feriority has deprived us of freedom, and we are the slave of him who was formerly our equal.

But the most deplorable part of this picture is, that dependence not only enslaves the mind, but tends to deprave the heart. We feel ourselves degraded by receiving pecuniary favors, and conscious of what our creditor must think of us, when we cannot return them, we are apt to view him with an eye of jealousy and distaste; and thus become guilty of one of the worst of crimes, the crime of ingratitude.

Young people, who know but little either of themselves or of the world, are apt to think such pictures of human nature misanthropical. They are, however, such as have been drawn by the experience of all ages and nations; and concur with several other traits to show us the natural depravity of man. If, therefore, we wish to preserve ourselves independent, — if we wish to maintain a proper dignity of character and freedom of opinion, - if we desire, above all things, to preserve ourselves from that depravity of heart, which we are so apt to slide into when we cannot pay our debts, — let us beware of borrowing money; for, as our immorts Shakspeare says,

"A loan oft loseth both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry."


On the Multiplication of Books. 1. No amusements more attainable, or attended with more satisfaction, than those derived from literary subjects.

2. The student can enjoy in his library all that has employed the active mind of man.

3. Reading especially gratifying to those who are confined by profession or by circumstances.

4. Much of the student's time necessarily employed in retracing the progress of those who have gone before him.

5. Modern authors justify to themselves and others the addition which they make to the number of books.



of pain.

On the means of rendering old age honorable and comfortable. Man degenerates in his nature as he advances in life. 2. That state is wretched, when the heart loses its sensibility. 3. Old age, though insensible to many pleasures, has a keen perception 4. Old age not always attended with natural infirmity. 5. A life of temperance preserves the equanimity of the mind. 6. A devotional spirit will afford the most lively enjoyments.

7. These enjoyments increase with the nearness of the approach of fruition.

8. That life honorable which affords the most useful lessons of virtue.

9. That life comfortable, which, although unattended with absolute en moment, has a solace for pain and a prospect of enjoyment near.


Moderation in our wishes necessary. 1. Man's active mind seldom satisfied with its present condition. 2. Restlessness and excitement prevalent. 3. Ambition and hope constantly deceive us with delusive dreams.

4. If we dwell with satisfaction on the ideal, the real can never fulfil our expectations.

5. Few have realized their expectations. Many have been disappointed and deceived.

6. What is rational and attainable, should, therefore, be the only objects of desire.


Wealth and fortune afford no ground for envy. 1. Envy most generally excited against wealth and fortune. 2. The rich and fortunate are not always happy. 3. We are deceived by appearances.

4. The poor are exempted from many evils to which the rich are subjected.

5. The rich have troubles from which the poor are exempted. 6. The real wants and enjoyments of life are few, and are common to almost all classes.

7. If the balance of happiness be adjusted fairly, it will be found that all conditions of life fare equally wou.



One of the most difficult of the departments of composition consists in methodizing, or arranging, a subject; laying it out, as it were, and forming a sort of plan on which to treat it. The writer may be figuratively said to make a map of it in his own mind, ascertaining its boundaries, that is to say, the collateral subjects with which it is connected, its dependencies, influences, and prominent traits. And as no two gecgraphers would probably lay down the same country exactly in the same way

some giving special attention to the mountains, others to the rivers,

others to the sea-coast, others to the chief towns, &c., so no two writers would probably “map out' subject in the same way. On this subject the following direccions will probably be useful to the student:


Having before his mind the precise object of inquiry, and having also stated, either in a formal manner or by implication, the proposition to be supported, the writer now should turn his attention to the formation of his plan; or, in other words, he should determine in what order and connection his thoughts should be presented. Thus are formed the heads or divisions of a composition. These must correspond in their nature to the leading design and character of the performance.

In argumentative discussions, the heads are distinct propositions or ar guments, designed to support and establish the leading proposition.

In persuasive writings, the heads are the different considerations which the writer would place before his readers, to influence their minds, and induce them to adopt the opinions and pursue the course which he recommends.

In didactic writings, they are the different points of instruction.

In narrative and descriptive writings, they are the different events and scenes which are successively brought before the mind.

No rules of universal application can be given to aid the writer in forming the plan, or methodizing his subject. His plan must vary with the subject and the occasion, Room is also left for the exercise of the taste and judgment of the writer. But although no special rules can be applied, the following general directions may be serviceable, so far, at least, as they may prevent or correct a faulty division :

First. Every division should lead directly to the purpose which the writer has in view, and be strictly subservient to the rules of unity.

Second. One division must not include another, but be distinct and in dependent in itself.

Third. The different divisions should, so far as may be, be so compre hensive, as to include all that can with propriety be said in relation to the subject, and, when taken together, present the idea of one whole.

In illustration of these rules, let us suppose that it is proposed to write an essay on Filial Duties. The writer designs to show, as the object of the

essay; that children should render to their parents obedience and love. His division is as follows:-- Children should render obedience and love to their parents.

1. Because they are under obligations to their parents for benefits received from them.

2. Because in this way they secure their own happiness. 3. Because God has commanded them to honor their parents. In this division there is a manifest reference to the object of the writer The different heads are also distinct from each other, and, taken together, give a sufficiently full view of the subject. It is in accordance, then, with the preceding directions. Let us now suppose that the following division had been made : - Children should render love and obedience to their parents.

1. Because they are under obligations to them for benefits received from them.

2. Because their parents furnish them with food and clothing. 3. Because in this way they secure their own happiness.

4. Because there is a satisfaction and peace of conscience in the dis. charge of filial duties.

This division is faulty, since the different parts are not distinct from each other. The second head is included under the first, and the fourth under the third.

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A third division might be made as follows:- Children should rendor obedience and love to their parents.

1. Because they should do what is right.
2. Because in this way they secure their own happiness.
3. Because God has commanded them to love their parencs.

It may be said of the first part of this division, that it has no particular reference to the object of the writer. It is a truth of general application, and may with equal propriety be assigned in enforcing any other duty, as well as that of filial obedience. It is also implied in the other heads, since children do what is right, when, in obedience to God's command, they seek to secure their own happiness. *

In the divisions made in the mind of the writer in forming his plan, he may present them as independent topics, to be united by the reasoning which he employs in support of each; or as distinct propositions, each of which has a particular bearing on what he purposes to prove or to advance

Example of Independent Topics.

Senses in which it is used in Scripture.
The kindred virtues with which it is allied.
Its operation on individuals.
On Society
Field of action extended by Christianity.

Example of Distinct Propositions. 1. Charity employed in the Scriptures to denote all the good affections which we should bear to one another. 2. Charity the most important duty enjoined in Holy Writ. 3. Charity is an active principle. 4. Charity does not give every man an equal title to our love.

5. Charity produces peculiar and important effects on individual char acter,

The importance of a good education.
Happiness founded on rectitude of conduct.
Virtue man's highest interest.
The misfortunes of men mostly chargeable on themselves.

* The question may arise, says Mr. Newman, from whose valuable treatise on Rhetoric the above directions are principally derived, Is it of importance distinctly to state the plan which is pursued in treating any subject? To this question he replies, that in the treatment of intricate suhjects, where there are many divisions, and where it is of importance that the order and connection of each part should be carefully observed, to state the divisions is the better course. But it is far from being essential. Though we never should write without forming a distinct plan for our own use yet it may often be best to let others gather this plan from reading our productions. A plan is a species of scaffolding to aid us in erecting the Sunding. When the edifice is finished, we may let the scaffolding fall,

The soul is immortal.
God is eternal.
Omniscience and omnipresence of the Deity.
Diffidence of our abilities a mark of wisdom.
The importance of order in the distribution of time.
Change of external condition often adverse to virtue.
The mortifications of vice greater than those of virtue.
Fortitude of mind.
The influence of devotion on the happiness of mankind.
The power of custom.
The real and solid enjoyments of life.
The vanity of wealth.
Nothing formed in vain.

Remark. The plan, or the right division of a composition should be a prominent object of attention and study. The young writer will find it a very useful exercise, in all his compositions, to lay down his plan first, before writing. In this way habits of consecutive thinking will be formed and a principle of order established in the mind, which will be iinparted to every subject of its contemplation.



Amplification may be defined an enlargement, by variou examples and proofs.

Various are the ways in which writers amplify, or enlarge, upon the propositions which they advance. The ingenuity of the writer may here have full play, providing that he do not violate the unity of his subject. There are, however, some general principles which the student should have in view in the performance of such an exercise.

The principal object of amplification is to exhibit more fully the meaning of what has been advanced. This may be done as follows:

1. By formal definitions and paraphrases of the propositions forming the heads of a subject. This is particularly requisite when the words employed in the proposition are ambiguous, new, or employed differently from their common acceptation.

2. By presenting the proposition in various forms of expression, avoid ing absolute tautology, and showing in what general or restricted sense the words employed should be received, explaining the manner, also, ir which to guard against mistakes.

3. By șiving individual instances, explanatory of the general proposi tion.

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