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dew-sprinkled, fast-flowing, delicate, delicious, clean, straggling, dancing vaulting, deep-embosomed, leaping, murmuring, muttering, whispering prattling, twaddling, swelling, sweet-rolling, gently-flowing, rising, spark. ling, flowing, frothy, dew-distilling, dew-born, exhaustless, inexhaustible, never-decreasing, never-failing, heaven-born, earth-born, deep-divulging, drought-dispelling, thirst-allaying, refreshing, soul-refreshing, earth refreshing, laving, lavish, plant-nourishing.
Examples for Practice. Apply epithets to the following names :
Friend, friendship, love, joy, sorrow, revenge, mirth, justice, a forest, a wood, a mountain, billow, wave, ripple, bloom, blossom, bud, banquet, ad versity, affection, affliction, sorrow, despair, alluremert, ambition, anguish, appetite, avarice, autumn, beauty, bee, beggar, bird, bride, cave, cloud, clown, cold, countenance, critic, death, deceit, delight, -destroy, disease, discord, dog, dream, eagle, earth, eye, envy, eloquence, countenance, fear, fire, firmament, flame, flatter, flower, gift, glory, gold, grove, grief, hair, hand, honor, hour, hope, jealousy, ignorance, innocence, lay, law, liberty, light, maid, majesty, malice, mead, meadow, minute, monarch, mist, multitude, night, pain, peace, pleasure, poetry, poverty, pride, prosperity, providence, rage, rebellion, remorse, rock, sea, shore, skin, sleep, snake, snow, stream, sun, swain, tail, tear, tempest, temple, throne, thunder, time, tongue, tree, vale, vengeance, verse, vine, want, water, war, wine, woman, wit, wind, wing, winter, wood, woe, year, youth, zeal.
Lyric poetry literally implies that kind of poetry which is written to accompany the lyre, or other musical instrument. The versification may either be regular, or united in fanciful combinations, in correspondence with the strain for which it is composed.
THE WINGED WORSHIPPERS. Addressed to two Swallows that flew into Church during Divine Service
Gay, guiltless pair,
Ye have no need of prayer,
Why perch ye here,
Can your pure spirits fear
Ye never knew
Penance is not for you,
To you 't is given
Beneath the arch of heaven
Then spread each wing,
And join the choirs that sing
Or, if ye stay,
Teach me the airy way,
Above the crowd,
I'd bathe in yon bright cloud,
'T were heaven indeed Through fields of trackless light to soar,
On nature's charms to feed,
LINES ADDRESSED TO LADY BYROF.
There is a mystic thread of life
So dearly wreathed with mine alone, That destiny's relentless knife
At once must sever both or none.
There is a form on which these eyes
Have often gazed with fond delight; By day that form their joy supplies,
And dreans restore it through the night. There is a voice whose tones inspire
Such thrills of rapture through my breasts I would not hear a seraph choir,
Unless that voice could join the rest.
There is a face whose blushes tell
Affection's tale upon the cheek;
Proclaims more love than words can speak.
And none had ever pressed before;
And mine, - mine only, pressed it more.
Hath pillowed oft this aching head;
An eye whose tears with mine are shed.
In unison so closely sweet!
That both must heave, -or cease to beat.
In gentle streams so calmly run,
They cannot part, — those souls are one. The highest of the modern lyric compositions is the Ode The word ode is from the Greek, and is generally translated a song, but it is not a song, as we use the term in our language. The ode was the result of strong excitement, a poetical attempt to fill the hearts of the auditors with feelings of the sublime. Odes that were sung in honor of the gods were termed Hymns, from a Greek word hymneo, which signifies to celebrate. The name is now applied to those sacred songs that are sung in churches. The Hebrew hymns which bear the name of King David are termed Psalms, from the Greek word. psallo, which significs to sing.
The Greek Ode, when complete, was composed of three parts, the Strophe, the Antistrope, and the Epode. The two former terms indicated the turnings of the priests round and about the altar. The Epode was the end of the song, and was repeated standing still, before the altar.
Pæans were songs of triumph sung in procession in honor of Apollo, on occasions of a victory, &c., or to the other gods as thanksgivings for the cessation or cure of an evil. The word is derived from a word signifying to heal or cure.
For examples of the English ode, the student is referred to the well-known pieces, “ Alexander's Feast,” by Dryden, and the “ Ode on the Passions,” by Collins.
A Ballad is a rhyming record of some adventure or tranBaction which is amusing or interesting to the populace, and written in easy and uniform verse, so that it may easily be sung by those who have little acquaintance with music.
A Sonnet is a species of poetical composition, consisting of fourteen lines or verses of equal length. It properly consists of fourteen iambic verses, of eleven syllables, and is divided into two chief parts ; — the first consists of two divisions, each of four lines, called quatrains ; the second of two divisions of three lines each, called terzines. The rhymes in these parts respectively were managed according to regular rules. But these rules have been seldom regarded in modern compositions The sonnet generally contains one principal idea, pursued
through the various antitheses of the different strophes, and adorned with the charm of rhyme.
Example of the Sonnet.
SONNET TO ONE BELOVED.
Deep as a pearl on ocean's soundless floor,
Where the bold diver never can explore
Not e'en discovered when the piercing light
And fills with sunshine the dark vaults of night.
And nothing shall betray it; I will bend
But nothing from me shall that secret rend,
Than any lustre of sun, moon, or star. A Cantata is a composition or song intermixed with recita. tives and airs, chiefly intended for a single voice.
A Canzonet is a short song in one, two, or three parts. *
BLACK EYES AND BLUE.
Black eyes most dazzle in a hall;
* In musical compositions, a song consisting of two parts is called a Dust if in three parts, a Trio, if in four, a Quartette, &c.
The black bespeaks a lively heart,
the blue all soul!
A Logogriph is a kind of riddlc.
Charades (which are frequently in verse) are compositions, in which the subject must be a word of two syllables, each forming a distinct word, and these syllables are to be concealed in an enigmatical description, first separately and then together.
Madrigals are short lyric poems adapted to express ingenious and pleasing thoughts, commonly on amatory subjects, and containing not less than four, nor more than sixteen verses, of eleven syllables, with shorter verses interspersed, or of verses of eight syllables irregularly rhymed. The madrigal is not confined to the regularity of the sonnet, but contains some tender and delicate, though simple thought, suitably Axpressed.
Example of the Madrigal. CO A LADY OF THE COUNTY OF LANCASTER, WITH A WHITE ROSE
If this fair rose offend thy sight,
It in thy bosom wear;
And turn Lancastrian there.
The Rondeau or rondo, roundo, roundel or roundelay, all bean precisely the same thing. It commonly consists of thirteen lines or verses, of which eight have one rhyme, and five another. It is divided into three couplets, and at the end of the second and third, the beginning of the rondeau is repeated, if possible, in an equivocal or punning sense.
The Epigram is a short poem, treating only of one thing, and ending with some lively, ingenious, and natural thought, rendered interesting by being unexpected. Conciseness is one of the principal characteristics of the epigram. Its point often rests on a witticism or verbal pun; but the higher species of the epigram should be marked by fineness and delicacy, rather than by smartness or repartee.