency and obedi. And in our life alone does nature live ;

ence to his own conscientious scruples, Mr. Ours is her wedding garment, ours her shroud. Montagu would not countenance the use of wine “ It were a vain endeavour,

at his own table. So far, all was right. But Though I should gaze for ever

doubtless, on such a system, under the known On that green light that lingers in the west :

habits of modern life, it should have been made I may not hope from outward forms to win

a rule to ask no man to dinner : for to force The passion and the life whose fountains are within." This was one, and the most common shape of thoroughly useless) act of painful abstinence, is

men, without warning, to a single (and, therefore, extinguished power, from which Coleridge fled

what neither I nor any man can have a right to to the great city. But sometimes the same de

do. In point of sense, it is, in fact, precisely the cay came back upon his heart in the more poig- freak of Sir Roger De Coverley, who drenches his nantshape of intimations, and vanishing glimpses, friend the Spectator with a hideous decoction ; recovered for one moment from the Paradise of

not, as his confiding visiter had supposed, for youth, and from fields of joy and power, over

some certain and immediate benefit to follow, but which, for him, too certainly, he felt that the simply as having a tendency (if well supported cloud of night had settled for ever, Both modes by many years' continuance of similar drenches) of the same torment exiled him from nature;

to abate the remote contingency of the stone. and for the same reason he fled from poetry and

One day's abstinence could do no good on any all commerce with his own soul ; burying himself scheme, and no man was likely to offer himself in the profoundest abstractions, from life and

for a second. However, such being the law of human sensibilities.

the castle, and that law well known to Coleridge, « For not to think of what I needs must feel, hé, nevertheless, thought fit to ask to dinner But to be still and patient all I can;

Colonel, then Captain Pasley, of the Engineers, And haply by abstruse research to steal, From my own nalure, all the natural man:

well known in those days for his book on the This was my sole resource, my only plan ;

Military Policy of England; and since, for his Till that which suits a part, infects the whole, System of Professional Instruction. Now, where And now is almost grown the habit of my soul." or in what land, abides that Such were, doubtless, the true and radical “Captain, or Colonel, or Knight in arms," causes, which, for the final twenty-four years of to whom wine in the analysis of dinner is a Coleridge's life, drew him away from those neutral or indifferent element ? Wine, therescenes of natural beauty in which only, at an fore, as it was not of a nature to be omitted, earlier stage of life, he found strength and re Coleridge took care to furnish at his own private storation. These were the causes; but the im cost. And so far, again, all was right. But, mediate occasion of his departure from the why must Coleridge give his dinner to the CapLakes, in the autumn of 1800, was the favourable tain in Mr. Montagu's house? There lay the opportunity then presented to him of migrating affront; and, doubtless, it was a very inconsiin a pleasant way. Mr. Basil Montagu, the derate act on the part of Coleridge. I report Chancery barrister, happened at that time to be the case simply as it was then generally borne returning to London with Mrs. Montagu, from upon the breath, not of scandal, but of jest and a visit to the Lakes, or to Wordsworth. His merriment. The result, however, was no jest ; travelling carriage was roomy enough to allow of for bitter words ensued-words that festered in his offering Coleridge a seat in it; and his ad the remembrance; and a rupture between the miration of Coleridge was just then fervent parties followed, which no reconciliation ever enough to prompt a friendly wish for that sort of healed. close connexion,-viz., by domestication as Meantime, on reviewing this story, as geneguest under Mr. Basil Montagu's roof,—which is rally adopted by the learned in literary scandal, the most trying to friendship, and which, in this one demur rises up. Dr. Parr, a lisping old do. instance, led to a perpetual rupture of it. The tard, without dignity or power of mind of any domestic habits of eccentric men of genius, much sort, was a frequent and privileged inmate at more those of a man so irreclaimably irregular as Mr. Montagu's. Him, now, this Parr, there was Coleridge, can hardly be supposed to promise no conceivable motive for enduring ; that point very auspiciously for any connexion so close as is satisfactorily settled by the pompous inanithis. A very extensive house and household, to ties of his works. Yet, on the other hand, gether with the unlimited license of action which his habits were in their own nature far less enbelongs to the ménage of some great Doris amongst durable ; for the monster smoked ;--and how ? the nobility, could alone have made Coleridge an How did the “ Birmingham Doctor" smoke? inmate perfectly desirable. Probably many little Not as you or 1, or other civilized people smoke, jealousies and offences had been mutually sup with a gentle segar,—but with shag tobacco. pressed; but the particular spark which at length And those who know how that abomination lodges fell amongst the combustible materials already and nestles in the draperies of window curtains, prepared, and thus produced the final explosion, will guess the horror and detestation in which took the following

following shape :- Mr. Montagu the old Whig's memory is held by all enlightened had published a book against the use of wine women.—(To be concluded in our next.)

a

HISTORICAL VIEW OF THE SERVICES OF THE UPPER

HOUSE.

If a man has a horse that kicks and plunges, As a starting point, we choose the Reign of it is probable that he will see fit to get rid of James I., the period at which our knowledge of him. But before he come to that decision, a Parliament as a legislative body may be said to process must ke place in his mind, distinct commence. * from the abstract fact of kicking and plunging, In the first Parliament called by, James, the House of and the abstract fact of dismissing,--the owner

Commons took into consideration certain grievances :-

The casualty of wardship in chivalry, by which the overmust know that the horse kicks and plunges.

lord had the custody of his vassal's estate, till he reached Now, it is in the nature of the human mind, that

the age of twenty-one, without accounting for the profits; a man may have half the bones of his body purveyance, or the right of the King's officers to seize broken before his reasoning powers have brought provisions at any price they chose, or no price ; monopohim to the conviction that the same is done by

lies, which had become a source of revenue, by the grant

ing of patents to manufacture goods from spurious metals, repeated kicks of his horse ; especially if he have

which forbid all but the patentees to fabricate from purchased the gratitude of the beast by high

genuine ; the transportation of ordnance ; and the feeding, much attendance, and little or no work. dispensations of penal statutes. For the abolition of When juries in Scotland were in the habit of

these a bill was framed. Meantime, the Lords held is

conference with the Commons. The alleged grievances returning special verdicts, a young blackguard of

were part of the prerogative royal, with which the Comhigh family and influence being put on trial for

mons had no right to interfere, and so their Lordships shooting his tutor, the jury, afraid to convict, would not accede to a bill; a remonstrance they conand willing to avoid perjury as much as they ceived would be presumptuous, but they appeared not to conveniently could, found it proved that the object to a huinble petition. At another meeting, how. prisoner had loaded a gun with ball, pointed it at

ever, the Lords did, “ by way of advice, move and wish

them to forbear any farther dealing therein, or to offer the deceased, and fired it ; further, proved, that

any farther petition for it to the King."(a) But the the moment when it was fired, a ball penetrated undutiful Commons of that reign were not easily frowned the body of the deceased : but not proved that

into obedience : much about the same time they passed a the ball which so penetrated the body came

declaration of their constitutional rights, an shewed a from the gun of the prisoner.

There is ground

disposition which would have made James very glad to

trust only to the Lords for his money; "and as for the for much acute discussion on causation in such

reservations of the bill of tonnage and poundage,” he cases; and when on three separate occasions a says, in a melancholy letter to a Peer, “yee of the Upper violent contusion on the pit of the stomach has House must out of your love and discretion help it again, followed an uplifting of the horse's hind heels, a

or, otherwise, they will in this, as in all things else that

concern mee, wrack both mee and all my posterity.” (6) nicely discriminating mind may not be satisfied

The Commons returned speedily to the charge. In the that the former is connected with the latter, as ensuing session, “a bill to regulate, or probably to sup. effect with cause. If he follow Hume's doctrines, press purveyance, was thrown out by the Lords. Tho he will see that the doubt lies in the want of ex Commons sent up another bill to the same effect; which perience; that a cause and an effect having no

the other |House rejected without discussion, by a rule,

then, perhaps, first established, that the same bill could other relation to each other that we know of,

not be proposed twice in one session."(c) Unwearied than that the one is always seen to follow the by defeat, we find the Commons six years afterwards er. other, in order of time, and, therefore, may

deavouring to purchase justice, by offering to compound be expected on all occasions to do so,-three

for the abolition of wardships, purveyance, and some

other grievances. They offered L.100,000 per annum, a contusions immediately following three kicks,

sum demonstrative of the severity of the imposition. are not a sufficient number of instances to estab But the King would not have less than L.200,000, and lish, to his conviction, that the one naturally fol. would prefer three. He employed his trusty counsellors, lows the other, and will continue so to do. If the the Lords, to act as agents on the occasion ; and his reowner begins seriously to doubt about the mat

quisition was entered on the journals of their House. At ter, he will, perhaps, make inquiry at the former proprietor of the horse, who has a patch on his • It will be remarked that the instances we have quoted as face by reason of his eye having been kicked having taken place before the Revolution, are much more out; and thence through a pedigree of proprie- knowledge of the history of the Parliament of the time, than

numerous, considering the proportion they bear to our limited tors, who all bear marks of the spirited, noble, those stated as occurring since that event. The differences and high-fed animal. If his reasoning powers

during the former period really were more numerous, and for an be not then provided with a sufficiency of facts

obvious reason. In the days of prerogative the House of Com

mons was, what we hope it is gradually becoming again with. to work upon, the fault is his own.

out prerogative, a popular body; and the members felt it their It is curious, that on sitting down to enter on duty and their interest, to set themselves in opposition to the a narrative-(merely as matter of history and

phalanx of royalty and aristocracy drawn up against them, as

far as they could or dared. When prerogative was underuseful information) — of the different occasions mined, royalty and aristocracy had to make use of corrupon which the House of Lords has differed from tion instead of force, and contrived to poison the popular the more popular branch of the legislature, in

body by infusions of themselves ; consequently, till the passe

ing of the Reform Bill, the House of Commons was endowed measures of public interest, we should have fallen

with a great share of the spirit of the House of Lords, had into a train of reflections like the above. The much of the character of that body in its constitution, and subjects have surely no connexion with each

the two went to a great extent land in band. But some other ?- but it is of no consequence, let us pro

things they would not do together, as we shall see.

(a) Com. Journ. I, 150-56, New Parl. Hist. I. 1027. ceed with the narrative,

(b) Letter quoted Hallami's Const. Hist. I. 41, (c) Hal. I. 420 VOL. IO. X.

3 B

a conference, they assumed towards the Commons the James had, in virtue of his prerogative royal, imposed high tone of reprimand, and dictated the will of the mo. heavy duties on importations, in addition to those granted narch. (a) The contract was never completed.

by the statute of tonnage and poundage. Bates, a TurAn attempt made by the Peers during this Parliament, key merchant, having refused payment, the question was to put the nomination of members of the Commons' tried in the Exchequer by information. The Judges did House into the hands of the Crown, should not be omit their duty to the King ; using the law according to Jus. ted. Sir Francis Goodwin bad been elected for Bucking tice Crawley's definition of it, as "an old and trusty servant hamshire, in opposition to Sir John Fortescue, a Privy of the King,-his instrument or means which he useth Counsellor. The judges being employed to find a method to govern his people by ;" and not only gave judgment of nullifying the election, produced a sentence of out against Bates, but insulted him by admiring his impulawry against Goodwin; the return was sent back to the dence. In consequence of this decision, a more extensive sheriff, and Sir John Fortescue was chosen. The matter royal tariff was framed. The Commons passed a bill being brought under the consideration of the Commons, abolishing “impositions," " which, as might be anticiGoodwin was declared duly elected. The Lords called pated,says Hallam, "did not obtain the concurrence of on the Commons to justify their proceedings in a confer the Upper House."(a) ence, before any other matter should be proceeded in : We now pass to the fruitful reign of Charles I. Tho but the Commons denied the right of the other House to first blast of the trumpet of defiance was blown by the call for an account of their proceedings. The Lords sent Peers, thus:- In the first Parliament, the Commons a second message intimating the will of the King, that granted the duties of tonnage and poundage for one year they should take the matter into consideration. The only, instead of for the King's life. This was not a thing Commons, somewhat alarmed at the awful name, evad. to be offered to " such a blood-drinker as our Shah ;" so ing still the interference of the Lords, held a conference the Lords rejected the bill. (b) The consequence was that with the King; and after hearing with some patience a the duties were levied without the tedious formality of little of his logic, about “the divinity that doth hedge a an act; for they were, what the King “had never meant King,” yielded to his compromising suggestion, to set to give away, nor could possibly do without.” aside both elections and issue a new writ. (b)

After some slight discussions in the renowned confe. The Commons' House of the first Parliament of this rence about " the liberty of the subject,” in which they reign made vain endeavours at improvement—we beg expressed great tenderness of the safety of the prerogative, pardon-innovation, in ecclesiastical matters. During i he the bias of the Peers “ inclining a little too much, as is previous reign they had made several attempts to check natural, to the side of Monarchy," to use the words of the use of excommunication as a means of enabling the Hume, was tried on the Petition of Rights. Every one clergy to impose secular punishments: to prevent non knows that the subject of this petition, (or bill in the residence : and to abolish pluralities; but were duly form of a petition,) was the demand of voluntary loans, defeated by the Upper House. (c) In 1604, the Commons the commitment of those who refused them, the billetresumed their work. “A code of new Canons," says Hal-ing of soldiers as a punishment, and the extension of lam, “ had recently been established, in convocation, with martial law. The King sent a letter to the Parliament, the King's assent, obligatory, perhaps, upon the clergy, calling for confidence in his royal word. The Lords but tending to set up an unwarranted authority over the found in this “gratious intentions, and divers royal and whole nation, imposing oaths, and exacting securities, in good offers,” and proposed, as an addition, "We humbly certain cases, from the laiiy, and aiming at the exclusion present this petition to your Majesty, not only with a of non-comformists from all civil rights. Against these care of preserving our own liberties, but with a due recanons, as well as various other grievances, (viz., plurali. gard to leave entire that sovereign power, wherewith ties, non-residence, the ignorance of the clergy,] the your Majesty is trusted, for the protection, safety, and Commons remonstrated, in a conference with the Upper happiness of your people." But the Commons knew House ; but with little immediate effect.”(d) It was in whose word they could put faith ; and, having some with no effect : a bill three times passed in the Commons, idea of trusting to themselves for “protection, safety, and was as often rejected by the Lords. In 1610, we find happiness," rejected the amendment. (c) the Primate Bancroft, unable to smother his just indigna In the short Parliament of 1640, the Commons took tion at so much audacity, writing to the King, in these into consideration, certain grievances, preparatory to words (they will be a model for the next birth-day levee :) granting a supply. This was anything but pleasing to --"A bill rejected the two last sessious of this Parliament, Charles, and he went to his good counsellors, the Lords, having again passed the Lower House, was, upon Satur who engaged to act as agents in negociating for the day last, read, by the Lord Chancellor's appointment, to money. They called on the Commons to be more quiek the Upper House, the copy whereof I have presumed with their supplies ; but their interference only caused here to enclose. Your Majesty, on perusing of it, shall some time to be taken up in resenting the breach of prie find it to stretch very far, neither regarding some statutes vilege. (d) yet in force, nor the authority either of your Majesty's In the long Parliament, the.“ bulwark of the constitus convocation, (representing in former times the Church of tion against the waves of democratic innovation,” went, England,) or of your Highness, the chief and supreme in general, hand in hand with the Commons. Whatever governor of it." This epistle draws a picture of the dan among the many great alterations of that stirring time, gers of the suffering church, which would disturb the is of important consequence, must be laid, whether it be dreams of Philpotts. The bill enclosed in a preamble in praise or blame, to the charge of both. In the previous complaining of the multitude of canons and constitutions, reign, the committal of Arundel, the withholding a sumwhich, infringing on the common law, threaten the liber mons from Bristol, and the promotions of Scotchmen, ties of the country, proposes to enact, “That no caron, had tended to sour the temper of the Peers, and a few constitution, or ordinance ecclesiastical, heretofore made, years of Charles confirmed it into vinegar.

Yet the constituted, or ordained, within the space of ten years, Houses did not agree in all things; and some of the dif, last past, or hereafter, to be made, constituted, or ordain. ferences ought in fairness to be recorded. ed, shall be of any force or effect, by any means whatso.

During the steady approach of the long Parliament ever, to impeach or hurt any person or persons in his or towards the fortalices of despotism, Laud had not deserted their life, liberty, lands, or goods, until the same be first his favourite “ thorough," (the expressive term by which confirmed by act of Parliament; any law, custom, ordin he familiarly alluded to his designs ;) nor had Wren ance, or thing to the contrary, in anywise, notwithstand ceased to insult the Presbyterians with the gratuitous ining.” (e)

crease of the ceremonies they detested. Not less awful

was the infatuation of their right reverend brethren, (a) Lord's Journals, 1. 389,619. (b) Hal. 1. 49. Brud. Brit. Emp. I. 345.

who, in 1640, adopted a set of canons of strict ecclesi(c) Hal. 1., 285-7. Com. Journals, 1, 235-8. (d) Hal. I. 413.

(ej Hailes' Memorials, 17 and 18. This is probably a renewal of the bill mentioned in the Parl. Hist. (1. 1067,) which Hallam could

(a) Hal. 1, 438. Record of some worthy proceedings in the not find, (1. 413, Note.) The originai is among Sir James Baliour's

honorable, wise, and faithful House of Commons, in the year MSS. in the Advocates' Library, and there can be doubt of its

611, in Somer's Tracts 11. 148. New Parl. Hist. L 1158. authenticity.

Ib, Ib. II. 6.

(C) Ib. 357. Hume, Chap. 51, (d) New Parl. Hist, II, 566

astical discipline, which, among other things, bound all during the course of his life, as unintentionally struck a persons, whether ecclesiastical or lay, connected with the blow at it in the manner of his death ; a great example church, to make oath not to alter its government ; a pro

to the world, that it is dangerous to pay back tyrants vision which the King was too feeble, or not sufficiently with their own acts,—showing that, on the side of great infatuated, to sanction. At the same time, they made criminals, there is a prejudice not easily uprooted, which farther attempts to tax the community in convention. makes it inexpedient to render then the full reward of The Commons, in consequence of all this, passed a bill, their misdeeds. in 1640, “ for restraining of Bishops, and others in holy At “the happy restoration," when the nation was mad orders, from intermeddling in secular affairs.” To this, with a feeling called “loyalty,” which it was for Hume the Lords, after much doubt and caution, refused their to place among the social virtues, that part of the legisconsent. (a) This was something which the Commons did lature, which “ acts as a wholesome restraint on rash not like, and they saw the necessity of vigorous measures. measures," did not obstruct the bloody acts of the Con« They prepared a very short bill,” says Clarendon, “ for vention House of Commons : nay, it attempted some ef. the utter eradication of Bishops, Deans, and Chapters, fectual improvements. The Commons, in passing the acts with all Chancellors, officials, and all officers, and other of indemnity, excepted ten persons immediately connected persons, belonging to either of them.”(6) The measure was with the death of the King, along with twenty others, not at that time passed ; but the sybil afterwards offered who were to be affected with penalties, not extending to her books “ with half the leaves of peace torn out," and death. The Lords showed a prudent delay in passing her price was not to be refused. There is something in the bill of indemnity, which they sent back to the Com. the whole transaction, singularly akin to our associations mons, with amendments, excluding all who were concerned in the present day.

in the execution of Charles, (coupled with the Mohegan The episcopal spirit which distinguished the Upper condition, that the relations of five Peers, who had sufHouse, much about the period when the first ineasure fered during the Commonwealth, should be entitled to against the Bishops was rejected, made another faint choose a victim for each.) Five statesmen counected with flash before its extinction. The Lords passed an order the republic, were, in a similar manner, excepted by name, for enforcing the laws against neglect of the ceremonies and a crowd were to suffer minor penalties. The Com. of the church; the Commons considered it unnecessary, mons were obliged to compromise : but they saved as at that time, “ to urge the severe execution of the said much as they could of the honour of the King, by exlaws." (c)

tending mercy to those who had surrendered themselves Here may be mentioned one judicious attempt, on the in virtue of a royal proclamation. (a) part of the Peers, to stop the progress of that power, A moveable body, such as a House of Commons, if it which the nature of their previous opposition, had served is at the entire command of a court, can always be made, to accelerate. The discovery of the army plot urged the in a small degree, more dangerous than one which is staCommons to pass a bill, to prevent the dissolution of tionary. When the Convention Parliament was dissolve the Parliament without its own consent. The Peers ed, it happened, unluckily for the country, that gold, wished to add a clause, limiting the duration to two years ; threats, and the ferocious loyalty of the period, gave but the Commons were not then inclined to submit to Charles a command, for a short period, over the House dictation, and the attempt was dropped.' (d)

of Commons. They consequently passed a bill, dischargThe incident in Scotland, and the attempt to seize the ing all loyalists from interest above three per cent., for five members, added to the just alarms of the Commons, debts contracted previous to the wars; and another, for and showed that their enemy was determined to apply to the exception of the King's judges in the Tower, from the sword. They framed the declaration for putting the the act of indemnity ; both of which were dropped by the kingdom into a state of defence : it was not acceded to Lords, who, however, seconded the Commons in bringing by the Lords, who, however, joined in the ordinance for to trial Vane and Lambert.() putting the militia into the hands of persons trusted by But this state of matters did not last. The Peers did both Houses. (e)

not entirely forget those regal powers which the long The dismissal of the two successive lieutenants of the Parliament had abolished, and bethought them that they tower, men of desperate fortune, into whose custody the might as well be restored. We read, in the journals, city saw ammunition and warlike stores secretly conveyed, that a committee was appointed to prepare a bill for rewas among the measures faintly opposed by the Lords. (f) pealing all acts made in the Parliament begun the 3d of

The self-denying ordinance, a measure which, be November, 1640, and for re-enacting such of them as cause it finally paved the way for the progress of one should be thought fit. This committee some time after ambitious man, has been termed the finesse of a party; reported their opinion, “ That it was fit for the good of but in which it must be admitted that, to ordinary eyes, the nation, that there be court of like nature to the the chance of triumphing through the self-enjoined re late court called the Star-Chamber, but desired the ad. straint was, at least, a doubtful one-was opposed by the vice and directions of the House in these particulars folLords; and the Commons, in return, objected to an ordi. lowing :-Who should be judges ? What matters should nance, exempting the members of both Houses from the

they be judges of? By what manner of proceeding should billeting of soldiers. But the Lower House sent a flatter they act ?" The House, it is added, thought it not fit ing message to the Upper, and the latter yielded.(9) to give any particular directions therein, but left it to the

The next important point of difference, was on the committee to proceed as they would. It does not appear treaty with the King in 1648. The Commons, on the that anything farther was done this session ; but we find ground that the person they had to deal with, was not the bill of repeal revived next year. It is, however, only to be trusted, insisted on the preliminary ratification of once mentioned. Perhaps it may be questionable whemeasures for the settlement of the church, the govern ther, even amidst the fer vid loyalty of 1661, the House ment of the militia, and the nullity of laws passed by of Commons would have concurred in re-establishing the proclamation. These conditions were opposed by the Star-Chamber.(c) Lords,(h) until concession was too late.

A temper soon began to appear among the Com. Clarendon gives a pleasing account of the House of Peers mons which neither gold nor fear could subdue. Before at this time " They were few in number, and used to their spirit can be appreciated at the present day, a dise adjourn for two or three days together, for want of busi tinction must be made, in their farther acts during this ness ;" and, on one of these adjournments, “with which the

reign, between those relating to religion, and those which House of Commons was very well pleased,” they found their abstractly concerned the liberty of the subject. It fell to House closed with padlocks on their return. This was dur few, at that period, to possess the enlightened spirit of ing the acting of the last scene of the tragedy, when a L'Hospital, to look boldly at religious freedom ; and monarch, who had been unconsciously fighting for liberty admitting a charity for such religious intolerance of the

period as was not very oppressive, we must at the samo (a) Parl. Hist. II. 810.

(6) Clarendon, I. 227. (c) Hall II, 164. (d) Ib. 155.

le, Ib. 17. -Brod, Brit Emp. IIL 241, 301. (8) Parl. His. III. 326-54

(a) Hal. II, 415. Parl, Hist. IV. 91. (1) Ib; 924;

(6)-Hal. IL 440.

(c) Hall. IL. 451,

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