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ship could long survive such a teinpest, and we were soon
i open boat, and we could render no assistance to therr..
The shrieks of the unhappy persons, mixed with the
vessel could stand such a tempest long, and it
got out their little boat, determined to do their best
piece of board, with a little girl lashed to
now staying with one of those who were the means of
were taken into
Despairing of saving more, the hardy fishermen reached the shore nearly exhausted with fatigue.
MARKS USED BY PRINTERS IN THE CORRECTION VA
Many mistakes in printing may be avoided, when the printer and the writer clearly understand one another. It is thought it will be useful to present in this volume a view of the manner in which proof-sheets are corrected.
On the opposite page is a specimen of a proof-sheet, with the corrections upon it. A little attention will readily enable the student to understand the object of the various marks which it contains, particularly if taken in connexion with the explanation here given.
An inverted letter is indicated by the character and in the mode represented in No. 2.
When a wrong letter is discovered, a line is drawn through it and the proper letter written in the margin, as in No. 1. The correction is made in the same manner when it is desired to substitute one word for another.
If a letter or word is found to be omitted, a caret (1) is put under its place, and the letter or word to be supplied is written in the margin; as in Nos. 8 and 19.
If there be an omission of several words, or if it is desired to insert a new clause or sentence, which is too long to admit of being written in the side margin, it is customary to indicate by a caret the place of the omis sion, or for the insertion of the new matter, and to write on the bottom nargin the sentence to be supplied, connecting it with the caret by a line trawn from the one to the other; as in No. 15.
If a superfluous word or letter is detected, it is marked out by drawing a stroke through it, and a character which stands for the Latin word delo expunge) is written against it in the margin; as in No. 4.
The transposition of words or letters is indicated as in the three examples marked No. 12.
If two words are improperly joined together, or there is not sufficient space between them, a caret is to be interposed, and a character denoting separation to be marked in the margin opposite; as in No. 6.
If the parts of a word are improperly separated, they are to be linked together by two marks, resembling parentheses placed horizontally, one above and the other beneath the word, as in the manner indicated in No. 20.
Where the spaces between words are too large, this is to be indicated in a similar manner, excepting that instead of two marks, as in the case of a word improperly separated, only one is employed; as in No. 9.
Where it is desired to make a new paragraph, the appropriate character (T) is placed at the beginning of the sentence, and also noted in the mar gin opposite; as in No. 10.
Where a passage has been improperly broken into two paragraphs, the parts are to be hooked together, and the words “no break” written oppo site in the margin; as in No. 18.
If a word-or clause has been marked out or altered, and it is afterwards
Though a vèriety of opinions exists as to the individual by wyom the art of printing was 29 first discovered; yet all authorities concur in admitting Peter Schoeffer to be the person 3 Caps
who invented cast metal types, having learned S the art of of cutting the letters from the Gut
tembergs, he is also supposed to have been
the first whoengraved on copper plates. The #
following testimony is preseved in the family,
by Jo. Fred. Faustus of Ascheffenburg: 109 q“ Peter Schoeffer of Gernshiem, perchiving $ Capo 11 v his master Fausts design, and being himself 12 tr. [desirous ardently) to improve the art, found
out (by the good providence of God) the method of cutting fineidendi) the characters 13 stet in a matrix, that the letters might easily be
singly cast ; instead of bieng cut. He pri- 12 ei 14 Tvately cut matrices for the whole alphabet • Faust was
so pleased with the contrivance that he promised peter to give him his only of. daughter Christina in marriage, a promise which he soon after performed.
But there were many difficulties at first with these letters, as there had been before 3 Room with wooden ones, the metal "being too soft to support the force of the impression : but this defect was soon remedied, by mixing
a substance with the metal which sufficiently So hardened it,”
and when he showed his master che letters cast from
thought best to retain it, it is dotted beneath, and the word stet (let it stand) written in the margin; as in No. 13.
The punctuation marks are variously indicated ; - the comma and semicolon are noted in the margin with a perpendicular line on the right, as in No. 21; the colon and period have a circle drawn round them, as in the two examples marked No. 5; the apostrophe is placed between two convergent marks like t.ie letter V, as in No. 11; the note of admiration and interrogation, as also the parenthesis, the bracket, and the reference marks, in the same manner as the apostrophe; the hyphen between two perpendicular lines, as in No 7, and the dash the same & the hyphen.
Capital letters are indicated by three horizontal lines drawn beneath them; small capitals, by two horizontal lines; Italic by a single line; with the words Cap. s. Cap., and Ital. written in the margin. When a word is improperly italicised, it should be underscored, and Rom. written against it in the margin. Examples, illustrative of all these cases, will be found under No. 3.
A broken line is indicated by a simple stroke of the pen in the margin, drawn either horizontally, or as indicated in No. 16.
A broken letter is indicated by a stroke of the pen drawn under it, and a cross in the margin.
When a letter from a wrong font, that is, of a different size from the rest, appears in a word, it is to be noted by passing the pen through it, and writing wf. in the margin, as in No. 17.
A space which requires to be depressed is to be marked in the margin by a perpendicular line between two horizontal lines, as in No 14.
Different names are given to the various sizes of types, of which the following are most used in book printing.
Pica. * Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.
Abodefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy.. As it may be interesting to know the frequency with which some of the letters occur, it may here be stated that, in the printer's cases, for every hundred of the letter , there are two hundred of the letter x, four hundred of k, eight hundred of b, fifteen hundred of c, four thousand each of 2, n, o, and s, four thousand two hundred and fifty of a, four thousand five hundred of t, and six thousand of the etter e.
* The next two sizes of typo larger than the above are called English and Great Primer, and all larger than these, Double Pica, two Line Pica, Three Line Pica, Fifteen Line rica, &c., according as they exceed the Pica in size
TECHNICAL TERMS RELATING TO BOOKS.
A book is said to be in Folio when one sheet of paper
makes but two leaves, or four pages. When the sheet makes four leaves or eight pages, it is said to be in Quarto form ; eight leaves or sixteen pages, in Octavo; twelve leaves or twentyfour pages,
Duodecimo; eighteen leaves, Octodecimo. These terms are thus abbreviated : fol. for folio; 4to for quarto ; 8vo for octavo; 12mo for duodecimo ; 18mo, 24s, 32s, 64s, signify respectively that the sheet is divided into eighteen, twentyfour, &c., leaves.
The Title-page is the first page, containing the title ; and a picture facing it is called the Frontispiece.
Vignette is a French term, used to designate the descriptive or ornamental picture, sometimes placed on the title-page of a book, sometimes at the head of a chapter, &c.
The Running-title is the word or sentence at the top of every page, generally printed in capitals or Italic letters.
When the page is divided into several parts by a blank space, or a line running from the top to the bottom, each division is called a column; as in bibles, dictionaries, spellingbooks, newspapers, &c.
The letters A, B, C, &c., and A2, A3, &c., at the bottom of the page, are marks for directing the book-binder in collecting and folding the sheets.
The catch-word is the word at the bottom of the page, on the right hand, which is repeated at the beginning of the next, in order to show that the pages succeed one another in proper order. It is seldom inserted in books recently printed.
The Italic words in the Old and New Testaments are those which have no corresponding words in the original Flebrew on Greek, but they were added by the translators to complete or explain the sense.