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Epic, and 1 dich is larger than the city itself, we meet with groups of happy people, whi are hastening to the shrine of Hymen. The Mountains of Tragedy are also in the province of Upper Poetry. They are very steep; with dangerous precipices: and, in conseqnence, many of its people build their habitations at the bottom of the hills, and imagine themselves high enough. There have been found on these mountains some very beautiful ruins of ancient cities; and, from time to time, the materials are carried lower down to build new cities ; for they now never build nearly so high as they seem to have done in former times. The Lower Poetry is very similar to the swamps of Holland. Burlesque is the capital, which is situated amidst stagnant pools. Princes speak there as if they had sprung from the dung hill, and all the inhabitants are buffoons from their birth.
Comedy is a city which is built on a pleasant spot, but it is too near to burlesque, and its trade with this place has much degraded the manners of its citizens.
I beg that you will notice, on the map, those vast solitudes which lie be tween High and Low Poetry, They are called the deserts of Common Sense. There is not a single city in the whole of this extensive country, and only a few cottages scattered at a distance from one another. The interior of the country is beautiful and fertile, but you need not wonder that there are so few who choose to reside in it; for the entrance is very rugged on all sides; the roads are narrow and difficult; and there are seldom any guides to be found, who are capable of conducting strangers.
Besides, this country borders on a province where every person prefers to remain, because it appears to be very agreeable, and saves the trouble of penetrating into the Deserts of Common Sense. It is the Province of False Thoughts. Here we always tread on flowers, - every thing seems enchanting. But its greatest inconvenience is, that the ground is not solid ; the foot is always sinking in the mire, however careful one may be. Elegy is the Capital. Here the people do nothing but complain; but it is said that they find a pleasure in their complaints. The city is surrounded with woods and rocks, where the inhabitant walks alone, making them the con fidants of his secrets ; of the discovery of which he is so much afraid, that he often conjures those woods and rocks never to betray them.
The Empire of Poetry is watered by two rivers. One is the River Rhyme, which has its source at the foot of the Mountains of Reverie. The tops of some of these mountains are so elevated, that they pierce the clouds. Those are called the Points of Sublime Thought. Many climb there by extraordinary efforts ; but almost the whole tumble down again, and excite, by. their fall, the ridicule of those who admired them at first without knowing why. There are large platforms, almost at the bottom of these mountains, which are called the Terraces of Low Thoughts. There are always a great number of people walking upon them. At the end of these terraces are the Caverns of Deep Reverie. Those who descend into them do so insensibly; being so much enwrapt in their meditations, that they enter the caverns before they are aware. These caverns are perfect labyrinths, and the dif ficulty of getting out again could scarcely be believed by those who have not been there. `Above the terraces we sometimes meet with men walking in easy paths, which are termed the Paths of Natural Thoughts; and these gentlemen ridicule, equally, those who try to scale the Points of Sublime Thoughts, as well as those who grovel on the terraces below. They would De in the right, if they could keep undeviatingly in the Paths of Natural Thoughts; but they fall almost instantly into a snare, by entering into a splen did palace, which is at a very little distance. It is the Palace of Badinage. Scarcely have th:y entered, when, in place of the natural thoughts which they formerly had, they dwell upon such only as are mean and vulgar. Those, however, who never abandon the Paths of Natural Thoughts, are the miost rational of all. They aspire no higher than they ought, and their thoughts are never at variance with sound judgment.
Besides tha River Rhyme, which I have described as issuing froin the foot of the moantaias, there is another called the River of Reason. These two rivers are at a great distance from one another, and, as they have a very different course, they could not be made to communicate, except by canals, which would cost a great deal of labor. For these canals of communication could not be formed at all places, because there is only one part of the River Rhyme which is in the neighborhood of the River Reason, and hence many cities situated on the Rhyme, such as Roundelay and Ballad, could have no commerce with the Reason, whatever pains might be taken for that purpose. Further, it would be necessary that these canals should cross the Deserts of Common Sense, as you will see by the map; and that it is almost an unknown country. The Rhyme is a large river, whose course is crooked and unequal, and, on account of its numerous falls, it is extremely difficult to navigate. On the contrary, the Reason is very straight and regular, but it does not carry vessels of every burthen.
There is, in the Land of Poetry, a very obscure forest, where the rays of the sun never enter. It is the forest of Bombast. The trees are close, spreading, and twined into each other. The forest is so ancient, that it has become a sort of sacrilege to prune its trees, and there is no probability that the ground will ever be cleared. A few steps into this forest and we lose our road without dreaming that we have gone astray. It is full of im perceptible labyrinths, from which no one ever returns. "The Reason is lost in this forest.
The extensive province of Imitation is very sterile. It produces nothing. The inhabitants are extremely poor, and are obliged to glean in the richer fields of the neighboring provinces, and some even make fortunes by this beggarly occupation. The Empire of Poetry is very cold towards the north, and, consequently, this quarter is the most populous. There are the cities of Anagram and Acrostic, with several others of a similar description Finally, in that sea which bounds the States of Poetry, there is the Island of Satire, surrounded with bitter waves. The salt from the water is very strong and dark colored. The greater part of the brooks of this Island resemble the Nile in this, that their sources are unknown; but it is particularly remarkable, that there is not one of them whose waters are fresh. A part of the same sea is called the Archipelago of Trifles. The French term it L'Archipel des Bagatelles, and their voyagers are well acquainted with those islands. Nature seems to have thrown them up in sport, as she did those of the Ægean Sea. The principal islands are the Madrigal, the Song, and the Impromptu. No lands can be lighter than those islands, for they Aoat upon the waters.
A humming bird once met a butterfly, and being pleased with the beauty of its person and the glory of its wings, made an offer of perpetual friend ship.
I cannot think of it, was the reply, as you once spurned me, and called ne a drawling dolt.
Impossible, cried the humming bird ; I always entertained the highest respect for such beautiful creatures as you. Perhaps you do now, said the other; but, when you insulted me, I was a caterpillar. So let me give you this picce of advice: Never insult the humble, as they may one day become your superiors.
Excercises. What subject can be illustrated by an allegory with the following hints or aids ?
Aids. A hill with multituies ascending,
The temptations assailing those who are endeavoring to ascend it
Vessels of various kinds variously decked.
The safe arrival of the vessel which kept the direct course.
The preparations of the competitors.
APOLOGUE AND FABLE.
An apologue is a sort of allegorical fiction, from which a separate meaning or moral lesson may be drawn. It is, ir fact, but another name for a fable, in which animals, vegetables, stocks and stones, speak and act as monitors to mankind.
An apologue, or fable, differs from a tale, in being written expressly for the sake
of the moral. If there be no moral, there is no fable * A parable is a fable, but is more generally used to denominate those allegorical tales in Scripture, which were introduced for the purpose of illustrating some truth to which they have a similitude. Such is that of "The Prodigal Son,” “ The Sower," “ The Ten Virgins."
* The word fable is used here in a confined sense, for, generally speaking all literary fabrications are fables. There are few modern fables that are sufficiently concise. Those of Gay often lengthen into tales, or lose them selves in allegory.
An apologue differs from a parable in this : the parable is drawn from events which pass among mankind, and is therefore supported by probability; an apologue may be founded on supposed actions of brutes, or inanimate things, and therefore does not require to be supported by probability. Æsop's " Fables” are good examples of apologues.
APOLOGUE. Sicily addressed Neptune praying to be rejoined to Italy: “You are foolish," answered the god, “ if you do not know how much better it is to be a small head, than a great foot."*
The Belly and the Members. In former days, when the Belly and the other parts of the body enjoyed the faculty of speech, and had separate views and designs of their own each part, it seems, in particular for himself and in the name of the whole, took exceptions at the conduct of the Belly, and were resolved to grant him supplies no longer. They said they thought it very hard, that he should lead an idle, good-for-nothing life, spending and squandering away upon his ungodly self all the fruits of their labor; and that, in short, they were resolved for the future to strike off his allowance and let him shift for himself as well as he could. The Hands protested that they would not lift up a Finger to keep him from starving; and the Mouth wished he might never speak again, if he took the least bit of nourishment for him as long as he lived; "and," said the Teeth, "may we be rotted, if ever we chew a morsel for him for the future." This solemn league and covenant was kept as long as any thing of that kind can be kept; which was until each of the rebel members pined away to skin and bone, and could hold out no longer. Then they found there was no doing without the Belly, and that, as idle and insignificant as he seemed, he contributed as much to the maintenance and welfare of the other parts, as they did to his.
Application, or Moral. This fable was related by Menenius Agrippa to the Romans, when they revolted against their rulers. It is easy to see how the fable was applied, for, if the branches and members of a community refuse the government that aid which its necessities require, the whole must perish together. Every man's enjoyment of the products of his own daily labor depends upon the government's being maintained in a condition
* Italy, in its shape, resembles a boot. The point in this apolowuo con mats in the allusion to the form of the country.
to defend and secure him in it. The fable will apply with equal force to the murmurs of the poor against the rich. If there were no rich to consume the products of the labors of the poor, none by whom public charity might " keep her channels full,” the poor would derive but little fruit from their labor.
An enigma, or riddle, is an obscure speech, or saying, in e kind of allegorical
and written either in prose or verse, designed to exercise the mind in discovering a hidden meaning; or, it is a dark saying, in which some known thing is concealed under obscure language which is proposed to be guessed.
’T was whispered in heaven, 't was muttered in hell,
* The thing des zribed or hidden in this enigma, and which is propose