when inany member of a community have an equal liberty to express their opinions, there will necessarily be disagreements

. A misplaced economy in people of property is low, but swearing and drunkenness are meaner vices.

We perform many duties only as the occasion offers, or as the opportu nity requires.

It is the duty of a person to govern those who are under him in all mat ters wherein they are incompetent to rule themselves.

Fashion and caprice regulate the majority as the time of one clock rules that of many others.

Exuberance of imagination and luxuriance of intellect are the greatest gifts of which a poet can boast.

We may be eminent and illustrious for things good, bad, or indifferent , we may be distinguished for our singularities; we may be conspicuous for that which is the subject of vulgar discourse; but we can be distinguishea only for that which is really good and praiseworthy,

Lovers of fame are sometimes able to render themselves eminent for their vices or absurdities, but nothing is more gratifying to a man than to render himself illustrious for his professional skill. It is the lot of few to bo noted, and these few are seldom to be envied.

Water and snow amass by the continual accession of fresh quantities the ice accumulates in the river until it is frozen over.

The industrious man amasses guineas and accumulates wealth.

France has long been celebrated for its health ; and many individuals resort thither for the benefit of their salubrity.

The places destined for the education of youth should be salutary; the diet of the young healthy rather than delicate, and in all their disorders, care should be taken to administer the most wholesome remedies.

A nation may be extravagant of its resources, and a government may be profuse of the public money; but no individual should be lavish of what is sot his own, nor prodigal of what he gives another.

There are but few remarkable things; but many things are extraordiary.

A man may have a distaste for his ordinary occupations without any apparent cause; and after long illness he will frequently take a dislike to the food or the amusement which before afforded him pleasure.

It is good to suppress unfounded disgusts ; it is difficult to overcome a strong dislike ; and it is advisable to divert our attention from objects calculated to create distaste.*

* Words are sometimes similar in sound, although different in spelling and signification. Such are the words sight, cite, and site; raise and raze aisle and isle ; scent, cent, and sent, &c. Although these are not, technically speaking, to be considered as synonymous, they may be here mentioned in order to caution the student with regard to the use of them. The verbs lie and lay, also, although entirely different in meaning, have some parts in common, which are frequently misused. The teacher who wishes for exer cises of this kind, to be corrected by the pupil, will find a large collection of them in a little work recently published by a distinguished teacher of this city, entitled “ The Companion to Spelling Books, in which the Or thography and Meaning of many thousand Words, most liable to be mis spelled and misused, are impressed upon the Memory by a regular Series of Written Exercises.” The work is by that eminent teacher, Mr. William B. Fowle. See also the exercises on words, page 17



By the

The same idea may be expressed in a great variety oi wɛys by the methods of inversion and transposition suggested in the following examples.

Example 1st. By changing active verbs into passive, and the contrary, thus, By the active verb. A multitude of delighted guests soon filled the places of those who refused to come. passive verb. The places of those who refused to come were soon filled by a multitude of delighted guests.

Example 2d. By using the case absolute, instead of the nominative case and its verb, and the contrary; as, The class having recited their lessons, the teacher dismissed them. The class recited their lessons and the teacher dismissed them. Of these two sentences the former is preferable, because it preserves the unity of the sentence, which requires that the subject or nominative should be changed as little as possible during the course of the sentence. Another recommendation of the for. mer expression is, that it throws out the conjunction, which should never be unnecessarily introduced into a sentence.

Example 3d. Infinitive mood or substantive and participial phrases instead of nominative or oljective nouns, and the reverse ; as, His having been unfortunate is no disgrace; instead of, His misfortunes are no disgrace.

Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time are material duties of the young; or, To be diligent, industrious and properly to improve time are material duties of the young.

Example 4th. By the negation or affirmation of the contrary; as, Solon the Athenian effected a great change in the gove-nment of his

country. Solon, the Athenian, effected no small change in the government of his country.

The beauty of the earth is as conspicuous as the grandeus of the heavens. The beauty of the earth is not less conspicu. mus than the grandeur of the heavens.

E.cample 5th. By reversing the corresponding parts o, the sentence, with a negative adverb; as, the grandeur of the heavens is not more conspicuous than the beauty of the earth.

The negation of the contrary.* The beauty of the earth is not less conspicuous than the grandeur of the heavens.

By a comparison. There is as much beauty in the earth, as there is grandeur in the heavens.

By an expletive cause. There is no less beauty in the earth than grandeur in the heavens.

Example 6th. By changing the participial phrases into a personal verb with a conjunction ; as, Charles, having been deprived of the help of tutors, neglected his studies. Charles was deprived of the help of tutors, and therefore he neglected his studies.

Example 7th. Change of the nominative and verb into an infinitive phrase ; as, He sacrificed his future ease and reputation that he might enjoy present pleasure. He sacrificed his futuro pase and reputation to enjoy present pleasure.

Example 8th.

The infinitive changed into an objective noun; as, Canst thou expect to escape the hand of vengeance ? Canst thou expect an escape from the hand of vengeance ?

Or into a finite verb with its nominative ; as, Canst thon expect that thou shalt escape the hand of vengeance ?

* The negative adjective is generally more elegant than the negative adverb. Thus, "I was unable," is to be preferred to the expression, 'I was not ableInvisible," rather than not visible ;Inconsistent,' rather than “ not consistent," &c.

Example 9th. Participial nouns converted into commor, nouns, and the contrary; as, Providence alone can order the changing of times and seasons. Providence alone can order the changes of times and seasons.

Example 10th. The change of the verb, an adjective, or an adverb, into a noun and the contrary; and the conversion of a noun into a pronoun ; as, Idleness, ease, and prosperity tend to generate folly and vice. The tendency of idleness, ease, and prosperity is to generate folly and vice. Idleness, ease, and prosperity have a tendency toward the generation of folly Folly and vice are too generally the consequences of idleness, ease, and prosperity.

Simple language always pleases most. Simplicity of language always pleases most. We please most when we speak simply. Those persons who, &c. They who, &c.

Example 11th. The conversion of an active or a passive verb into a neuter verb with an adjective ; as, Sobriety of mind suits the present state of man. Sobriety of mind is suitable to the present state of man.

Example 12th. By the conversion of a declaration into an obligation, with a corresponding change of words.

Declaration. Man’s present state renders sobriety of mind highly becoming.

Obligation. Man in his present state should be characterized by sobriety of mind.

Example 13th. By a noun in apposition to avoid the use of the conjunction mnd. Hope is the sustainer of the mind, and supports us ander many a burden. Hope, the sustainer of the mind, supports us under many a burden.

Example 14th.

By the preposition and its objective case, instead of the possessive; as, The moon's mild radiance and the sun's resplen dent brightness are objects which, &c. The mild radiance of the moon and the resplendent brightness of the sun, * &c.

The repetition of and † avoided by the use of the preposition; as, God has given us sonses to enjoy all these beautiful objects, and reason to guide us in the use of them. God has given us senses to enjoy all these beautiful objects, with reason to guide us in the use of them.

By the use of the potential mode instead of the infinitive; God has given us senses that we may enjoy all these beautitul objects, with reason, &c.

An infinitive phrase instead of a nominative noun ; To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly, are duties enjoined by Christianity. Justice, mercy, and humility, are duties enjoined by Christianity.

The negative adverb with the conjunction but ; We can ob serve the exquisite skill of the Artificer in all that we see around us. We cannot but observe the exquisite skill of the Artificer in all that we see around us.

It is to be remarked, that although some examples have been given, in which the participial noun is used, yet when there is a common noun from the same root, of similar meaning, the participial noun should be avoided. Thus, “The habit of deceiving” is not so elegant an expression as

“ Habits of deception.”

Example 15th. Resolution of the personal pronoun, with the conjunction and into the relative pronoun ; thus, We can learn a lesson of resignation, and it will prepare us for that banpy home where the weary are at rest. We can learn a lesson of resigration,

* It is deemed very inelegant to construct a sentence with many posses sive nouns, or with many objectives governed by the preposition of. Thus, the sentence, The extent of the prerogative of tħe King of England, or, The King of England's prerogative's extent, would be better expressed thus, The extent of the King of England's prerogative.

† The use of the conjunction and may often be avoided by dividua long sentences into stort ones.

« 前へ次へ »