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structed as elegantly in Edinburgh as any where much neglected, and the bottle is preferred to in Europe; and many were amiually exported 10 the amusements of the drawing-room. AttendSt. Petersburgh and the cities on the Baltic. anceat church, however, was in 1796 fashionable, The professior of a haberdasher, which was not and a universal interest was excited with regard known in 1763, was now nearly the most com to religion. The large building of the Circus, mon in town. (This profession includes many which had been erected in 1788 for equestrian tra les, the mercer, the milliner, the linen-draper, performances, and in 1792 converted into a playthe hatter, the hosier, the glover, and many house, was now occupied as a place of worship, others.) Perfumers had now splendid shops in and considerable sums of inoney were subscribed every principal street; and some of them adver for sending missionaries to convert the heathen tised the keeping of bears, to kill occasionally, in foreign lands. At this time religious zeal was for greasing ladies and gentlemen's hair, as supe. so universal, that even some of the serrants of rior to any other animal fat. Hair-dressers were Satan, the players themselves, became ministers more than tripled in number, and their busiest of the gospel*. Sunday, however was not so day was Sunday. An eminent surgeon, who had rigidly observed as in 1763, and it still continued occasion to walk a great deal in the course of his by many to be held as a day of relaxation. Whebusiness, first used an umbrella in Edinburgh, in ther family-worship was much attended to in the the year 1780; and in 1783 they were much used. Il period we are speaking of, we have not ascertainMaid servants dressed now as fine as their mis- | ed, but public prayers were more frequent than tresses did in 1763. Almost every genteel family before. Religious societies were also formed for had a man-servant; and the wages were from Il propagating the gospel at home; places of wore 101. 10 201. a year. In 1783, also, a stranger
ship called Tabernacles were built; the Scottish might have been accommodated not only com capital was inundated with different preachers fortably, but elegantly at many public hotels ; from England; and from it, as a centre, missionand the person who, in 1769, was obliged to put aries were i vued to every part of the country. up with accominodation little better than that of One of the most elegant amusements of the mea waggoner or carrier, may now be lodged like a | tropolis, the concerts at St. Cecilia's Hall, was prince, and command every luxury of life. at this time given up, and the hall itself was,
Such are, according to Mr. Creech, the features | and is stiil, occupied as a place of worship. of the times in 1783. Less rigid, morose, and | Visiting and catechising their parishioners, is affecied than those of 1769, an ease of manner by the clergy at this time (1805) almost entirely seems to have been by this time introduced, which given up, excepting among the dissenters; and characterizes an improvement in manners. Of these too do not officially visit so often as formorals, this period, from the foregoing facts || merly. People of fashion do not frequent the concerning the decay of religious principle, the church as often as a few years ago; and the nummultiplication of the women of the town, of ber of fines for natural children has not decreased robberies, and the late hours which fashion had ) in the hands of the present kirk-treasurer. The introduced, presents not such a pleasing picture. number of prostitutes, which, according to Mr.
“ In no respect,” says Mr. Creech, “ were Creech, had increased more than a hundred-fold the manners of 1763 and 1783 more remarkable, 1 in the short space of twenty years (from 1763 than in the decency, dignity, and delicacy of to 1789), has not increased in the same ratio the one period, compared with the looseness, since the latter of these periods, though their dissipation, and licentiousness of the other, number lias not perhaps much diminished. The Many people ceased 10 blush at what would for torrent of vice, which, from the facts exhibited, merly have been reckoned a crime."-" The appears to have been so alarining at that period, has behaviour of the Jast age (says Dr. Gregory) been stopped, else by this time, on the same avewas very reserved and stately. It would now rage of increlse, the number of prostitutes would be reckoned still and formal. Whatever it was, I have amounted to that of the present population it had certainly the effect of making them more of the city. The wages of journeymen, since respected."
1783, has been much increased, and nearly Of the leading traits of the manners since that || doubled since that time. Housebreakings and period, the following is a short sketch. The lux robberies at present are rare; and the execution ury of the table, and the late hours of dinner and l of criminals seldom occurs in Edinburgh. If the amusements, have much increased since 1783. || terror of ecclesiastical punishments, the reBy the more opulent tradesmen and merchants, ll penting stool, and public sati faction to the kirk, business is little attended to in the afternoon ; ll did not precipitate unfortunate women into the and the variety of delicacies at their table is per. un natural crime of child-murder, perhaps a sehaps equal to what the first cities had in 1763. The company of the ladies is also, as in 1783, || * Vide Edinburgh Missionary Magazine, l'ol. I.
ries of years might be mentioned, in which there | saine manner as in 1783, except that perhaps was no capital offence committed in Scotland. || later hours become more fashionable. In the
Public cock-fighting matches are now nearly theatre, though loose expressions may still be given up in the city ; and this barbarous amuse- || applauded by the upper gallery, yet by the other ment, it is hoped, will soon be laid aside for ever. Il parts of the audience they are always reprobated. Of the fine fellow of 1805 it is difficult to strike Of the present inanners of the female sex, the the peculiar likeness. Less accomplished than | | improvement is certainly striking. Though the those of 1769, and without many of the vices of young ladies are seldom to be seen at market, or those of 1783, the fine fellow of the present day Il perhaps do not interest themselves much in the is rather an object of laughter than censure, of | managenient of household affairs, yet we may pity rather than reprobation. He can drive a | pronounce them superior to those of 1763, or coach, full of ladies, equal to the most expe 1783. Music, dancing, and a grammatical knowrienced coachman; does not often overturn the ledge of their own and of the French and Italian carriage, and very seldom rides down old people languages, are essential parts of modern female or children. Asa genealogist, he equals the High- ll education; and though the making of pastry, lander or Welchman; can trace the pedigree of jellies, and gooseberry-wine, are not held of so Goldfinder through a hundred descents, and enu: much importance as they appear to have been in merate all the dams, grand dams, and great grand the first of these periods, yet they are not even dams, with the most fluent accuracy. He is a now totally neglected. As domestic conveniences, skilful physiognomist; can tell the good or bad the ladies of 1805 may possibly be inferior to qualities of a horse at first sight; and in the re- || those of 1763; but as accomplished companions, fined einployments of the stable, can vie with || they are certainly far their superiors. the most expert groom or stable-boy. With re The accommodation, in every respect, is better gard to religion, unless he acquires it in the now than at any former period. The Edinburgh Racer's Kalendar, or Taplin's Farriery, he has no inns and hotels equal those of any city in elegance opportunity of knowing any thing about it. But and ready service; and if the manners of the in other parts of education he is not deficient: | people are not so perfect as might be wished, he excels in those tropes or figures of speech they are at least as good as could be expected, which the vulgar call swearing; and his method in a city where wealth and luxury give so many of argument is much more simple and convinc. temptations to corruption and vice. ing than the analytic or synthetic modes of the The gentleman of 1763 seems to have been so schools. By this mode (betting) he could argue much under the restraint of rules, which reguwith a philosopher, and come off victorious, un lated all his periods of amusement, as to leave less the philosopher were richer than he. As to ll him very little exercise of thought, or allow him the fair sex, the elegant society of the stable is little liberty of consulting his own ease or pleapreferable, in his estimation, to that of the draw sure. In 1783 this siffness was thrown off; ing-room; and the lounge among brother fine ease and familiarity occupied its place; but vice fellows in the coffee-house, or the tavern, is supe. and folly seem to have predominated. In 1805, rior to the company of the ladies, in whose con- | this ease and freedom of manner continues; but versation bis accomplishments do not enable him to the honour of the times, vice is not so prevato bear a part. He pays his debts of honour much lent as it is related to have been in 1785. The in the same manner as the fine fellow of 1783; ladies have also much changed since 1763, but and like him can drink three bottles of wine, i that change has been for the better. At that pekick the waiter, and knock down watchmen with riod they were good housewives and nurses, and a good grace. In short, the fine follow of the perhaps little else; but in 1783 and 1805, if they present day is neither calculated to add much to have lost something of these qualities, they have virtue by his good qualities, nor to increase vice made it sufficiently up, by improving theniselves by his bad ones.
in all that can be expected or wished in an inte Balls and concerts are conducted much in the || resting agreeable companion.
STATE OF SOCIETY AND MANNERS.
DESCRIPTION OF THE CARNIVAL AT PARIS, AND OF THE FETES DE
MY DEAR FRIEND,
HAVING given you in my last a faithful ,, Stentorian thunders. Follow these pompous account of a Parisian Sunday, I proceed to the cavalcades. Here you behold folly, surrounded description of various customs which prevail in with pleasure, fashion, mirth, ridicule, and this metropolis, and which will, I hope, unfold | youth, welcoming, with benignant smiles, the more of the character of the French than all the triumphant legiogs of Parisian Badants, who, deep observations of self-elected critics, who fa mounted on asses, advance slowly towards the tigue the press with their attempts to prove what consecrated ground, where the goddess and her will strike every Englishman who sojourns a radiant train await their homage. The:e the few days in France,-that the French are a light, flower of earthly valour, the famous knight of airy, fantastic nation; the slaves of a burning the sorrowful count:nance, shakes the long forimagination, which sometimus exalts them to gotten spear of chivalry, and, proclaiming aloud heroic deeds and sublime virtues, and sometimes the peerless beauty of his lady, challenges all debases them into the wildest frolics of folly and the knights of the universe. His faithful squire, extravagance, while it gives to their minds a ro- the simple hearted, humorous Sancho, follows mantic and sentimental turn, which years, and close to his master; astonished at the dazzling the varied accidents of life can never alter. tumultuous scene, he frequently sighs out an
Atlength we have seen the long wished-for day, abrenuntio, and shuddering recoilects the fatal when the Carnival spreads her joyous dominion pomp tbat attended his descent into the gloomy over this noisy metropolis, and turns the serious empire of Pluto, and the deliverance of Dulbusy k ok, tliat darkened every countenance into cinea. the cheerful smile of pleasure and amusement. But to give you a description of every chaAll the streets and public walks are already racter that awakens popular applause by its sincrowded with humourous shapes and strange be gularity, or the inventive powers it displays, is a ings, who, secure under the sheltering mask, task that would extend too far the limits I had attack and torment the unexperienced passenger; || fixed to this letter. Let then your imagination half pleased and half angry he receives the shower soar and wander orer the fields of amusements I of jests that fall upon him, and oftentimes won- invite her to explore; let her pursue the path I ders at the hints and expressions which seem to pointed to her flight, and she will bestow upon announce a perfect knowledge of his person, his her brilliant pictures a richness of colouring secrets, and affairs. It seems as if imagination which description can never imitate, and reality had opened her enchanted bowers, and rolling || but seldom equal. When tired with following back the tide of time, brought again to light the the giddy course of the votaries of pleasure who delightful days of fairy ages, and the humorous parade the streets and gardens of Paris, unmind. inhabitants of fairy regions.
ful of the wintry sky that frowns upon them; La Rue St. Honoré, the Palais Royal, and the let her penetrate with me into those bals masqués, Vieux Boulevards,are the walks most frequented by where the same mirth, the same dissipation, the joyous children of the Carnival; the favoured softened by the polite manners of the beau monde, spots where they delight to spread the wild mag. prevail. Let her mix in the gay country dance, nificence of their dresses, and exert the poig. | which the highest Gods of antiquity ennoble nancy of their wit. La Rue St. Honoré, espe and enliven by their divine presence. Here, cially, is the focus whence the brightest rays of conquered once more hy love, the powerful pleasure emerge; there folly and dissipation Sovereign of Olympus is sighing at the feet of hold undisputed sway, rule every bošom, and mortal beauties. There, charmed into pity and transport every heart. There, carriages filled 'tenderness by the plaintive lyre of the God of with masks, attract the eyes of the gazing mul- 1 day, yielding Daphne repents her fight, and titude by the diversity of characters they contain; 1 enters with her conqueror the delightful maze of whilst peals of appropriate elequence, bursting the dance. The Carnival has unlocked the gates of from the lips of some fiery orators on their tops, mythology, and heathen divinities and heroes desilence the acclamations of the crowd by their ! scend on the wings of pleasure to repossess for a while a land which once acknowledged their , pomp of fashion; of listening to the delightful supreme power.
strains of divine harmony Howing from the lips You will tell me, perhaps, that you have mas. of beauty and innocence, became the only mcquerades in London, which afford equal delight | tive for their annual attendance at the Convent. 10 those who frequent them : that I will not | Levelled with the dust by the storms of the deny, though I contend that Parisian masquerades Revolution, the convent exists no more; and display more pomp, more elegance, and open a l the custom of repairing to the spot where once it wider field for amusement, as wit is more stood still exists. The pure voices of the virgins abundant, the sings of repailee more pointed, of the Lord invite no more; it is the call of and characters supported with niore ease, nature, priile we obey, the beckoning hand of vanily we and propriety.
follow As I have still some room, I will give you an ! Go on the 6th of April to the Champ Elysées, account of a custom which the Parisians reli- || it is there the festive company assembles; it is giously observe; and which, though its origin on that day the profanation of the ancient cuswas religion and piery, is now become the spring tom commence. There you will behold with of that intoxicating and deceitful nectar, plea astonishment, in the wide valley which leads to Sure.
the Bois de Boulogne, the most splendid equiDuring the age of simplicity, commonly pages, ranged in double rows, advancing in all the styled the age of darkness and ignorance, towards poinp of wealth slowly towards Longchamp and the middle of the fourteenth century, a convent crossing the whole of the Bois de Boulogne. of nuns was founded on the spot called Long For five miles the same prospect will strike your champ, at the distance of about five miles from !! eyes, while the middle part of ihe road is enParis. There, when spring awoke the earliest | livened by Cavaliers, nounted on fue horses, Powere!s of the year, and nature revived, under || who, galloping from carriage to carriage, display the tepid gales of April, the Parisians used to the graces of their figures, the elegance of their come, and offer praise and thanksgivings dur. ll dress, and their excellent horsemanship, to the ing three days to the great Father of Creation. || view of the Parisian Belles, who repay their atThis service was interessing and simple; the tentions with a smile. melting voices of the sacred virgins, soft as the The alleys on both sides of the road are crowded vernals dews that fertilize the earth, stole on the || with the humbler followers of fashion, whose breezes of spring to the throne of the Almighty, || wealth is not equal to the expence of lolling in imploring peace, plenty, and propitious seasons; a carriage, and who drink the dust, and brave and the numerous spectators, struck with awe at the inclemency of the skies, to be able to say, the solemn ceremonies and lofty strains, fancied | “ I have been to Longchamp." they beheld the angel of feriility descending Farther from the road, under shelter of the from the sky, to unfold the swelling buds, and thickening trees, you discern groups of dancers. watch over the ripening fruits and harvests. There the fables of antiquity, the sports of
A great fault with the French is that of turn fauns and nymphs seems to be realised before ing every serious duty into a source of amuse. your eyes : the airiness of the shapes, the agiment. Pleasure is the constant wish of their || lity and gracefulness of their motions, the myshearts, and they endeavour to extract it from | terious twilight caused by the young leaves unevery object, even the most unlikely and the | folding upon the spreading branches, and the most unfit to gratify their wishes. What for a soft voice of music sighing through the opening time had been a religious duty, became a party | glades, give to the pleasant scene a truly Elysian of pleasure; piety was exchanged for dissipation; || aspect. On that side roars the vain, tumultuous, and instead of the sentiments of gratitude and bustling world; on this siniles the shady vale humility which a few years before prompted the where, embosomed in peaceful bliss, the souls of inhabitants of Paris to visit the house of God, || the virtuous inhabit and taste the pure delights the wish of spreading before the admiring eyes of joy, innocence and simplicity. of the crowd, the elegance of dress, and the !!
Yours, &c. &c. L
PUBLIC RECREATIONS OF PARIS.
[Continued from Page 41.]
| lour the Parisian is by no means before the
The magnitude of the London theatres, the
public spirit of their managers, and the compa. churus, and the more complex compositions,
rative riches of their treasuries, are at once that we must admire. In these the voc:] per
reasons why we ought to excel in the pageant formers succeed in the highest degree. Nor is
and splendour of the scene. The scenery here the composer less happy; as confident in the
is well managed, and particular attention paid abilities of the performer, and the powers of an
to the disposition. In any complicated change, excellent orchestra, he gives full scope to his
parts of the scene come from under the stage, genius and fancy.
We should certainly expect, at the French others from above, and others from the sides. opera, to hear singers of the first-rate talents;
Rise of the CURTAIN. particularly when we consider the vicinity of Italy. But, at present, there are no great vocal The moment the curtain is seen to rise, that performers on the Parisian theatres; and we instant confusion turns itself into order. Unlike Jook in vain for such as we have been accus. | our country men, who call for silence by the tomed to hear in London.
word itself, the French express their wish for Many circumstances, however, will account attention, by a noise which may be described by for the present inferiority of the French opera, in a prolongation of the syllable isla point of vocal performance. - First, singers of su After the curtain is once up, it is expected perior talents expect immense salaries, which, that no person should interrupt the performance; perhaps, their treasury is as little disposed as ca- || the established law of a French audience being pable of giving :-Secondly, the opera being in- l universal attention. variably written in French, naturally attaches to A singular theatrical breach of decorum took the best singer all the vocal disadvantages of that place on Sunday evening, August the 8th, 1802,
language:-ind thirdly, the singer, in the i at the opera. . French song, is not sufficiently considered as The theatre being very full, and the weather
principal, being 100 often subservient to the uncommonly hot, two gentlemen in the centre powers of the orchestra.
boxes were of a sudden observed to be sitting . These circumstances are certainly great impe without coats! the audience perceiving this, diments in the way of good singers; and may rose up and demanded the coats to be put on. possibly accouet for the want of superior vocal || After much clamour, the desire was apparently perforiners on the French theatres.
complied with, and the performance resumed.
As the coats had not in reality been put on, but DANCERS.
only thrown over the shoulders, so in less than In this captivating art, the French certainly | five minutes they were again thrown off Open excel all other countries. The fascination and l war now ensued between the audience and the splendour of their ballets exceed description. enemy; the latter completely repulsing the
Vestris justly stands at the head of the dance former in every successive attack. During the at Paris; and indeed of every dancer in Europe. heat of the batt'e, one of the enemy, after hav
Madame Gardel is the principal female dancer ing discharged a tremendous artillery of oaths at here; but the others are not withoat grace in all the audience, followed it up by a parley, which their steps,
in the English language set them all completely Even at the inferior theatres, we often witness at defiance. I will not pretend to repeat a superior dancers. At this, however, we cannot speech which probably the major part of the aube surprised, when we reflect that dancing is the dience did not understand. But the great confort of the people.
course of English then on the theatre of war,
justly feeling this unexpicted attack on their SCENERY
national manners, immediately joined all their The scenery, dresses, and decorations, in the force to that of the audience, in the expulsion of French theatres, are at all times characteristic, the enemy. The consequence was, the allies and well executed. Though in point of spleu- were victorious.