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years in any one grade. The officers so brevetted, however, are not to be entitled to any additional pay or emoluments, except when commanding separate stations or detachments, when they are to receive the same pay and emoluments as officers of the same grade.

0 6. The president was authorized to appoint four captains and twelve lieutenants to be employed in the flotilla service, without rank in the travy, but with the same relative rank and authority in the flotilla service as officers of the same grade are entitled to in the navy. The captains are to receive the pay and subsistence of a captain in the navy commanding a ship of twenty and under thirty-two guns, and the lieutenants the same pay and subsistence as officers of the same rank in the navy.

$ 7. An addition was made to the pay, &c. of the officers of the navy, the pay and bounty of the seamen and marines to be fixed, as heretofore, by the president, who was by the act authorized to make an addition, not exceeding 25 per cent to the pay of the officers and men engaged in any service liable to peculiar hardships or disadvantages*.

D8. The bounty for each prisoner brought in by privateers was raised to $ 100. This at first met with opposition in the house of representatives, but on its being stated that it was principally for the purpose of relieving our citizens from captivity, the opposition was withdrawn. A section giving a bounty for every vessel sunk or destroyed was stricken out by the se

nate.

99. An act was passed granting pensions to the widows and orphans of persons slain on board of the public and private vessels of the United States; the former from the pavy pension fund, the latter from the privateer pension fund. These pensions to continue for five years, and to consist of half the monthly pension to which the deceased would have been entitled for the highest rate of disability. The pension is granted to the widow, and, in case of her death or intermarriage, to the children of the deceased. By a subsequent act, the officers and seamen of revenue cutters wounded in discharge of their duty while cooperating with the navy, by order of the president, are entitled to pensions from the navy pension fund.

10. Two hundred and fifty-five thousand dollars were appropriated for the purchase of the British squadron captured on Lake Erie, and S 5000 was granted to captain Perry, in addition to the share of the prize-money allowed him by law. The reason of this additional grant was, that captain Perry, although

* For the pay and subsistence of the officers of the navy, see p. 20.

in fact commander of the fleet on Lake Erie, would, according to the construction given to the law, only be entitled to his share as commander of the particular vessel on board of which he fought.

N 11. Towards the commencement of the session several resolutions were passed, expressive of the sense of congress of the gallant conduct of our naval officers and seamen. The thanks of congress were presented to captain Oliver Hazard Perry, and through him to the officers, petty officers, seamen, marines, and infantry serving as such, attached to the squadron under his command, for the decisive and glorious victory gained on Lake Erie on the 10th of September, 1813, over a British squadron of superior force.

The president was requested to cause gold medals to be struck, emblematical of the action between the two squadrons, and to present them to captain Perry and captain Jesse D. Elliot; and the president was further requested to present a silver medal, with suitable emblems and devices, to each of the commissioned officers either of the navy or army serving on board, and a sword to each of the midshipmen and sailing masters who so nobly distinguished themselves on that memorable day.

A silver medal, with like emblems and devices, was also voted to the nearest male relative of lieutenant John Brooks of the marines, and a sword to the nearest male relative of midshipmen Henry Laub and Thomas Claxton, junior; and the president was requested to communicate to them the deep regret which congress feel for the loss of those gallant men, whose names ought to live in the recollection and affection of a grateful country, and whose conduct ought to be regarded as an example to future generations.

Three months pay, exclusively of the common allowance, was voted to all the petty officers, seamen, marines, and infantry serving as such, who so gloriously supported the honour of the American flag under the orders of their gallant commander on that signal occasion.

The president was requested to present to the nearest male relative of lieutenant William Burrows, and to lieutenant Edward R. M‘Call, of the brig Enterprize, a gold medal, with suitable emblems and devices; and a silver medal, with like emblems and devices, to each of the commissioned officers, in testimony of the high sense entertained by congress of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and crew in the conflict with the British sloop Boxer, on the 4th of September, 1813. And the president was also requested to communicate to the nearest male relative of lieutenant Burrows, the deep regret which cone VOL. III.

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gress feel for the loss of that valuable officer, who died in the arms of victory, nobly contending for his country's rights and fame.

The president was also requested to present to the nearest male relative of captain James Lawrence, a gold medal, and a silver medal to each of the commissioned officers who served under him in the sloop of war Hornet, in her conflict with the British vessel of war the Peacock, in testimony of the high sense entertained by congress of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and crew in the capture of that vessel; and the president was also requested to comm unicate to the nearest relative of captain Lawrence the sense which congress entertains of the loss the naval service of the United States has since sustained in the death of that distinguished officer.

Ø 12. A bill passed the house of representatives, authorizing the president to build or purchase a number of small armed sels, but it was postponed by the senate till next session.

013. Five hundred thousand dollars were appropriated for building, equipping, and putting into service one or more floating batteries, of such magnitude and construction as shall appear to the president best adapted to attack, repel, or destroy any of the enemy's vessels approaching our shores or entering our waters. These batteries are to be navigated by steam, agreeably to a model presented by Mr. Robert Fulton, which was highly recommended by a number of our most distinguished naval officers.

CHAPTER III.

9 1. Treasury report. $2. Eppes' introductory speech on the loan

bills. $ 3. Pitkin's reply. S 4. Arrangement of the debate on the loan bill. 5 5. Finances of the union. $ 6. Causes of the war, and justice of its continuance. 57. Naturalization and allegiance. $ 8. Offensive and defensive war. $9. Rights and duties of opposition. § 10. Treasury note bill.

01. The annual report* from the secretary of the treasury, was laid before the house of representatives on the 10th of January, from which it appears, that the monies actually received into the treasury, during the year ending September 30, 1813, amounted to

$ 37,544,954 93 Balance in the treasury, October 1, 1812 2,362,652 69

39,907,607 62

Payments for same period
Balance in the treasury, October 1, 1813

32,928,855 19 6,978,752 43

39,907,607 62

In the above statement of receipts is included nearly twenty-four millions of dollars arising from loans and treasury notes.

The accounts for the fourth quarter of 1813, had not been made up at the treasury, but the receipts and expenditures would reduce the balance in the treasury on the 31st of December, to about $ 4,685,112 95.

The expenditures for 1814 are estim ated as follows: Civil, diplomatic, and miscellaneous expences 1,700,000 Reimbursement of principal and interest of public debt

12,200,000 Military establishment

24,550,000 Navy

6,900,000

$ 45,350,000 The ways and means for defraying which are estimated at

• See the report at large among the congressional state papers.

$ 6,600,000

3,500,000 3,650,000 1,000,000

Customs and sales of public lands
Internal revenues and direct tax
Balance of the loan still to be received
Balance of treasury notes already authorized
Of the balance in cash in the treasury, a-
mounting to about

$ 4,680,000 There will be required to satisfy

appropriations made prior but still undrawn

3,500,000

1,180,000

So that there remains to be provided by loans

16,000,000 29,350,000

$ 45,350,000

In borrowing this sum it was recommended by the acting secretary to leave the executive a discretionary power as to the amount to be borrowed upon stock or upon treasury notes, that the one or the other might be resorted to within prescribed limits, as should be found most advantageous.

The plan of finance proposed at the commencement of the war was to make the revenue equal to the expenses of the peace establishment, and of the interest of the old debt and war loans ; and to defray the extraordinary expences of the war out of the proceeds of new loans. The

expences of the peace establishment are about 7,000,000 Interest of old and new debt, including that estimated for 1814,

5,050,000

12,050,000

10,100,000 1,180,000

The receipts from the revenues now established

are estimated for 1814 at Balance in the treasury

Making together
Leaving to be provided new revenues capable of

producing

11,280,000

770,000

12,050,000

Several circumstances, however, rendering it doubtful, whether the surplus of the revenues for 1815 would not exceed the deficiency for 1814, the acting secretary submitted

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