The girl who wrote that copy is absent. The moon whichi rose last night, round as my shield, had not yet filled her horns. The tree which bore this fruit, bears more. The pen that is lost, was mine. The house that was burnt was his.

Obs. When a subject does come between the relative and the rerb, then the relative is in the possessive case, and is governed by the thing possessed; or it is in the objective case, and governed by a transitive verb, a present participle, or a preposition, as: the friends whom she loves, they respect.

Here, whom, is a relalive pronoun, agreeing with its antecedent friends, in person, number and gender, rulc 11, and the object of the transitive verb loves, rule 3, because the pronoun she, comes between it and the verb, rule 12,

He whom you saw, walked off. The man whose house was burnt, built another. He who made me, whose I am, and whom I serve, will keep me.

SPELLING.-LESSON 33. cas-tor kăs'tür cav-il kåy'il ces-sion sěsh'sun cas-trel kăs'tril cel-lar sélflur

cess-ment ses' ment catch-er kătshúr ce-ment sěm'ment ces-sor sés'sur catch-fly kătsh-fi

cen-ser sěn'sūr chaf-fer tshã f'für cat-fish kătfish cen-sor sěn'sòr chaft less tshă f'les cat-head kăt'hěd cen-sure sěn'shúr chaf-fy tshäf'fe cat-mint kăt' mint cen-sus sen'sús chal-dron tshi'drin cat-pipe kåt pipe cen-taur sěn'tâwr chal-ice tshăl'is cats-eye kăts'i cen-tral sěn'trăl cham-let kă m'iit cats-foot kăts'fùt cen-tre sěn'tūr cham-brel kă m'bril cat-sup kătsh'óp cen-trick sěn'trik chan-cel tshăn'sē! cat-tle kăt'ti cen-try sěn'trē

chan-nel tshăn'něl cav-ern kă y'ŭrn

cer-tain sēr'tin chan-ter tshăn'tur

READING.-LESSON 34. Gun Powder, Discharge of a gun, Charcoal, fc. Mary. Now', ma', I hope you will favour us with an account of gun powder'; I have thought of it several times today!

Ma. I willo, my dear'. Gun powder is made of nitre', sulphur', and charcoal'.

The proportions of these are very unequal', by far the largest part is nitre'.

When a gun is charged with powder and bail', it is discharged by pulling the trigger'. This causes the flint which is fixed in the lock, to strike against the steel pan', and produce sparks of fire.' The fire instantly catches the sulphur'; this

again inflames tho charcoal'; then the nitre mixed with them becomes strongly heated and the enclosed air expanded'; this forces the charge from the mouth of the musket with amazing velocity and a thundering noise'. The whole is the work of a moment.

Jane. I think I understand you'. But the cannon which we saw in the Park’, was let off by a match or lighted torch'. They are too large for locks' I suppose'. Pray what is charcoal ?

Ma. It is wood heated to a coal', or charcoal). The wood is cut to a proper length', then put up in stacks and covered with turf, coated with a plaster of thick mud'. A few air holes are left, in which fire is placed'; and when once on fire, these are partially stopped', and the wood left to roast'.

Jane. If no air was admitted the fire would not burn': this we daily prove by our common fires'.

Ma. At the end of two or three days', the wood becomes charred'; the air holes are then completely closed' and the fire

goes out'.


Subtraction of mixed numbers. Rule. Place the given terms as in whole numbers, and borrow when necessary, and carry for the number that equals the denominator.

(1) 16.3-72-91 Ans. 91+73=16 Proof. (2) 16?--73=83. Ans. 82-+7=163 Proof. (3) 323--263=53 Ans. 53+:69=324 Proof. 12-5=

(5) 42-313= (6) 35 -131= (7) 1515--719= (8) 162 166-9916 = (9) 267394-199112 =


Exercises in Parsing. Obs. Who, as a relative, is applied to persons only, unless in the possessive case; then it may apply to things.

Which, as a relative, is applied to the brute creation, and to inanimate objects.

That, as a relative, may be applied either to persons or things when it becomes necessary to avoid the repetition of who, or which.

As, when used in connexion after such, takes the place of relative pronoun, in preference to who, which, or thal.

What, in some of its relations, possesses powers


properties which cannot be given to any other word. It often becomes the subject of two verbs, or the subject and objeci of the same verb. It generally has the meaning of that which, or those which.

The man who rode the horse which was lame, called on the magistrate. The inan that followed him, rode a horse that was blind, and whose ears were cropped. The horse which John rode, belongs to our neighbour, who owns many others, which he keeps for hire. Mary likes such fruit as is sweet. Joseph buys such horses as will work. The teacher likes such pupils as will improve. James loves what Moses hates. What is what among them. What pleases you, may please many. Give him what belongs to him.

SPELLING.- LESSON 37. chan-tress tshăn'tris

cher-ish tsher'ish chan-try tshăn'trē

cher-ry tsherre chap•el tship &l

cher-ub tsher'úb chap-lain tshăp'lin

cher-up tshěrup chap-less tshăp'lės

chess-board tshěs'bord chap-let tshăpʻlēt

chess-nan tshẹs màn chap-màn tshắp măn

chest-nut tshěst'nŭt chap-ter tshăp'tur

chick-ěn tshik'in char-coal tshâr'kole

chick-weed tshik' weed charg-er tshărg'ur

chil-blane tshil blāne charm-er tshărm'ūr

chil-ly tshil'lē charm-ing tshărm'ing chil-ness tshil'něs char-nel tshår'něl

chim-ney tshim'nē char-ter tshår'tur

chin-cough tshin'k of chat-tle tshăt'tl

chinck-y tshink'e chat-ter tshăt'tur

chip-ping tship’ing chat-ly tshăt'lē

chin-pur tshin'păr chee-quer tshěk'úr

chis-el tshiz'zěl check-mate tshěk'māte chit-chat tshittshăt


Use of Charcoul, Sulphur, &-c. Mary. Is charcoal, in this state, used in making powder', or is it first ground fine? Ma. It is first powdered'; but it is used for many


purposes in the state in which it is charred; for instance, in those manufactures where a strong fire is required, without smoke'. But for polishing it is ground to fine dust; and in this state it is the best tooth powder known'.

Jane. Are not the fumes of charcoal, when burning', very unhealthy'?

Ma. They are', my child', and should never be admitted in10 sleeping apartments! Many people have lost their lives by this careless use of it'.

Jane. And now', ma', what is sulphur?

Ma. Sulphur is a simple, inflammable substance'; that is', it casily takes fire! It emits a light, blue flame', and a most offensive and suffocating smell'. It is found in the earth', united', generally, to some other substances'; but near volcanoes', it has been found in a pure state'.

Mary. Is it used for no other purpose than in making gunpowder?

Ma. O yes', my child', it is used for bleaching straw, workcd into hats'; and also for medicine!

Jane. Yes'; and it is very unpleasant to take'.

Ma. All medicines', my child', are rather unpalatable', and generally very powerful. Were they pleasant', we might be induced to use them to our destruction'.


Multiplication of Mixed Numbers. Rule 1. When only one of the given terms is a mixed number, then multiply by the whole number, and take parts of the multiplicand for the fractions; the sum of these and tho product will be the answer. Thus: (1) 138 X 69


[blocks in formation]

9313 (2) 656 X 163=10710. (3) 326 X 1241341405) Rule 2. When both the given terms are mixed numbers, first multiply the whole number by the denominator of the fractions, and add in the numerator; then multiply the factors into each other, and divide the product, by the product of the two donominators.

16 X 14 = Thus: 16X8+-3=131, and 14X 8+5=117. Then 131X 117=15327 product. SXS=64, divisor. Finally 15327. 61523931. Answer.


of Conjunctions. C'onjunctions are a part of speech used principally to connect words and sentences.

They are of two kinds; the Copulative conjunction, and the Disjunctive conjunction,

The copulative conjunction, connects words into one subject, or one object, as Mary and Jane write letters to their parents and friends.

It also connects sentences, by combining, both in number and sense, two or more simple sentences or numbers, into one compound sentence, as grass grows and water runs; and Providence directs both.

The copulative conjunctions are, and, if, that, then, since, for, both, because, therefore, further, besides, wherefore.

The disjunctive conjunction connects words into separate subjects, or objects, as, Mary or Jane writes letters to her parents or friends. It also connects and continues sentences, but it disjoins them in sense, or rather expresses an opposition of meaning in different degrees, as Mary is handsome though she is not rich. The grass grows, or water runs; and Providence directs it.

The disjunctive conjunctions are, but, or, nor, either, neither, whether, as, as well as, unless, yet, lest, except, though, no twithstanding, than.

SPELLING.-LESSON 41. chol-er köllur sinque-foil sink'fdil civ-ick siv'ik chol-ick kol'lik cir-cle sěr kl civ-il siy-il christ-ian krist'yện cir-cled sēr'kld clam-ber klăm'būr christ-mas krist'măs cir-clet sēr/klit clam-my klăm'mē chron-ick krõn'ik cir-cling sěr kling clam-our klăm'mŭr chub-bed tshub'bid cir-cuit sēr'kit clang-our klăng gúr chic-kle tshik'kl cir-cus sir'kús clap-per klă p'pur chuf-fy tshúf'fe cis-tern sis'turn clar-et klărret churl-ish tshurl'ish cit-rin sit'rin

clar-y klīrē cinc-ture sink'tshūre cit-ron sit'trùn clasp-er klăsp pur cin-der sin'dūr cit-y sit'të

clas-sick kăs'sik sin-gle sing'g! civ-et siv'it


Tea, and the Tea Plant. Mary. I wish', Mamma', to know something about leay I

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