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READING.--LESSON 18. Beer', Porter, Cider, Perry, Mead and Vinegar. Jane. But', Ma', does not sugar prevent fermentation?'
Ma. I apprehend it does not'; for the presence of sweet juice is absolutely necessary to induce it'.
Jane. Why then do we put sugar with sweetmeats and fruits when preserved?
Ma. Not so much for the purpose of keeping the fruit,, as for that of giving it a pleasant flavour! It is the boiling of the fruit that preserves it from fermentation'; and if fruit could be sufficiently boild in its own juice', it would keep perfectly well. The difficulty is', the juice cannot be easily extracted without the aid of sugar'.
Jane. I now remember', Ma', that you covered the pealed apricots last year, with sugar, and the next day they were swiming in liquid'.
Mary. And when the current jelly is likely to spoil, the cook boils it over again'; but I wish to hear Ma tell of what beer, cider, &c. are made'.
Ma. Beer or ale is made from a mixture of hops' and malt'. Porter is a liquor made also of hops' and malt', worked with yeast'. Cider is the expressed juice of apples"; it is first sweet'; but, it soon ferments', and a clear vnous spirit is obtained'. Perry is the expressed juice of pears', prepared in a similar way': Mead is a liquor made of honey' and water', fermented by yeast'; and vinegar can be procured from almost all the above vinous preparations'. Wine makes the best', and cider is considered second best'. But vinegar is the production of acetous fermentation'; which may be hastened by the presence of sugar or other sweet ingredients'.
Reduction. Weights and Measures.--Apothecaries Weight. 1. In 24lbs. how many ounces? Ans. 24 X12=2880z, 2. Bring 72oz. into drams.
Ans. 576. 3. Bring 6972 grains into pounds. Ans. Ib12 - 1 - 2 - 0 - 1 4. Bring 10lbs. into grains. . Ans. 57600gr. 5. Bring lbs.15 - 9 · 4 - 2 - 17 into grains.
Ans. 91017 grs. Cloth Measure. 1. In 24yds. how many nails? Ans. 24 X4=96X4=384n. 2. Bring 36yds. into qrs.
3. Bring 3783 rails into yds. Ans. 236 - 1 - 3. 4. Bring 56 Ells Flemish into nails. Ans. 672n.
5. In 10 bales of cloth, each 10 pieces, and each piece 12 yds.; how many yards?
Ans. 1200. GRAMMAR.- Lesson 20.
Of Moods and Tenses of Verbs. It seems natural to class the divisions of time under three heads only; the Past, the Present, and the Future. But to inark the time of actions under these general divisions, with more accuracy, some of them have been subdivided, that is, Past time, has three distinct tenses; the Impefect, Perfect, and Pluperfect; and Future time, has two tenses; First future and Second future.
Note 1. All the moods, however, do not embrace all the senses. The indicative and subjunctive moods only, extend to six tenses; the potential mood has four; the infinitive mood, two; and the imperitive mood but one.
When verbs, in their imperfect tenses, and past participles, end in d or ed, they are called regular verbs; while those that adopt any other termination, in that tense and participle, are called irregular verbs. To mark this distinction, it is common, in the act of parsing verbs, to conjugate them, that is; tell their present tense, their imperfect tense, and their past participle. Thus: the verb love; present tense love, imperfect tense, loved, past participle, loved; hence, the verb love is regular. And the verb, buy; present, buy, imperfect, boughi, past participle, bought; therefore, the verb buy is irregular.
Note 2. The imperfect tense of the verb, and the past participle; appear to be the same, yet there is a distinction. The imperfect tense of a verb has at all times a subject or nominative case with which it agrees; but the past participle never has a subject, nor has it any agreement.
Note 3, Now, when you parse a verb, say, a regular transitive, or intransitive verb; or an irregular transitive, or intransitive verb, as the case may be, and to determine whether it is regular or not, you must conjugate it.
SPELLING.-LESSON 21. dic-tion dik'shūn dis-cord dis'kord doc-tor dok'tăr dif-fer dif'für dis-count dis'kòûnt doc-trine dok'trin dig-ger dig'gèr dis-mal diz'măl dog-days dog'daze dig-it did'jít dis-taff dis'tă f dog-fly dog'li dim-ly dim'lē dis-tance dis'tă nse dog-rose dog'roze dim-ness dim'něs dis-tich dňs'tik dog-wood dog'wôôd dim-ple dim'pl dis-trict dis'trikt dol-lar dol'lūr dim-ply dim'plē ditch-er ditshúr dol-phin dol'fin din-gle ding'gl dit-ty dit'tē dor-ick dor'ík
dinhner dinni diz-zard diz’zūrd doub-le dúb'bl dip-per dipʻpūr diz-zy diz'zē doub-let dub'blet dip-tick dip'tik do-cil dós'sil doub-ly dūb'blē dirt-py dürt'pi · dock-et dõksit dove-cot dūv'kot
Ma. I am quite well my child'; and I enjoy it the more for having endured some pain. Health', my dear', is one of the greatest blessings of life'; those who possess it can never be too thankful for the gist'.
Mary. The wealth of the world can not buy it'; nor would riches be of any use, were people sick and unable to use them'.
Ma. Hence, health is more than an equivalent for wealth'; and we need not grudge the man his happiness who has the laiter' and not the former!..
Jane. I always sincerely pity those who are sick and in pain'.
Ma. Pity is a kind of soothing emotion'; it costs but little', and effects mich'. It blesses him that gives it and him that receives it'. I hope you will cherish this sentiment', my children', and let your attainments in knowledge', amend your hearts', and your advances in wisdom', improve and strengthen your virtuel. Of what did you propose to chat this evening!
Mary. I wish to know something of coffee', cocoa', chocolate', &c.
Ma. Coffee is the berry of a plant that grows in Arabia', and in the East and West Indies!. It is produced from seed, in a rich, light soil; wants much watering', and is transplanted'. The plant bears well the third year'; the fruiť, when ripe', is of a redish cast'; it is shaken from the trees', and hulled in a mill', the berry is then dried', and packed for market'.
Jane. The coffee is then roasted', ground and boiled in water', before it reaches the cup'.
Mary. How much trouble before we can drink a cup of coffee
REDUCTION.---LESSON 23. Weights and Measures.-Long Measure 1. Reduce 27 feet to inches. 27X 12-324 in. Ans. 2. Bring 48 yards into inches.
Ans. 1728 in. 3. Bring 4352 inches into yards. Ans. 120 - 2 - 8
4. Suppose it is 160 miles from Albany to N. Y. city, liow many barley corns
Ans. 10137600. 5. Bring 2280060 barley corns into miles.
Ans. 11 . q. 38. 2. 2. 6. How many barley corns will encircle the globe at the cquator, supposing that circle to be 360° and each degree 695 miles?
Ans. 4755801600 ba.
Square Measure. 1. Bring 4 square feet to square inches.
4X144=576 square inches, Ans. 2. Bring 120 sq. yds. into sq. in. Ans. 155520 sq. in. 3. Bring 4392 perches into acres. Ans. 27 - 1 - 32.
4. A: had 24 acres, and sold 17 acres 3 roods; what had he "left?
Ans. 1000 perches. 5. Bring square yds. 29 - 2 - 102 into inches.
Ans. 37974 sq. in. GRAMMAR.--LESSON 24. Of Participles, Tenses and Conjugation of Verbs. Participles are formed from verbs; there are three kinds of them; to wit: the present participle, as: walking; the past participle, as, walked; the compound participle, as: having walked.
Those tenses of the verb which are formed without the aid of helping verbs, are called simple tenses; but those which combine a helping verb, are termed compound tenses. Present Tense Imperfect Tense, Past Part. I hate, I hated,
hated, 'regr. He walks, He walked,
walked, regr. You write,
You wrote, written, irregr.
lived, regr. They cry,
They cried, cried, regr.
We spelt, spelt, irregr.
been, irregr. We swim, We swam,
swnm, irregr. "They laugh, They laughed, laughed, regr.
went, gone, irregr. -am,