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Russia thereby greatly increased, the heterogeneous terri-, time, rejected the offer of mediation made to him at Santories which he was to receive in exchange could never tarem by the Queen of Spain. His efforts to recruit his be consolidated with the French Empire, but would be army among the peasantry have been attended with sucready to break out into rebellion on the first favourable cess. Captain Robinson, the agent of Don Miguel, has occasion. The fact of this offer being made is worthy of left this country for head-quarters. He is charged with record, as evincing the light in which Kings and Emperors a mission from some of our Tories, and from two foreign view mankind. Spain, Italy, and the other countries, ambassarlors, with whom he has had repeated interviews. were, in the eyes of the Autocrat, nothing else than two One of the most important circumstances, in judging of large estates, and the inhabitants nothing else than the the character and objects of the Tories, has been elicited stock upon them, who had no concern whatever with the of late years -- that is the undeniable fact, that they keep manner in which, or the persons by whom, they were up a constant intercourse with the most despotic of the governed. M. Bignon proceeded to expose the designs of European tyrants, and that the cause of despotism in Austria on Italy, and of Prussia on the German States ; every state is considered by them as their own. What, and insisted on the necessity of resisting the usurpation but their hatred of liberty in the abstract, could induce of the Three Powers. The Dac de Broglie highly ap them to give their countenance and support to that mon. plauded M. Bignon's speech, and thanked the committee ster, Don Miguel ? for their address, “every paragraph and principle of which the Ministers adopted.” So far all was well ; but,

SPAIN. alas ! Pozzo di Borgo appears to have lost no time in taking the Duc de Broglie to task for the liberality of his Notwithstanding all the efforts of the Queen, the expressions. The very next day the Duke explained Carlist party gains strength. They have appeared in conaway, that is, retracted, amidst the universal laughter of siderable force in Biscay, Navarre, Arragon, and Valenthe Chambers, the approval he had given of M. Bignon's cia. On the 26th December, they made a formidable at. speech.

tack on Tolosa, but were successfully resisted. On the Twenty-seven persons have been tried for a conspiracy 30th December, Zavallo, the General of the Fransiscans, to revolutionize the government at the celebration of the who is the real leader of the Monkish party, attacked three days in July last. The mode in which the trial with 2,000 insurgents the Queen's troops, under Valdez, was got up was most disgraceful to the French Govern. at Durango in Biscay, and gained some advantage over ment, and proves how little fair dealing is appreciated by them. The French papers, on the other hand, assert that, the Crown lawyers of France. The witnesses were mostly Quesada has cleared Castile of the rebels, and has caused police spies—men who had been proved unworthy of cre

several of their leaders to be shot ; Merino himself escaping dit on former occasions; and it was distinctly established with difficulty into Portugal. The Council of Regency that a false copy of a document, found on the person of has, by a royal decree, been declared to be the first and one of the accused, was inserted by the government law. highest of the kingdoin, and each of its members is to yers in the body of the indictment. The whole of the have an anmal salary of 120,000 reals, or L.3,000 steralleged conspirators were of course acquitted. The coun- | ling. In this manner this irresponsible and irremovable sel for the accused, although they did no more than their chamber is conciliated, on the understanding, no doubt, duty, did not, however, escape punishment. On the fraud that the meinbers henceforth are not to embarrass the being discovered, M. Pinart, one of the counsel for the Queen's Government. In Madrid, Zea Bermudez is more defence, exclaimed, “ 'That is a falsification—I say it- unpopular than ever, and the new Minister at War, Zarco will maintain it.” M. Michel, another advocate on the de Valle, is scarcely better liked. Three vigorous attempts same side, said, “ That expression is mine also ;” and M. have been made to seize Don Carlos. Rodil, CaptainDupont told the Advocate-General, that the papers pro.

General of Estremadura, crossed the Portuguese frontier, duced were not in the hand-writing of the prisoner, but at the head of a considerable force, and nearly surprised “ thas he recognised the red pencil of one of the bar." Don Carlos at Miranda. He made his escape with some For these expressions, strictly justified by the circum. difficulty, and fled to Chaves. Morillo, at the same time, stances, Dupont was suspended for a year, and Pinart and advanced to Braganza, but was equally unfortunate. Michel for six months, from the exercise of their profes- Another attempt by Rodil, in the same direction, was sional duties. It is in vain to talk of liberty in France equally unsuccessful. These expeditions are loudly comwhile such proceedings as disgraced this trial can take plained of by the Tory press, as a violation of the Portuplace.

guese territory, which the British Government is bound

to resent ; but it deserves inquiry, in the first place, whe. PORTUGAL

ther the step was not taken with consent of the Portu. THE paltry contest in Portugal, between the two con guese government. temptible Dons, continues without the prospect of ter The Liberals of Catalonia and Old Castile, have caused mination. Don Pedro, instead of attacking his enemy, great alarm to the Queen's Government. At a meeting has contrived to get into a quarrel with his nobility. held at Barcelona, in the begivning of January, it was reThe Count de Taipa published a letter, calling upon solved to demand a change of the Queen's Ministers, a Pedro to summon the Cortes, and adopt a liberal policy. disavowal of the principle of the despotic manifesto issued In a second letter, in alluding to the proceedings of an soon after the King's death, and the establishment of a ecclesiastical commission for the suppression of religious liberal Government. These resolutions were sent to houses, he styled their President “ a profaning counsel. Llander, the Captain-General of Catalonia, who forwarded lor." For this expression the Count was seized, but ul them to Madrid. The Queen returned the resolutions timately made his escape to the Asia, Admiral Parker's without condescending to open the packet; whereupon flag-ship; and nine of the peerz protested to Don Pedro Llander, after consulting the municipal authorities of against this breach of the privileges of the peerage.

Don Barcelona, again forwarded the original packet without Pedro pleaded ignorance of the whole matter, and pro. any additional letter. Quesada, the Governor of Old mised satisfaction; but not only failed in his promise, Castile, has made a similar demand. The juste milieu but aggravated the injury, by styling the remonstrance system will not do for Spain. Merino is with Don Car of the peers a pelition, in the answer which he deigned los at Villa Real in Portugal. to give them through his Minister. The peers again From an article published in the Revue Militaire waited on Don Pedro to remonstrate. He denied them belge, by Van Halen, we learn that the total Spanish admittance; but ultimately, on the representation of the army may at present be estimated at 90,000 men. One. Duke of Terceira, gave an assurance that, on the meeting third of these men are, however, militia. The cavalry, of the Cortes, the whole affair would undergo discussion. which is in a wretched condition, hardly exceeds 4,000

Near Oporto there has been some skirmishing, which and the artillery force 8,500. Van Halen states that, has, on the whole, been favourable to the Miguelites. there are only two parties in Spain, the Liberal and the Don Pedro's troops have, on the other hand, destroyed Carlist. The greater part of the nobility, the merchants, several flour-mills in the neighbourhood of Torres Ve- and the manufacturing classes, belong to the former; the dras; so that the military exploits of the month are beneficed clergy, the monks, and the great body of the pretty equally balanced. Don Miguel has, in the mean peasantry, form the latter.

HOLLAND.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The Dutch are beginning to get tired of the expense

It is gratifying to turn from the stale and unprofitable in which their obdurate King is involving them. How-verbiage of the speeches of the Kings of the different Euever advantageous it may be, for the glory of the throne, ropean States, at the opening of their legislative bodies, to resist a pacification with Belgium, it is highly injurious

to the Messages of the Presidents of the United States to to the pockets of the subject. An important debate has Congress. These documents always contain full informataken place in the second chamber of the States-General,

tion on the state of the country, in its external and interon the financial situation of the country. The expensive nal relations; and form, in this respect, a humiliating military es'ablishment, and the heavy taxation were contrast to the speeches from the throne of Great Britain. loudly deprecated. The budget for 1834, was adopted,

After some details on the satisfactory state of the country, after three days debate, by 36 to 16 ; but when a bill the President remarks, that it is gratifying to observe that to provide additional means for covering the expenditure

the intercourse between Great Britain and the United of 1833 was proposed, it was rejected by 31 to 19. The

States is becoming daily more extensive, and that senti. resolution of the King, not to recognize the independence

ments of good will have grown up befitting their common of Belgium, is as strong as ever. He has, no doubt, origin. After noticing that some delay had occurred on powerful reasons for his obstinacy, which will, in all the part of the French government in discharging the first probability, be developed at the congress of Vienna.

instalment of the money settled by treaty to be paid to

citizens of the United States, as an indemnification for BELGIUM

injury inflicted on their commerce; that Spain, Portugal,

and Naples had agreed to indemnify the American mer. GENERAL GOBLET has resigned, and Count Felix de chants for injuries of a similar description ; and that a Merode has been appointed his successor. The Belgian treaty of anity and commerce had been made with Bel. army for 1834, has been fixed at 111,000 men. serious misunderstanding between King Leopold and his gium, and also that a treaty of commerce and navigation

with Russia had recently been ratified, the President pro. Queen, has taken place, and negotiations for a separation

ceeds to the interesting subjects of the revenue and public are on foot. The marriage promised at a very early pe- Jebt. He remarks that the receipts into the treasury for riod to have such a termination.

the last year amounted to thirty-two millions of dollars,

about seven millions sterling. Of the above, thirty-two GERMANY.

millions, ten 28ths were derived from the customs, and A Congress of the European potentates is never as.

three from the sales of pnblic lands. The expenditure sembled but for the purpose of attacking liberty. That

for all objects, including 2,572,240 dollars on account of of Munchengratz is only the precursor of another, to be

the public debt, did not amount to 25,000,000, and a large held at Vienna. Some of the Ministers have already

balance remained in the treasury, after satisfying all de arrived and others are on their way. There can hardly mands. The whole debt of the United States, on 1st Jan. be any other object in view, than the consolidating of 1834, was 4,760,082 dollars; and the revenue of the present the power of the despots, and the subjecting of the Ger.

year, with the balance in the treasury, was expected to be man states to their control. It was ominously remark. sufficient to discharge the whole remainder of the debt. ed, that as soon as the envoy of the King of Holland,

Although, however, the general government had every Van Goelen, arrived at Vienna, the Belgian Minister | prospect of being free from debt in a very short time, the took his departure. No one expects that the Vienna separate States have all borrowed money,—some of them Congress will consider how the authority of King Leo.

to a considerable amount. pold is to be strengthened.

General Jackson then dwells at some length on the subject of the United States Bank. He affirms it to have

been distinctly proved that that institution had been at. TURKEY.

tempting to influence the election of the public officers of The eyes of all Europe are directed with anxiety to

the States by its money,—and that, in violation of the the proceedings of the Russians in Turkey. France and express provisions of its charter, it had, by a formal reEngland are making active preparations in their naval solution, placed its funds at the disposition of its Presiarsenals, to increase their feets in the Medeterranean, dent, to be employed in sustaining the political power of which are already formidable, while Russia is equally the Bank. The attempts of the directors to create a panic active at Odessa, Sebasta pol, and other ports in the Black in 1832, while their petition for the renewal of the Sea. The Emperor of Russia is determined to adhere to charter was before Congress, were also detailed, and the his alliance with the Sultan; and the fortifications of the President stated, that, in his own a phere of duty, he should Dardanelles have been put in the most efficient state of have felt himself called on to order a writ of scire facias defence by the Turks, under the direction of Russian en to be issued, with the view of putting an end to the char. gineers. The British and French ambassadors having tered rights it had só plainly violated, were it not that been questioned by the ministers of the Sultan as to the the charter itself (which terminates in March, 1836) will reinforcements of the squadrons of their respective nations, expire as soon as a decision would be obtained in the court and having stated in answer, that it was caused by the of last resort. In the meantime, the money of the United recent treaty between Russia and Turkey, a meeting of States has been, at the suggestion of the President, removed the ambassadors of the other Powers was called, and im from the Bank. mediately afterwards, orders were sent to prevent the In answer to the charges made by General Jackson, passage of any vessel through the Straits. Russia, we the Directors of the Bank have published a long report. suspect, is determined, at whatever cost, to make Turkey They state, that, soon after the general election, it was in. her subservient vassal. She will effect her object peace-timated that it was necessary for them to consult the ably if she can, and the longer peace is maintained, the views of those who had gained an ascendency in the gomore favourable it will be for her designs; but she is vernment of the country, and that, upon their refusal to making every preparation to maintain the footing she attend to this intimation, every means were resorted to has already obtained by force, if force be necessary. for the ruin of the institution. An important division

Few, we suppose, will be deceived by the article pub. afterwards took place on the Bank question in the House lished in the German papers, by Metternich, in which it of Representatives, when the government party obtained is stated, that the Austrian Government has received the a majority of 133 to 96 votes. This division is considermost satisfactory assurances from Russia, in regard to her rd decisive of the fate of the Bank. The Bank question late negotiations in Turkey, and that "the two Govern- is interesting, not only on account of a great proportion ments have guaranteed the continued existence of the of the stock of the Bank being held by subjects of Great

Turkish empire, even in case of the extinction of the Britain, but also from the manner in which it shews reigning dynasty, and to the exclusion of Mehemet Ali.” the working of the constitution of the States. For the We may be assured that if any treaty regarding Turkey last century, at least, no instance has occurred where the has recently been made between Austria and Russia, it King of Great Britain has ventured to exercise his theis a treaty for the partition, and not for the preservation oretical right of rejecting any measure approved of by of the integrity of the Turkish dominions.

both Houses of Parliament. His Majesty is well aware

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that his negative is a mere fiction, beautiful and effica- | into one common treasury, and divided among the differcious in theory, but useless in practice. The American ent members of the Confederation in proportion to their exPresident, on the other hand, knows that every part of tent, population, &c., in lieu of the duties they at present the constitution of the States, over which he presides, is levy. The Confederation already comprehends the whole fitted for use, and that the constitution possesses sufficient of Germany not under the sway of Austria, except Franke solidity and strength to enable it to withstand any | fort. Switzerland has positively refused to join the Confe. shocks which can be received in its working. He, there. deration. The object of Prussia evidently is, to open an fore, did not hesitate to refuse his assent, when both extensive market for her own manufactures, and to exChambers of Congress had voted that the Bank Charter clude from the whole of Germany British goods. This should be renewed. Further, when the Senate requested will be a very serious matter for our British manufacturthat General Jackson would communicate a copy of a ers, as Germany is at present their best customer ; but paper which had been published, and which he had read we have no right to complain. The procedure of the to the heads of the executive departments in September Prussian Government is strictly in the system of recipro. last, relative to the retpoval of the public money from the city. We tax the corn and timber of Prussia at an exorBank, he plainly refused on the broad ground that the bitant rate, for the encouragement of our agriculturists executive is a co-ordinate and independent branch of the and of our North American colonies; and she, on the government with the Senate, and that the Senate had no other hand, does everything in her power to exclude our right to require any communication made by the Presi. manufactures. dent to the heads of departments acting as a Cabinet

CHINA TRADE. Council. When will the King of Great Britain object Much dissatisfaction has been felt at the regulations to the renewal of an injurious monopoly, to which both regarding the new China trade. The act of Parliament Houses of Parliament have consented ?

empowers the King to levy, through officers named by the

Crown, a tonnage duty equal to 5s. per ton, and an import WEST INDIES.

and export duty each equal to 10s. per cent. This is the A bill for the abolition of slavery, after much debate, highest charge. At present the orders in Council fix 2s. passed the Jamaica House of Assembly. The bill is un for the tonnage dues, and 7s. per cent. on the export and derstood to adopt the general provisions of that passed by import cargo. There could not have been a more effectual the British Parliament. In some of the islands an im- | contrivance for ruining our Chinese trade and shipping, mediate emancipation has been considered preferable to and transferring the trade to our rivals, the Dutch, Spathe Emancipation Scheme, and measures have been taken nish, and Americans. Suppose, to illustrate its operation, to give the slaves their liberty in a few months.

that a British ship of 400 tons burden goes to Canton,

having on board a cargo worth L.100,000—she will SOUTH AMERICA.

have to pay L.40 of tonnage duty, L.350 of duty on her The House of Representatives of Buenos Ayres having import cargo, and probably L.350 of duty on her exprohibited the journals from making any political re port cargo—that is, she will have to pay a port charge marks, a formidable insurrection broke out on the 11th of L. 740 more than will be paid by an American or other October. In consequence of the prohibition, four of the foreign ship of equal burden and value ! But there is papers were discontinued ; but one persisted in discussing another serious objection to these imposts, for by their politics, and was ordered to be prosecuted. Upon this, means a very large revenue will be raised, which the great crowds of people, principally butchers, collected, Crown may dispose of at pleasure, without the control of attacked the police, and afterwards made attempts to Parliament. The amount of the trade to China, under raise the country. Headed by General Pinedo, they soon the present restrictions, is not less than 70,000 tons. This collected a considerable force, and took possession of all gives £7000 of tonnage dues. Exclusive of bullion, the the strong points in the neighbourhood of the city. In export and import trade may be taken at nine millions. this state matters were on the 26th October—the date of which gives L.31,500, and with the tonnage duties, the last intelligence.

1..38,500, to be annually disposed of as the Minister of the

Crown thinks proper. Were the duties raised to the highEAST INDJES.

est rate the act of Parliament authorizes, upwards of A Joint Stock Company has been formed at Madras. L.60,000 might be annually collected, without any increase called the Indian Iron and Steel Company. The ore in the trade. But there can be no doubt that the inthis Company are to work is found in mountain crease will be very great, after it has been open for a year massess, and has only to be carried away, requiring no or two to the enterprise of our merchants. mining operations—it is the magnetic iron ore of Salem,

SCOTCH MANUFACTURES. found to be richer than the far-famed iron ore of “ Dan. The accounts froin the manufacturing districts are on nomora,” in Sweden, from which the iron is made. The the whole favourable, but the wages of the weavers are iron has been found to make steel equal to any in the still miserably low. Many thousands in the west of world. A Copper Mining Company is about to be esta Scotland have not more than 7s. a-week for the support blishsd, to work the Copper Mines in the Vellore district. of themselves and their families. At Perth, an advance The ore (a carbonate) is said to be very rich, from 20 to of from 10 to 12 per cent. has taken place on crams, and 70 per cent.

other plain fabrics, and there is abundance of work at

these terms. Umbrella ginghams have remained steady TRADE, COMMERCE, AND AGRICULTURE. for some time. The weaving trade at Paisley has been

Although it is evident from the French journals that in a prosperous state for the past month. Silk trimmings Free Trade principles are making ground in France, the are in great demand, and a considerable addition has been agriculturists and manufacturers are still much too strong made to the workmen's wages. At Montrose, the manii. for the mercantile classes to permit these priuciples to be facturing population are in full employment, and, except carried into practice. The Councils of Agriculture, Com- the poor weavers, they have not been better paid for merce, and Manufactures, which have been lately sitting their labour for a long time. in Paris, for the purpose of discussing certain proposed

WOOL. alterations in the existing tariff of duties on cotton, wool, CONTRARY to the expectation of the manufacturers iron, coal, and cattle, have decided that only a very trilling the price of wool has kept up, and the sales in London diminution on the existing import duties should be re have realized the advance that has occurred during the commended.

last twelve months. The Australian wools fetched 33, 4d.

to 3s. 80. per lb. for fair qualities; the seconds from The Prussian Government has made great progress in 25. 4d. to 3s. 2d. ; and the low fleeces from Is. 4d. to establishing its plan for the commercial federation of Ger 1s. 10d. per 1b. The Van Diemen's Land wools sold at many. There is to be an exemption from duties on Ger 2s. 4d. to 23. 6d. per lb. for the finer, and Is. 4d. to man products, in German States, a uniform tariff of 18. 11d. per lb. for the lower sorts. Spanish wools duties on foreign products, and a uniform scale of weights, brought 25. 8d. to 3s. per lb. for good and fair qua. measures, and coins. The revenue thus derived is to be paid | lity. Scotch wools also continue to rise.

For some

GERMAN CONFEDERATION.

ton.

THE TEA TRADE.

AGRICULTURE.

time the buyers at the Cloth Halls, in the anticipa- | viously the duty paid was little more than nominal. tion that the price of wool would fall, limited their pur- Great and undeniable, however, as are the evils of the chases, but that anticipation not having been realized, Corn Lars, nothing but the most strenuous and perseand the market continuing to look firm, the buying of vering efforts, on the part of the inhabitants of the towns, woollen goqds, both coarse and fine, has become more will effect their removal. The Parliament, which alone brisk than for several months past. The same causes can remove the restrictions, is filled with parties who be. have produced similar effects in the flannel markets. lieve themselves interested in their continuance. The The comparative price of wool and worsted stuffs, has House of Lords consists almost entirely of land profor some time been such as not to leave a remunerating prietors; and no English member can be admitted to a profit to the manufacturer, but a small advance has lately seat in the Lower House, until he makes oath that he is been obtained.

a landholder. The farmers, besides, are far from being THE SILK MANUFACTURE,

yet generally convinced that their interest in this matter Which, for two or three months, was very languid, has is identical with that of the other industrious classes ; of late assumed more activity. Weavers of all descrip- and they may therefore be expected to stand by their tions of cloth, now find ready employment, though figured landlords. In this manner nearly one-third, and not the goods, chiefly sarcenets, appear to be most in request. least influential third, of the people, is arrayed against a Silk dyers have also full employment.

free trade in food.—[We recommend to universal perusal THE IRISH LINEN TRADE.

the new Penny Corn-Law Magazine ; Lord Milton's liThe sales have been much increasing latterly. The beral pamphlet on the Corn-Laws; and the admirable export is at present enormous. At this moment, a great Catechism on the Corn-Laws, by the Westminster Re. quantity is in progress of shipment for New York. The viewers. ] duty on the importation of linen to the United States was This has been one of the most favourable years since first reduced from 25 to 15 per cent.; and on the 31st ul the 'termination of the war for the stock-farmers. timo, linen was admitted completely free from duty. Cattle, sheep, and wool, have been selling at high prices, IRON TRADE.

and there' never were fewer arrears than at present on At the Quarterly Meeting of Iron Masters at Bir- | Highland estates. In the corn-growing districts, how. mingham, on the 9th, Shropshire pig-iron advanced 55. a ever, the ruinously low price of grain has caused much

Staffordshire pig-iron has continued stationary. distress, and matters are in a very gloomy state. FeedHoops and iron stone have also advanced.

ing cattle during the summer has turned out a very un

profitable business, and winter feeding, as far as can be The greatest sale of tea which ever took place will be yet judged, does not hold out anticipations of much proin March next. It is the last sale of the East India fit being realized. The winter hitherto has been uncom. Company, and nine millions of pounds weight are to be monly open. Ploughing in East Lothian was stopped exposed.

only for three days, during the whole month of Decem,

ber. Field work is in general, therefore, in an advanced Both parties are preparing for the impending struggle state. Turnips have not turned out an average crop, and on the Corn Laws, by the formation of associations. from the almost constant wet, sheep upon them have The opponents of the Corn Laws have resorted to the made little progress in fattening. The East Lothian powerful aid of cheap periodical publications to for- Agricultural Society has lately turned its attention to ward their cause. Several Anti-Corn Law associations trenching. For the premium awarded, there only apare in the course of formation in London; and from the peared one competitor. The field consisted of eighteen talent and station of their members, they must possess acres, and was trenched sixteen inches deep. The pro. much influence. The extent of the evil inflicted by the duce averaged 5 6-8th quarters per Scotch acre, which is Corn Laws can hardly be exaggerated. At Paris, which about one-fifth larger than the imperial. The trenching is far from being a cheap corn market, the highest price cost L.3, 8s. per acre. A premium was also offered for a of wheaten flour of the first quality answers to L.1, 9s. comparative trial of chevalier, and common barley. Only the English sack of 280 lb. ; and the highest price of one competitor appeared. The field was dry gravel soil. wheaten flour of the first quality in London is L.2, 10s. The chevalier barley produced-grain, 82 bushels, three the sack. Thus with L.2, 103. a man may buy 483 lb. lippies, weighing 50 lbs. per bushel; straw, 5314 lbs. of fine flour at Paris, whereas, with the same sum, he Common barley--grain, 77 bushels weight, 54 lbs. per can only buy 280 lb. in London. The price of wheaten bushel ; straw, 4666} lbs. ; both per Scots acre. bread of the first quality at Paris is Il sous per 4 lb. The Irish Agricultural Reports represent a picture of French weight, which is less than 4}d. for the loaf of great distress. The present rents can no longer be paid. 4 lb. Englisls weight. The price of bread of the second The continued rains are most injuriously felt-the wheat quality is 8 sous per 4 lb. French weight, which is less is everywhere fooded, and suffering severely. Potatoes han 3.1. the loaf of 4 lb. English weight.

are not only a small crop, but of an inferior quality ; We rejoice to observe that the tyrannical Corn Laws are and in consequence of the indolence of the Irish agricultu. every year more and more evaded. During the last year rists, many of them are still in the ground. Swine, an the exports of flour from Canada have more than doubled. important product in that country, are low in price, and In 1832 they amounted to 44,886 barrels ; while in 1833, the carcasses brought to market, are generally found to 92,393 were exported. This arises from the Americans be of interior quality, and smaller than usual. Compar. sending immense quantities of wheat to be ground into ing the present prices of meat and corn with the seven flour in Canada, and then sending it to this country as years average, ending in 1831, there is a diminution of colonial fiour. Last year the importation into the Clyde, nearly one-fourth. of what is called Canadian flour, was equal to about a Horse MARKETS.-At Perth Andrewmas market, sixth part of all the flour baked in the electoral district the horses were less numerous than usual, and the defi. of Glasgow. The average value of flour, in the corn ex ciency was still more perceptible in the better sort. The porting districts of the United States, is about 21s. sale upon the whole appeared dull. The prices of the Freight to Liverpool, 28. Total cost in Liverpool, 23s. better sort might average from 30 to 40 guineas, but very Present price of wheat imported from Canada, 325. few reached the latter price. The middling class were Extra expense by the transit through Canada, 9s. selling from L. 15 to 1.30; and the inferior at lesser rates,

In discussions on the Corn Laws, it is very generally even down to 40s. A large proportion remained on hand assumed that the restrictive system is one of long sianding, about the end of the market. At Preston, all horses and that it onght not therefore to be lightly touched; but suitable for hunting, the saddle, or quick draught, met the truth is, that it is only since 1815 that the Corn with a ready sale, and at higher prices thau have been Laws have operated to exclude foreign grain, for pre- obtained for the last few years.

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JOHN JOHNSTONE, Printer, 19, St. James's Square, Edinburgh.

TAIT’S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

MARCH 1834.

EXPOSURE OF THE SPY SYSTEM,

AND ENGLISH LIBEL LAW.

How much longer is the present libel law to be ment in Glasgow in 1816-17, to give inforendured? We shall waive for the present every mation of a conspiracy, said to exist among case originating in political feeling, and brietly the Reformers. He corresponded with the Scotshew the operation and powers of this pernicious tish Crown Lawyers in similar capacities, and law in two instances; one past,—the other only was in daily intercourse with them throughprospective, and therefore open to discussion.

out the disgraceful State Trials; but, after all The case which is past is that of a newsvender, was over, and when, denounced and exposed as tried in the Court of Exchequer the other a traitorous spy, he was driven from Glasgow, week. Every body knows what a newsman is,

-Lord Sidmonth would not so waste the public a retail dealer in newspapers, who buys them money as to satisfy, what his Lordship justly every day in hundreds and thousands, to despatch termed, his “ inflated demands.” To be rid of to all parts of the country from which he has him, the Government repeatedly offered him a orders, and with no more knowledge of their settlement at the Cape, with an outfit. By his contents than if they were printed in Arabic. own showing he must have cost this country proWell, this man, so useful in his own sphere, is bably L.2000, or even more, for detection of a held by the existing libel law equally responsible conspiracy which he himself treats as contemptifor whatever may appear in one, or all, of these ble, and which, it is believed, never would have papers, as the writers, editors, and proprietors. existed save for the efforts of spies ; “got up,” In the present case, the prosecutor was an at he says, after he 'peached "to delay reform." Lord torney, who sued the newsman for selling a paper Sidmouth undoubtedly considered Richmond a wbich he alleged contained a libel on his cha spy, and nothing but an ordinary spy, at which racter. The learned Judge, in laying down the Richmond appears to be very indignant; and, law, surely intended to deal it a finishing blow.

moreover, his Lordship believed that he paid him Indeed, there is but one opinion among men of enough for five or six weeks' work, when he fin. all parties as to its imperfection and inequality. ally compounded with him for what Richmond He said, that as the law at present stood, any contemptuously calls a few hundreds, and which party, whether newsvender, coffee-house keeper, is believed to be L.800—no bad pay for a weaor any sort of publisher, was bound by law to ver for six weeks' work. But we are not going know whether the publications he put forth to into the private history of Richmond. We think the world contained libels or not; and that, if Lord Sidmouth appreciated his character and he did not take care to ascertain this, he was

value most correctly ; and had it not been for equally liable with the author of the libel. This, exposing his Glasgow correspondents and the of course, includes every tavern-keeper who buys Crown Lawyers in Scotland, we presume much a paper for the use of his tap-room or ordinary ; less than a few hundreds, would have been every library where newspapers are seen; and deemed sufficient pay by Lord Sidmouth for the all the poor men and women who make a living services of a man who thinks himself libelled by by lending out a newspaper in their neighbour- being called a weaver. hood. Such is the law. This is the case already

But our object is to illustrate the law of libel. tried and settled : the next we have to mention We therefore refer those who wish to cultivate is only possible. It has been threatened, but

farther acquaintance with Mr. Richmond to the audacity can scarce go so far,—and we cite it

“ Exposure of the Spy System,”* or to Tait's merely to show what the existing libel law may Magazine for May and August, 1833. It is enable a reckless man to do.

enough that, paid in full in 1821, Richmond, in The name of Richmond the Spy is as notorious

1824, published a book describing the whole plans in Scotland as that of Castles or Oliver in Eng and machinations of the Scottish Tory Crown land. He was a noted reformer ; had been out

Lawyers; and having first detected a conspiracy lawed for not appearing to stand his trial in a among his friends, the Reformers, which, he says, case of combination among the weavers in 1813, to obtain a rise of wages, and he was engaged * " Exposure of the Spy System, by a Ten-Pounder." by the agents of the Castlereagh Govern Glasgow : Muir, Gowans, and Co. VOL. 1.-10. II,

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