ページの画像
PDF
[ocr errors]

Jane. You said', Ma', that brandy is distilled from wine'; do inform us how wine is made'.

Ma. Wine is the fermented juice of vegetables'; of which there are many kinds'; but the wine made from grapes is by far the most valuable'.

Mary. I have tasted of several kinds', Ma', and you know we have the raspberry', the gooseberry'; and the currant wines all of which are better, I think, than those which Pa drinks with the gentlemen who visit him'.

REDUCTION.—LESSON 11.

English and Federal Money.? RULE 1. To reduce dollars to dimes, multiply by 10. Thus: 231X10=2310 dimes, and 2310:-10=231 dollars.

RULE 2. To reduce dollars to cents; multiply by 100. Thus: 231 X 100=23100 cents, and 23100:-100=231 dolls.

RULE 3. To reduce dollars to mills, multiply by 1000. Thus: 231 X 1000=231000 mills, and 231000-1000=231 dollars.

Nore, Hence, it is obvious that to multiply by 10, is simply to add a cypher, and, by a 100, two cyphers, and, a 1000, three cyphers, &c, and to divide by those numbers, is nothing more than to cut off the cyphers respectively.

RULE 4, To reduce pence, N. Y. currency to cents, multiply by 12), and divide by 12. Thus: 1440 X 121 =1800:-12=150 cents, and 150cts. X12 =1800, and 1800--12}=144d. The proof, and also the mode of reducing cents to pence, N. Y. currency.

RULE 5. To reduce pounds in money to shillings, multiply by 20. Thus: £231 X20=4620s. and 4620-20=£231, proof.

Rule 6. To reduce shillings to pence, multiply by 12. Thus: 8.4620x12=55440d, and 55440:12=4620s.

RULE 7. To reduce pence to farthings, multiply by 4. Thus: d.55440 X 4=221760qr. and 221760;4=55440d.

RULE 8. To reduce pounds in money, N. Y. currency to dollars, multiply by 2), or by 20, and divide by S. Thus: £234X2=$585, and 585-2=£234, proof. Or, £234 x 20.=4680s. :8=$585, and $585 X8=4680--20= €234.

GRAMMAR.--LESSON 12.

Ecercises in Parsing.. Rule 16. Nouns or pronouns, used in the form of a direct address, are said to be in the Nominative case independent... As: My son, give me your heart.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Ma. Fermentation is the state into which vegetables pass when deprived of the vital principle'. The juice of gathered fruits, ferments or, if fruit is left too long on the tree, it soon becomes fermented'.

Jane. I have observed in some very ripe gooseberries, a peculiar sour taste, or an over ripe flavour! Is not that fer-. inentation'?

Ma. The gooseberries exhibited the first stages of it probably'; for there are three distinct kinds of fermentation which generally succeed each other. The first is the vinous', or spiritous'; the second is the acetous', or acid'; and the third is the putrid fermentation'.

Jane. Let me try to explain them', Ma', if you please'. The first, I imagine, produces wine'; the second, vinegar'; and the third presents the vegetable matter', what ever it is', in a spoiled state'.

Ma. You have done well my daughter! Moderate heat is necessary to produce fermentation'; but a high degree of it', will produce the acetous fermentation instead of the vinous!

Mary. I now remember', Ma', that the cook', last year', complained that the warm weather had turned her raspberry wine into vinegar'.

Ma. The addition of a little yeast', which is a product of the yinous fermentation', tends to quicken the operation of fermentation'.

Mary. I thought vinous meant wine'; does it not Ma'? .

Ma. That is the import generally', but in chemistry,', vinous means the first fermentation of vegetable juices'; and yeast is the first of that of malt'.

ARITHMETIC.--LESSON 15.

Reduction. Weights and Measures.Troy Weight. 1. In lb.47 10oz. how many grains? Ans. 275520 gr. 2. Bring 12960 grains into ounces. Ans. 27 oz3. Bring lb.3 . 10 .- 5 into grains. Ans. 22235 gr.

4. A. sold 7 Ingots of silver each lb.23 - 5 - 7, at 4 cents a grain, to what did the whole amount?

Ans. cts.3781344=$37813.44

Avoirdupois Weight. 13 tons, how many quarters? Ans. 1040grs.

13X20=260 X4=1040qrs. 2. Bring 36 quarters into pouuds.

Ans. 100810.

[ocr errors]
« 前へ次へ »