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The use of the pen is to write down what we have seen, read, or thought, and thereby to preserve what would probably soon be lost, if intrusted to the memory alone. What is önce written can be read, or preserved for future information, and thereby we can learn what our friends who are absent, and even those who are dead, have seen or said.

Exercises.

Enumerate the parts, qualities, and uses of the following objects
A book.

A work-box.

A knife. A house.

A saw.

A wing A tree.

A chisel.

A fin. A table.

A plane.

The hand. A bureau.

A ball.

The arm. The contents of a box. A kite.

The foot. A secretary.

A dressing-case. A plate.

A sofa.

The ear. A barrel.

A chair.

The nose. A lamp:

A lock.

The mouth. A candlestick.

A key.

The human face

The eye.

IV.

EVENTS.

The object of this lesson is to teach the learner to describe in easy sentences, any circumstances which happen to himself and others.

He should be directed to write the incident just as he would relate it to his parents or a young friend; and after he has thus written it, to revise it carefully, to see whether any

of his words are mis-spelt, and whether he has used the very words which he intended to use.

Example.

On returning home yesterday, I saw a man severely beating a horse. I stopped a moment to ascertain the cause; and perceived that one of the wheels of the wagon had sunk deep

in the mire, and the poor animal was exerting all his strength to drag the heavy load, while the cruel driver was mercilessly beating the unfortunate creature because he could not proceed.

Exercis.2e.

In a similar manner, the learner may describe the following events .
The meeting of a beggar in the street.
The overturn of a carriage.
The passing of a procession.
The sailing of a ship:
The catching of a fish.
The capture

of a bird.
The raising of a kite.
A fire.
The raising of a building.

V:

OBJECTS AND EVENTS.

The object of this lesson is to accustom the learner to combine the results of the preceding lessons.

The same directions should be given to him as are presented in the last lesson; and it will be proper to enforce the directions with regard to the spelling, and the proper use of words, in every exercise.

Example.

As my

brother was riding in the country, he saw a beauti ful, large house, painted white, with green blinds. In the front of the house was a small flower-garden, and the bright tulips, all in full bloom, presented a brilliant show. The rose bushes were not yet in flower; but the lily of the valley was dropping its modest head, while it perfumed the air with its delicious fragrance. At the back of the house were a number of fruit trees, in full blossom, among which was the peach tree, with its beautiful pink flowers. Some boys were seen

clustering around a willow near the brook, busily engaged with their knives. One was cutting the small leaves and ' scions from a large branch, which he had just taken from the tree for a whip, while another was busily engaged in making a whistle. As my brother approached the house, the boys, mistaking him for the owner, immediately scampered away; some hiding themselves among the bushes, while the more ac tive leaped

over the high stone wall, to escape being caught It appeared that these boys were truants from a neighboring school-house, and the little rogues were fearful, not only of being caught in trespassing upon private ground, but likewise lest they should be carried into the presence of their master, to be corrected for playing the truant.

Excercises.

In the same manner the learner may describe the following objects and events;

Boys fishing from a bridge.
Girls dressing their dolls.
A tree blown down by a tempest.
Boy driving cows or sheep to pasture.
Horses running at large.
A dog, in a state of madness, biting passengers in the street.
A lion, elephant, or tiger broken loose from its cage.
A menagerie, with the postures and employments of the wild animals:
A museum, with dancing puppets.
A public concert.
An exhibition of paintings and statuary.

VI.

NAMES.

The object of this exercise on names, is to prepare the student for a future exercise on definitions. How it is to be performed will be readily seen from the following

Examples. What is the name which is applied to false or undeserved praise ?

Answer. Flattery.

By what name do we call the delaying of that which we know cannot be finally escaped or avoided ?

Answer. Procrastination.

By what name do we designate that animal which has two horns, a long tail, and cloven feet, and that affords beef, butter, and cheese ?

Answer. The Cow.

By what name do we designate the restraint of appetite and passion?

Answer. Temperance.

Exercises.

What name is given to the reverence of God?

What name is applied to an effort of genius and art, producing an association of exalted and brilliant ideas in language harmoniously arranged ?

A general coincident feeling between two persons ?
Habitual inactivity both of mind and body?

That tranquil state of mind in which the agitations of anxiety and dis. appointment are no longer felt?

That state of mind which suffers no dismay from danger?
The dissolution of corporeal existence ?
The resolution to persist in any undertaking that has been commenced
The time after sunset?
That God is present every where, and that he knows all things ?
A habit of being pleased ?

VII.

SIMPLE DIALOGUE, OR CONVERSATION.

Young persons are seldom at a loss for topics of conversation, when left unrestrained to themselves. But as soon as they are required to write what is called a composition, they feel at a loss what to say. This arises from no inability to form ideas, nor from want of words to express them ; but rather from a vague apprehension that something is required of them, which they have never done before ; and to which they know not how to address themselves. The cultivation of the habits of observation, to which allusion has already been made in the first exercise, will help them wholly out or the difficulty; especially, if they be informed, that the art of writing is nothing more than the art of expressing with the hand, in signs which present themselves to the eye, that, which with their voice, they convey to the ears of others. In other words, that in their early attempts at writing composition, they may write down in letters, what they would say to their companions in their common conversations.

To cultivate the habits of observation, the following dialogue, from the pen of Dr. Aikin, is presented; with the recommendation that it be read to the young student, or that he be required to read it carefully, in order that he may learn to use his eyes aright, and attentively observe what passes before them.

THE TUTOR AND HIS PUPILS.

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Eyes and no Eyes ; or, the Art of Seeing. Well, Robert, where have you been walking this afternoon ? " said a tutor to one of his pupils, at the close of a holiday.

Robert. I have been to Broom-heath, and so round by the windmill upon Camp-mount, and home through the meadows by the river side.

Tutor. Well, that is a pleasant round.

Robert. I thought it very dull, Sir; I scarcely met with a single per son. I would much rather have gone along the turnpike road.

Tutor. Why, if seeing men and horses was your object, you would, indeed, have been better entertained on the high-road. But did you see William ?

Robert. We set out together, but he lagged behind in the lane, so I walked on and left him.

Tutor. That was a pity. He would have been company for you.

Robert. O, he is so tedious, always stopping to look at this thing an i that! I would rather walk alone. I dare say he is not got home yet.

Tutor. Here he comes. Well, William, where have you been?

William. O, the pleasantest walk! I went all over Broom-heath, and so up to the mill at the top of the hill, and then down among the green meadows by the side of the river.

Tutor. Why, that is just the round Robert has been taking, and he complains of its dulness, and prefers the high-road.

William. I wonder at that. I am sure I hardly took a step that did not delight me, and I have brought home my handkerchief full of curiosities

Tutor. Suppose, then, you give us an account of what amused you so much. I fancy it will be as new to Robert as to me.

William. I will do it readily. The lane leading to the heath, you know, is close and sandy, so I did not mind it much, but made the best of my way. However, I spied a curious thing enough in the hedge. It was an old crab-tree, out of which grew a great bunch of something green quite different from the tree itself. Here is a branch of it.

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