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them. The only poems which can be supposed to have been written with such regard to the times as might hasten their publication, were the two satires of Thirty-eight; of which Dodsley told me, that they were brough to him by the author, that they might be fairly copied. “Every line, said he, “was then written twice over ; I gave him a clean transcript which he sent some time afterwards to me for the press, with every line written twice over a second time."
His declaration, that his care for his works ceased at their publication, was not strictly true. His parental attention never abandoned them, what he found amiss in the first edition, he silently corrected in those that followed. He appears to have revised the Iliad, and freed it from some of its imperfections; and the Essay on Criticism received many im. provements after its first appearance. It will seldom be found that he altered without adding clearnoss, elegance, or vigor. Pope had perhaps the judgment of Dryden; but Dryden certainly wanted the diligence of Pope.
In acquired knowledge, the superiority must be allowed to Dryden, whose education was more scholastic, and who, before he became an author, had been allowed more time for study, with better means of information. His mind has a larger range, and he collects his images and illustrations from a more extensive circumference of science. Dryden knew more of man in his general nature, and Pope in his local manners. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, and shose of Pope by minute attention. There is more dignity in the knowledge of Dryden, and more certainty in that of Pope. Poetry was not the sole praise of either, for both excelled likewise in prose; but Pope did not borrow his prose from his predecessor. The style of Dryden is capricious and varied ; that of Pope
is cautious and uniform. Dryden obeys the motions of his own mind, Pope constrains his mind to his own rules of composition. Dryden is sometimes vehement and rapid, Pope is always smooth, uniform, and gentle. Dryden's page is a natural field, rising into inequalities, and diversified by the varied exuberance of abundant vegetation; Pope's is a velvet lawn, shaven by the scythe, and levelled by the roller.
Of genius, that power which constitutes a poet; that quality without which judgment is cold, and knowledge is inert; that energy which collects, combines, amplifies, and animates; the superiority must, with some hesitation, be allowed to Dryden. It is not to be inferred, that of this poetical vigor Pope had only a little, because Dryden had more; for every other writer, since Milton, must give place to Pope; and even of Dryden it must be said, that if he has brighter paragraphs, he has not better poems. Dryden's performances were always hasty, either excited by some external occasion, or extorted by domestie necessity; he com posed without consideration, and published without correction. What his mind could supply at call, or gather in one excursion, was all that he sought, and all that he gave. The dilatory caution of Pope enabled him to condense his sentiments, to multiply his images, and to accumulate all that study might produce, or chance might supply. If the flights of Dryden, therefore, are higher, Pope continues longer on the wing. If of Dryden's fire the blaze is brighter, of Pope's the heat is more regular and constant. Dryden often surpasses expectation, and Pope never falls be low it. Dryden is read with frequent astonishment, and Pope with verpetual delight.
This parallel will, 4 hope, where it is well considered, be founa jast and if the reader should suspect me, as I suspect myself
, of some partial fondness for the memory of Dryden, let him not too hastily condemn me for meditation and inquiry may, perhaps, show him the reascnableness of my determination.
PARALLEL BETWEEN JAY AND HAMILTON.
It were, indeed, a bold task to venture to draw into comparison the re,& sve merits of Jay and Hamilton on the fame and fortunes of their country, - a bold task, and yet, bold as it is, we feel impelled at least to venture on opening it. They were undoubtedly par nobile fratrum, and yet not twin brothers, – pares sed impares, - like, but unlike. In patriotic attach ment equal, for who would venture therein to assign to either the superi ority ? yet was that attachment, though equal in degree, far different in kind; with Hamilton it was a sentiment, with Jay a principle; with Hamil ton, enthusiastic passion, with Jay, duty as well as love; with Hamilton, patriotism was the paramount law, with Jay, a law sub graviori lege. Either would have gone through fire and water to do his country service, and laid down freely his life for her safety, Hamilton with the roused cour age of a lion, Jay with the calm. fearlessness of a man; or, rather, Hamil ton's courage would have been that of a soldier, Jay's, that of a Christian Of the latter it might be truly said :
“ Conscience made him firm, That boon companion, who her strong breastplate Buckles on him, that fears no guilt within,
And bids him on, and fear not. In intellectual power, in depth, and grasp, and versatility of mind, as well as in all the splendid and brilliant parts which captivate and adorn, Hamil ton was greatly, not to say immeasurably, Jay's superior. In the calm and deeper wisdom of practical duty, in the government of others, and still more in the government of himself, in seeing clearly the right, and following it whithersoever it led firmly, patiently, self-denyingly, Jay was again greatly if not immeasurably, Hamilton's superior. In statesman-like talent, Hamil ton's mind had in it more of " constructive” power, Jay's of “executive." Hamilton had GENIUS, Jay had WISDOM. We would have taken Hamilton to plan a government, and Jay to carry it into execution ; and in a court of law we would have Hamilton for our advocate, if our cause were gener ous, and Jay for judge, if our cause were just.
The fame of Hamilton, like his parts, we deem to shine brighter and far ther than Jay's, but we are not sure that it should be so, or rather we are quite sure tảiat it should not. For, when we come to examine and compare their relative course, and its bearing on the country and its fortunes, the reputation of Hamilton we find to go as far beyond his practical share in it, as Jay's falls short of his. Hamilton's civil official life was a brief and single, though brilliant one. Jay's numbered the years of a generation, and exhausted every department of diplomatic, civil, and judicial trust. In fidelity to their country, both were pure to their heart's core; yet was Hamilton loved, perhaps, more than trusted, and Jay trnsted, perhaps, mora than loved.
Such were they, we deem, in differing, if not contrasted, points of char acter. Their lives, too, when viewed from a distance, stand out in equally stiiking but much more painful contrast. Jay's, viewed as a whole, has in it a completeness of parts such as a nicer critic demands for the perfectiov
of an epic poem, with its beginning of promise, its heroic middle, and it peaceful end, and partaking, too, somewhat of the same cold stateliness moble, however, still, and glorious, and ever pointing, as such poem does, tu the stars. Sic'itur ad astra. The life of Hamilton, on the other hand broken and fragmentary, begun in the darkness of romantic interest, rup ning on into the sympathy of a high passion, and at length breaking off in the midst, like some half-told tale of sorrow, amid tears and blood, even does the theme of the tragic poet. The name of Hamilton, therefore, was a name to conjure with; that of Jay, to swear by. Hamilton had his frailties, arising out of passion, as tragic heroes have. Jay's name was faultless, and his course passionless, as becomes the epic leader, and, in point of fact, was, while living, a name at which frailty blushed, and corruption trembled.
If we ask whence, humanly speaking, came such disparity of the fate between equals, the stricter morals, the happier life, the more peaceful death, to what can we trace it but to the healthful power of religion over the heart and conduct? Was not this, we ask, the ruling secret ? Hamilton was a Christian in his youth, and a penitent Christian, we doubt not, on his dying bed; but Jay was a Christian, so far as man may judge, every day and hour of his life. He had but one rule, the gospel of Christ; in that he was nurtured, -ruled by that, through grace, he lived, -resting on that, in prayer, he died.
Admitting, then, as we do, both names to be objects of our highest sym pathetic admiration, yet, with the name of Hamilton, as the master says of Eragedy, the lesson is given “ with pity and in fear. Not so with that of Jay; with him we walk fearless, as in the steps of one who was a Chris TIAN as well as a PATRIOT.
between the writings of St. Paul and St. John,
the application of steam to mechanical purposes.
Allegory * is a species of writing, in which one thing is er.
“An allegory is a continued metaphor; as it is the representation of one thing by another that resembles it.”. And under the head of metaphor he says, When the resemblance which is the foundation of this figure is long dwelt upon, and carried into all its minute circui stares, an allegory is produced instead of a metaphor."
* Dr. Blair says,
pressed, and another is understood. The analogy is intended to be so obvious that the reader cannot miss the application ; but he is left to draw the proper conclusion for his own use.
It is, for this reason, chiefly employed when a writer desires to com. municate some portant intelligence or advice; but is not permitted, or does not wish, to deliver it in plain terms. It is also used for ornament, or to convey instruction, so as to interest the imagination, and flatter the understanding, by giving the reader the appearance of instructing himself
Allegories are of three kinds: first, those designed for or nament; secondly, those designed for instruction; and, thirdly, those intended both to adorn and instruct. In employing allegories, care must be taken that the phraseology be all figurative, and that the attributes of the primary and secondary object be not confounded and interchanged.
Example 1st. *
PATIENCE, AN ALLEGORY.
Patience was the child of Forbearance and Gentleness, and they lived in the town of Perseverance. When very young, she began to exercise that virtue which was afterwards naked from her. She was a very extraordinary child, and it has ever been said of her, that she could work all things. She had an aunt called Adversity, who troubled her very much, but, it was observed, that the more she was subjected to the trials of this relation, the more brightly the lustre of her character shone forth; for, while her uncle, Prosperity was near her, she seemed to have no opportunity of exercising her graces. She had a grandmother, (on her mother's side,) named Meekness, and she seemed to imbibe many of
* This allegory was written by one of the pupils of the school under the charge of the author. It is presented just as it was written by the young lady, who, though but “just in her teens," has certainly sustained the figure throughout in excellent keeping.”
As instances of the allegory, which may be studied and imitated, may Le mentioned, “The Hill of Science," and, “ The Journey of a Day, a Picture of Human Life," by Johnson;" An Eastern Narrative," by Hawks worth, entitled, “No Life pleasing to God which is not useful to Man ;'! “The Eightieth Psalm of David ; ” No. 55 of the “Spectator;" and " The Pilgrim's Progress,” which is, perhaps, the longest allegory ever written. To these may be added a very recent little work of Charles Dickens, on tiled, “ A Christmas Carol,” which cannot be too highly commended for the moral lesson which it conveys.
the qualities of that excellent lady. She also had a grandfather, Goodness, whose blood seemed to run in her veins in a large degree. All who lived in her neighborhood used to say, that she was the loveliest child they ever beheld. But, although so much admired, she had no Pride about her, though Vanity, an old man living in the vicinity, used to lay a claim to relationship with her. She was very much troubled by his daughters, Selfconceit and Foolishness, but she never retorted in the least. Even they themselves could not say, that they had ever heard an angry word proceed from her lips, and, although they tried to disturb and ruffle her uniform good nature, they never could succeed so far, as even to be able to say, that she ever appeared to cherish a wrathful spirit. She had no Hatred about her, neither would she foster Spite or Malice in her innocent heart. She made rapid advances from day to day, in every good word and work, and her name even became a proverb among all who knew her. Mothers made her an example to their daughters, and fathers did not forget her when admonishing their sons. She became more beloved and respected every day of her life, by all, for no one could see her without admiring her for her many good qualities. She appeared to be compounded of all the qualities that adorn the female character, without the least mixture of anything bad. In due time she was married to a young gentleman, by the name of Longsuffering. Some of the most distinguished among her children were Faith, Hope, and Charity
THE EMPIRE OF POETRY.
This empire is a very large and populous country. It is divided, like some of the countries on the continent, into the higher and lower regions. The upper region is inhabited by grave, melancholy and sullen people, who, like other mountaineers, speak a language very different from that of the inhabitants of the valleys. The trees in this part of the country are very tall, having their tops among the clouds. Their horses are superior to those of Barbary, being fleeter than the winds. Their women are so beautiful as to eclipse the star of day.
The great city which you see in the maps, beyond the lofty mountains. is the capital of this province, and is called Epic. It is built on a sandy and ungrateful soil, which few take the trouble to cultivate. The length of the city is many days' journey, and it is otherwise of a tiresome extent. On leaving its gate, we always meet with men who are killing one another whereas, when we pass through Romance, why ch forms the suburbs or