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The operations of Addition, may be readily performed by another rule called MULTIPLICATION.
In this rule there are two terms given to find a third.
When the Multiplier is less than 13, it is distinguished by the phrase, Short Multiplication, and the result is placed in one line below the Multiplier.
Rule. 1. Of the given factors, place the lesser under the units place of the greater, and draw a line below both.
2. Multiply each figure in the upper factor, by that of the lower, and carry one for every ten, as in addition. Thus: 1. Multiplicand, 232
Answer, 696 Product. Proof. This may be had by addition, or more properly by division.
NOTE- To multiply by 10 is merely to add a cypher to the multiplicand; for 100, add two cyphers; and for 1000, ada three cyphers, &c.
The sixth part of speech. The next and sixth part of speech, is the Participle. The participle is always formed from a verb, by adding ing, or ed, and, in a few cases, n or t, to the end of the verb.
Thus: From the verb go, comes the participle go-ing; and from halt, comes halt.ed; from know, comes know-n; and from think, comes thought.
Obs. 1. The participle seems to combine the properties both of a verb and an adjective; for it can be used to express an action, and also a quality or property.
Obs. 2. You will henceforth know the Participle, from the fact, that it is composed of the verb and one of the above terminations; to wit: ing, ed, (or d only when the verb ends with e,)
11, or t.
SPELLING.–LESSON 29. stu'-pid
tē'-nūre steel' yård si'-răl te'-por stone'-hòûse swēēp'-nět t'hē'-ist stone-pit swēēp'-stake t'he'-sis störe'-hòûse swēēt'-ish thỏ-ră1 strā'-tă swine'-hěrd t'hrēè'-fold strā'-tum swin'-ish t'hrēê'-file strife'-ful tak'-ing ti'-år strik'-ing tāst'-ēd
tide'-gāte stū'-dent tāste'-fû]
A Fortune. 1. A young man whose name was Giles', lived', a few years since', near the town of Boston', and, for some time, worked on a small farm with his father, who was poor but honest'. This young man was poor and honest also'; and he was likewise prudent', wise', and thoughtful'.
2. The day on which he was of age', he sent for his young friends to come and take dinner with him. After the dishes were taken off", Giles brought on a bottle or two of old currant wine', which he had made for the purpose some years before
3. The boys drank,' and grew merry! One of them', whose parents were very rich', and who was to have twenty thousand dollars when of age', asked Giles', in a free and careless manner, of what his fortune consisted'.
4. Ciles said his time was his fortune'; and if they would call on him the day he was fifty years old', he would not only tell them the full amount of that fortune', but would then crack a few bottles more of the wine with them, which he then had left in the house'.
5. From that day', Giles started in the world for himself, and began the tillage of ten acres of ground', all he could get', and for the whole of which he ran in debt'. He built a high fence round the lot, and left a broad margin next to the fence', on which he planted fruit trees of the best and most rare kind'.
6. Upon this margin, and among the fruit trees, he built bee-houses', and made hives of twisted straw'. Hence, from the same ground, he cut his hay', raised his fruit', and kept his bees'. The central part he, laid out into a sauce and seed garden', and marketed his produce every day in the city'. At the age of fifty, he was worth fifty thousand dollars!.
MULTIPLICATION, ----LESSON 31. Note. When the multiplier is 13 or more, it is called long multiplication; for then a line of products is made for each figure in the multiplicand, exceept cyphers; and the first figure of each line must be placed precisely under, the figure which is made the multiplier. To get the answer, the several lines must be added.
Ans. 8015904 Sum of all the products. Obs. 1. To prove this sum by addition would be very tedious, for the mulliplicand musi be repeated 234 times, and the whole added. Hence, a mode of proof by division will be given in the mert rule.
This illustration will serve to show the advantages which muliplication has over addition, and the necessity there is of understanding it thoroughly.
Obs. 2. The reason why one is carried for every ten, is because ten in an inferior column is equal to one only in the next left hand or superior column, on this ratio the principles of notaHon are founded.
-LESSON 32. The seventh part of speech. The seventh part of speech is the Adverb; it is called so, because it is added, or belongs to the verb.
As the verb expresses an action, the adverb is used with it to
express the manner of the action. But it may be used with a verb, a participle, an adjective, or another adverb. As:
The boy reads badly. The words which compose this sentence are the article the, which refers to the noun boy in limitation; boy is a noun, or the name of the one who reads; reads is a verb, and expresses the act which the boy does, and badly is an adverb which shows the manner of his reading:
Note: Observe that words are used as signs of the ideas which pass in the mind; that all our words may be classed under ten names or heads, and that the object of studying grammar, is to learn how to place those parts of speech so as to exhibit our ideas in a correct, concise, and perspicuous manner.
Mary reads well, writes easily, spells correctly; learns daily, looks thoughtfully, and does many things prettily. Peter runs swiftly. John talks loudly. The sun shines pleasantly. Ann is sitting erectly. Sarah writes very readily.
Obs. 1. You will know the adverb because it belongs to the verb, participle, adjective or another adverb, and modifies it.
OBS. 2. The adverb is often mistaken for the adjective by careless folks who will not take the troubte of learning that one expresses a quality, and the other a manner.
SPELLING.--LESSON 33. tri'-fling tū’-būle vē'-năl wäste-ful tri'-fòrm tü’-lip vi'-brāte wild'-fire tri'-năl tū'-mid vi'-rent
wind'-ing tri'-pod tū'-mult vi'-tăl
woʻ-fûl tri'-pos tūne'-fûl vô-lănt yoke'-māte tri'-ūne va-grằnt
The Sea Diver.
And many an eye has followed me',
Where billows clasp the worn sea-side'.
My dark wing cleaves the silver mist'.
The bright arch of the shoreless deep',
O'er living myriads in their sleep'.
And by the pearly diadem',
MULTIPLICATION. LESSON 35.
Of Adverbs. The adverb is a very extensive part of speech. There are no fewer than ten or twelve different kinds.
1. Of Number; as, once, twice, thrice, &c. 2. Of Order; as, firstly, secondly, lastly, tinally, &c. 3. Of Place; as, Here, where, upward, downward, &c. 4. Of Time; as, now, lately, by and by, often, yearly, &c. 5. Of Quantity; as, much, little, enough, abundantly, &c. 6. Of Quality or manner; as, wisely, justly, fairly, ably, &c. 7. Of Doubt; as, perhaps, possibly, perchance, likely, &c. 8. Of Affirmation; as, yes, surely, certainly, truly, &c. 9. Of Negation; as, no, not, not at all, by no means, &c. 10. Of Interrogation; as, how, when, why, wherefore,&c. 11. Of Comparison; as, more most, better, best, less, &c.
Questions on the 15th Chapter.
READING EXERCISES. Les. 2. Who had the poor lumb? What was his state?
What had it lost? What was the man requested