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We cannot follow the Spanish from Manila, they are more colonel in his minute account of bold against the Americans than the fighting in the early months Colonel Monteverde found them. of 1897. The general plan of The only forms of offensive the operations is sufficiently movement they practised were simple. Polavieja himself held occasional rushes at small outthe northern part of the pro- posts, and incessant "sniping vince of Cavite, while his lieuten- at the Spanish troops on the ant-Lachambre—in command march and in bivouac. The of the left division of the army, colonel confesses that this form some 13,000 men with artillery, of worry proved at first a severe advanced in succession of trial to the young soldiers who turning movements from the filled the ranks of Lachambre's shores of the Laguna de Bay division. But they soon grew on the western side. The ob- hardened to it, on discovering ject was to drive the Filipinos how badly the Filipinos aimed. from their fortified villages in After making a large allowance the interior of Cavite and pin for Colonel Monteverde’s natural them up against the shores of partiality for his countrymen, the bay of Manila. It was car- we come on the whole to the ried out with a large measure conclusion that the military of success. General Lachambre quality of the troops engaged advanced southward from his in this campaign was nowise headquarters at San Domingo inferior to that of the American with his three brigades, march- soldiers who are now fighting ing on parallel routes through in the same region. Indeed, a closely wooded country. They the very good-natured account were often out of sight and which Major Younghusband hearing of one another. Com- gives of the American soldiers munications had to be kept up he saw at Manila leaves no by staff-officers, who rode across very exalted impression of their country by guesswork, or by military qualities. On

the the compass. An active enemy whole, it seems at least who could have attacked with fortunate for them as for the reasonable hope of success might Spaniards that the Filipinos, have punished the Spaniards like most Orientals, have an severely for thus dividing their excessive reliance on rifle-pits, forces. But methods which trenches, stockades, and loopwould infallibly spell disaster holed walls, and that they seem if tried against a European incapable of learning the proper enemy answer well when put answer to a flank attack. in practice against Orientals. In this campaign of February They did in this case.

The and March 1897, the Filipinos Filipinos had no idea of what certainly acted on a uniform is meant by beating an enemy plan. They held the stockades in detail, and little notion of and abattis which they had aggressive movements of any made across the roads or round kind. To judge by the tele- their villages till the Spaniards grams which have come of late were able to turn their flanks,

as or

were

into a

cases

and carry the positions by storm way, reached the place, it was after preparing the way by ar- full of rebels, who had collected tillery fire. Their local know- there in great numbers, relying ledge, and the thickly wooded on the natural strength of the nature of the country generally, position, and the fortifications enabled them to escape pro- they had erected all about it. longed pursuit; but this kind of Yet it was stormed with the defensive policy can lead to only loss of some seventy or eighty one result when the assailant is in all to the Spaniards, and of in sufficient numbers, and when several hundreds to the rebels. his operations are conducted on The assailants broke in at one a combined and intelligent plan. end, and took the defenders in Little by little the Filipinos flank. Like most Orientalsdriven

corner. indeed like most men till they General Lachambre first forced

are taught what to do in such his way south to the mountain

the Filipinos cannot of Mataas - na - lupa, and the stand being attacked in that town of Silang, which he fashion, though they will stick stormed. Then he wheeled to stoutly to their barricades the right, and, having got his against an enemy who comes enemy on the run, kept him on on in front. The difficulty of the run.

Meanwhile General the Spaniards was not to beat Pola vieja took care that the the Filipinos, but to overcome Filipinos did not escape to the the natural obstacles of a roadnorth—at least, not in an or- less country (for the want of ganised body. Many did, no roads they had of course to thank doubt, slip away between the themselves), the want of water Spanish divisions ; but as an in the dry season, the heat, the army, in any serious sense of bush, and their insufficient local the word, the native force knowledge. It never seems to ceased to exist. As they were have suggested itself to Colonel more and more driven to the Monteverde that this last dewall, the resistance of the Filip- ficiency was discreditable to his inos grew fiercer, which is to countrymen. The new-comers their honour. At Salitran, one from Spain could not be exof the later actions of the cam- pected to know the paths paign, where General Zabala through the bush and forest. was killed, the fighting was But there was an almost total desperate. But the storm of want of guides, whether SpanSilang, which was one of the ish residents or natives. Only earlier actions, was typical of one of these last volunteered to them all. This place is a large serve, and he made it a condivillage, or small town, formed tion that he should be allowed of three long streets with cross- to disguise himself in a false lanes. It contains a strongly beard and moustache, and that built stone church and convent. his name should be concealed. The ground about it is much If General Lachambre's divisbroken, and covered with bush. ion had not accidentally capWhen the Spaniards, after a tured two babaes or native girls number of minor actions on the in a wood, they would have had

never

more on

no local information whatever. leaders were discouraged by As a rule, the inhabitants fled defeat, and not unwilling to before the Spaniards. A Gov- be bought off. So the treaty ernment must surely have been of Biacnabató was made, Aguinbad indeed when it has con- aldo and some score and a half trived to get itself hated to this of others received a sum down, extent.

promises of more, and a safeColonel Monteverde, in the conduct to Hong-kong. Then course of his rather misnamed the Spanish Government came brief reflections, remarks that to the premature conclusion his countrymen have

that all was over. It withdrew failed at each successive stage 7000 of its men, and prepared of their history to display mili- to settle down once tary capacity. A good deal its pillow.

But all was not might be said upon that point, over. On the contrary, many but it may be allowed that the minor patriots who had not campaign of Cavite proves them shared in the benefits of the still able to produce officers who treaty of Biacnabató took up can lead and men who can arms, and began a guerrillero follow. The instructions of warfare. They were persuaded, General Polavieja are thorough not absurdly, that rebellion was and workmanlike, including a quick and not too dangerous some very sensible remarks on method of making a fortune. the consequences of using a The wet season

soon carried magazine rifle with indiscreet off more men than had been haste. General Lachambre car- recalled to Spain, and in 1898 ried out the orders of his com- the garrison was again overmander-in-chief ably. But the taxed everywhere. Meanwhile end of this spasm of effectual the troubles of the Spaniards activity was comically Spanish. had been increased by an unGeneral Polavieja was attacked timely exhibition of the most by ophthalmia and compelled odious side of their character. to resign, which, however, was

A blatant ruffian of the name an accident such as might have of Comenge, who took upon happened to anybody. But the himself to play the patriot at conduct of General Lachambre Manila, went about preaching was most truly Spanish. He "energetic measures." In plain came home to enjoy an ovation. words, this meant massacre, and As for the Government, it be- under the stimulus of this haved like itself. It came to ruffian's speeches a mob of volthe conclusion that a few fine unteers attacked and murdered words and a little

money
would

some Visaya sailors. The Viscomplete the pacification of the ayas are inhabitants of the Philippines. General Primo de islands south of Luzon, which Rivera was sent out with orders had hitherto remained quiet. to make an arrangement on It may be that they would the model of the convention of have revolted sooner

or later Zanjon, which wound up the in any case ; but it is very probten years' war in Cuba in 1878 able that the report of this -after a fashion. The rebel massacre hastened the rising.

as

a

cannon.

In any case it occurred, and themselves. It is true that they was accompanied by atrocities had substantially won their inof a shocking kind. As the dependence when America internative troops now began to go vened. It is hard that they over to the rebels bodily, and should be despoiled by their usually after murdering their friend. Spanish officers, the result was Right and wrong are out of that the Spanish rule was soon place in this discussion in utter ruin. The fragments completely as the honour of of these ruins were brought to Lady Teazle in certain the ground by Admiral Dewey's famous conversation with Mr

Joseph Surface. The question The last struggles of Spain is whether the Filipinos can in the Philippines may possess vindicate their independence. only a historic interest. Yet General Polavieja's campaign, they do serve to explain the and the operations of the problem which the Americans Americans themselves round have undertaken to solve. A Manila, show that the work of good deal of obscurity rests on breaking up and beating back the transactions which took

a native army,

though arduous place between Admiral Dewey from the nature of the country and Aguinaldo at Hong-kong. and the climate, is no imposThe Filipino case is that the sible feat. But the success of Americans promised them help the Spaniards in 1897 also to secure their independence. shows that the mere breaking The American case is that the up of the native armies near Filipinos asked for their protec- Manila will not end the war. tion. It is possible that they They had recourse to methods of did ; but, then, what did Aguin- bribery by which they secured aldo understand by “protec- a delusive show of peace, but tion,” and did Admiral Dewey they would not have secured exactly define the sense in which even so much if they had not he used the term ? There is a bought off Aguinaldo for good deal of difference between space. .

We cannot suppose the protection which England that America will imitate the gave Spain during the Penin- mere bribery of the convention sular War and that which she of Biacnabato; but if she does affords the Nizam of Hyder- not, and will not resign her abad, which again is different attempt to master the islands, from that she gives the Ameer then she has assuredly a long of Afghanistan. The Filipinos series of operations before her would no doubt accept the first

on the other side of the comfreely, and they would probably ing rainy season. As yet she have no invincible objection to has touched only a small part the third. They are fighting of the island of Luzon. The because they are threatened by whole has to be mastered. In the second. If there be such the other islands there is a things as rights and wrongs in marked disinclination to accept the relations of peoples, they her rule. The inhabitants of have something to say for Panay, for instance, resented

a season.

the landing of an American Meanwhile the American troops garrison at Iloilo, and that suffer severely from heat, and with effect. Therefore we can- when reduced by this strain not suppose that the resistance will have to face the relaxing to the foreigner is confined to influence of the wet the Tagalo and half Tagalo Perhaps we ought not to population around Manila, with attach much importance to their educated leaders whose stories of grumbling, and of heads have been turned by half - mutinous complaints of European Liberalism. Colonel overwork, such as are said to Monteverde, when giving his have been made by the men of account of the native patriots the Nebraska regiment. Yet and their principles, says that the American volunteers who in addition to the semi-civilised went out gaily on what they Liberals, there are those who supposed would be an expediwant to go back to their old tion of fun and glory, may well tribal independence under their be depressed by a reality so own chiefs. At the present different from their hopes. moment they enjoy it in fact, Neither does it appear that the and they will not be deprived American people is prepared to of it by mere victories over send out the 100,000 men which Aguinaldo and other leaders in their general is understood to the neighbourhood of Manila. have declared will be necessary

The boasted enterprise of the for the complete occupation of American

press

does not seem the Philippines. The omens do to be equal to sending an intel- not point to a speedy conligent correspondent to Manila. clusion of the war. At the same time the Govern- guess that they do point to ment of the Republic has some arrangement more or less developed a marked taste for like the Spanish convention of a censorship. Between the Biacnabató, which will promise want of independent witnesses a large measure of self-governand official reticence the world ment to the Filipinos under is not much better informed American supervision. But as than it was in the days of our experience will show the Spanish rule. We hear con- Americans if they will consult stant reports of victories, from it, that is a way of saying which hasty commentators peace where there is no peace. draw the premature conclusion Civilised supervision is incomthat the Filipinos are destroyed. patible with more than a very Yet they go on fighting. Their modest measure of self-govern"capital” has been taken till ment by the educated native the report of that achievement baboo, or the uneducated native is becoming a joke in the barbarian. Thorough conquest States. Aguinaldo has under- must be the preliminary to any gone eclipse ; but his absence, to useful concession the Americans whatever cause it may be due, can make—and when it is made appears to make no difference. it will require the protection of His successor is prepared to a powerful military force for treat, but not yet to surrender. years to come.

We may

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