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pressed in the words of the author. It is in fact a translation of the author's meaning into simpler language, accompanied with such explanations as will serve to render the passage easily intelligible. The author's words, therefore, are not so strictly followed as his sense.
Maxirns, proverbs, * and texts of Scripture often contain much mean ing in few words. To present them in a clear light, and to explain them in all their bearings, is the province of the preacher and the didactic writer; who thus calls in the paraphrase to their aid for the benefit of illustration.
“Ne sutor ultra crepidam." “ Let not the shoemaker go beyond his last.” These were the words of Apelles to a Crispin, (a shoemaker) who properly found fault with an ill-painted slipper in one of the pictures of Apelles ; but, ascending to other parts, betrayed the grossest ignorance. The proverb implies that no man should pass his opinion in a province of art, where he is without a qualification.
Example 2d. Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, stripped the statue of Juplter of a robe of massy gold, and substituted a cloak of wool saying, Gold is too cold in winter, and too heavy in summer
- It behoves us to take care of Jupiter. From this incident we see that the first consideration with a knave, is how to help himself, and the second, how to do it with an appearance of helping others.
Example 3d. A Scottish proverb says, “ Cocks are free of horse-corn.” This saying implies that people are liberal or profuse of what belongs to another.
Example 4th. Use a cat to the churn, and she will call it custom. This
* A proverb is a short sentence, expressing a well-known truth or com mon fact, ascertained by experience or observation. A maxim is a principle generally received or admitted as true. It may here be remarked that proverbs, parables and fables are easily converted the one into the other.
See Booth's Principles, p. 161.] It will be a useful exercise for the student to attempt to convert -xamples 3d and 4th below into a comparison and a fabie.
prurerb implies that if you accustom your servants or other folks, to make too frequent use of what is yours, they will think, at last, that they have acquired a right to it.
OUTLINES IN NARRATIVE.
A simple story is here related, with outlines of the same story in different language, which the student may fill out sc as to present the same story, with all the circumstances.
When the city of Troy was taken by the Greeks, after the first fury of plunder was over, the conquerors, pitying the misfortunes of their cap. tives caused it to be proclaimed, that every free citizen had the liberty of taking away any one thing which he valued most: upon which Æneas, neglecting every thing else, only carried away with him his household gods. The Greeks, delighted with his piety, gave him permission to carry away with him any other thing he had the greatest regard for; and imme diately he took upon his shoulders his aged father, who had grown de. crepit, and was carrying him out of the town. The Greeks, struck with his filial duty, gave him leave to take every thing that belonged to him; declaring that Nature itself would not suffer them to be enemies to such as shewed so great piety to the gods, and so great reverence to their parents.
The city of Troy
thirst for plunder was made proclamation
that every free-born citizen prized the most. Æneas disregarding his household gods. The Greeks pleased thing
his aged and venerable father. The Greeks admiring
every thing that he Nature itself ungenerous
respect filial regard
The outline filled out. The city of Troy having been captured by the Greeks, when their thirst for plunder was partly satiated, commiserating the misfortunes of their captives they made proclamation throughout the unfortunate city that every free born citizen might select from the ruins any one thing which he prized the most Æneas, disregarding his houses, his goods, and valuable possessions, took only his household gods. The Greeks pleased with his regard for the objects of his religious worship, gave him permission to add any other thing among his possessions to these objects of his primary regard ; upon which he immediately took his aged and venerable father upon his shoulders, who, from the infirmi ties of age, was unable to escape without assistance. While the pious sont wa thus carrying his father from the ruins, the Greeks, admiring his disinterested filial reverence for his helpless parent, gave him permission to add to what he had already taken, every thing that he owned, declaring that Nature itself roould not permit them to be ungenerous to one who had exhibited such respect to the dead and such filial regard for the veing to whom he owed his existence.
Sir William Gascoigne was the Chief Justice of England in the reign of Henry 4th. His presence of mind and his great dignity were most nobly exhibited when the Prince of Wales determined to rescue one of his servants, who was on trial before the Judge, presumed to interrupt and even to strike the Chief Justice. Gascoigne supported the character of his station against the bold aggression, and committed the prince to prison, to await the pleasure of the King his father. The King heard of the circumstance with becoming propriety, and thanked God that he had given him a judge who knew how to administer justice, and a son who could obey it.
One of the servants of
was tried before demned, notwithstanding all the interest son. The Prince of Wales was so incensed dignity of his
ordered insult he had offered
of the laws gaol. The King his father King
courage to execute the laws submit.
and conby the King's
The judge and the prince
quietly Happy is the a son
2. A painter was desirous of drawing an elephant in an unusual attitude with his trunk erect, and his mouth open ; and, in order to induce the beast to show himself to more advantage, engaged a person to stand by, and throw fruit into his mouth. The person, however, partly to deceive the unsuspecting animal, often kept in his hand the fruit włich he pretended to give to the elephant; who, not liking the mockery, and supposing the innocent painter to be the cause, threw out of his trunk Buch a quantity of water upon his paper, as entirely spoiled his sketch and prevented him from proceeding in his work.
An artist procured tageous
made not relishing he discharged
advan The foolish
amuse kept the fruit
The sagacious and believing collected
which entirely spoiling and preventing
3. A gentleman, residing at Gosport, England, was, when visiting Portsmouth, usually accompanied by his dog, in the ferry-boat. One day, it so happened, that the dog lost his master somewhere in Portsmouth, and surmising that he had re-crossed the water for Gosport, sped his way to the house of a bookseller in High street, and by every possible means intimated his misfortune. "What,” exclaimed the shopman, " you have lost your master, have you? Well, here is a penny, for your fare across the water.” The dog snatched up the coin, ran directly to Point Beach, dropped the penny into the hand of the waterman, and was ferried across with the other passengers. A resident at
wherever he went attended
was missing and supposing
Have you lost
mado - and paying
CONNECTED NARRATIVE, FROM SCATTERED FACTS.
The selection of incidents to be presented in a narration or a description, requires some taste as well as judgment. The union of such incidents in a connected narrative is not altogether a mechanical exertion. The order of time should be strictly observed. Subordinate to the order of time, is the order of the circumstances themselves. It is perhaps a good general rule, as in the case of the arrangement of the members of a sentence, to reserve the most important for the last. But the application of this rule must be submitted to the taste and judgment, as well as the design of the writer.
1. [The following particulars are presented to be united in a connected narrative. The expressions may be changed, as it may be necessary to weave the circumstances together in one continued narration.]
History furnishes no parallel to the character of Washington.
On the 25th of December, 1776, he crossed the Delaware, and soon gained the important battles of Trenton and Princeton.
He was elected President of the United States in 1789
He was again chosen Commander-in-chief of the American army in 1798.
His abilities were first exercised by Dinwiddie in 1753.
After resigning the Presidency he retired to Mount Vernon, where he devoted himself to the pursuits of agriculture.
He was born in 1732, in the county of Fairfax, in Virginia.
2. William Penn lost his wife in 1694, and was much afflicted by the event.
He married again in about two years, and employed himself in travelling over Ireland as a preacher of the peculiar doctrines of his sect.
In 1699 he visited America with his wife and family, and returned to England in 1701.
He died at Rushcomb, near Twyford, in Berks, July 30th, 1718.
His character was truly benevolent and humane, and his labors were exerted for the good of mankind.
The long prosperity of Pennsylvania furnishes the best evidence of his wisdom as a legislator.
He was born in London in 1644.
His religious opinions differed widely from those of the Established Church.
The College was of the same religious sentiments with the Established Church.
His father left him an estata worth 1500 pounds per annum.
Charles 2d, King of England, granted him a province of North America, then called New Netherlands; but now, from William Penn, called Pennsylvania.
When he was in College, he withdrew from the national forms of wor