: invabo non] The Pronouns in the two foregoing Verses, and in that which immediately follows, are all of the second Person ; and ought doubtless to be so in this Verse. Whether the Text had originally the Affix , or 7, may possibly never be determined. This, however, is certain, that all the ancient Versions, without Exception, have here—The mighty Acts, and the Kingdom; and I think we might admit their Reading without Scruple.

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V. 8. The Lord openeth the Eyes of the blind: Dingapo 179) There is no Neceflity for supplying the Word Eyes in the Version; for the Verb mpo signifies TO GIVE LIGHT, or TO CAUSE ONE TO seg, Exod. IV. 11. XXIII. 8.

1 ,Rather [הנתן שלג כצמר

PSALM CXLVII. V.1. – for it is pleasant, and Praise is comely. : Abon 7181 D'YI 'a] There seems to be but one Member in this Hemistic, which

may be thus rendered FOR A BECOMING PRAISE is PLEASANT.

V. 14. He maketh Peace in thy Borders : Diseng abuga DUO). Rather HE MAKETH THY COUNTRY PEACEABLE ; for Bibe is the Abstract for the Concrete, as in a thousand other Instances. V. 16. He giveth Snow like Wool:

] , 1 think — HE SENDETH FORTH &c. . Thus Virgil, Georg. I. 397.

Tenuia nec lana per cælum vellera ferri. And Martial, Lib. IV. Epig. III. V. 1.

Denfum tacitarum vellus aquarum. Herodotus says, that the Scythians called the Flakes of Snow wlepa, Feathers - 8κ οια τε ειναι ετι προσωτερω ετε οραν, ατε διεξιεναι των ιερων κεχυμενων πτερων γαρ των γω και τον αερα ειναι πλεον. Lib. 19. Cap. vii. V. 18. he causeth his Wind to blow, and the Waters flow. 309

] — viz. HE CAUSETH THE WIND TO BLOW, AND THE WATERS FLOW : or, THE WIND BLOWETH, AND THE WATERS FLOW, as Isa. XL.7. V. 20. and as for his Judgments, - they have not known them.



- רוח ויזלו

-The Syriac reads [רוחו יזלו מים:

Rather [ומשפטים בל ידעום:


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STRUCTED THEM. So you in Hiphil signifies ; and in this form and Sense we may find it, Judg. VIII. 16. Ezek. XLIV. 23. &c. This is exactly the Sense of what Moses says, Deut. IV. 8.

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-Ra [תנינים וכל תהמות:

V.7. — ye Dragons and all Deeps. :] ther YE GREAT SERPENTS, AND ALL DEEP CAVERNS : viz. where they dwell. I translate 1ann, Caverns, because it signifies the deep Parts of the Earth. Pf. LXXI. 20.

V. 14. He also exalteth the Horn of bis People, the Praise of all bis Saints, &c.

] casy to distinguish whether our Translators meant to put abon, the Praise, in Apposition to He (viz. God) or to Horn; though I think the latter. The former would be preferable ; and I am persuaded is the true Sense. Thus it would be better and more clearly expressed HE ALSO EXALTETH The Horn OF HIS People; he is a PRAISE AMONG ALL HIS SAINTS, AMONG THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL.

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-be will beautify the meek with Salvation. : 789a D'IWY 78D] Rather, I think HE WILL ADORN &c.

V. 5. Let the Saints be joyful in Glory; 71832 D'T'DN 1759] Rather I think in the Future THE SAINTS WILL TRIUMPH GLO


let them fing aloud upon their Beds. :Dniavo zy 13379 ) We read of Songs in the Night, Job XXXV. 10. and Pl. XLII. 8. but these it is presumed were uttered in an erect, not in a recumbent or horizontal, Attitude. For besides that the Singer could not exert his Voice with so much Advantage, there is a manifest Impropriety of Behaviour in a Person finging aloud in Bed, whether he be alone or in Company. I would therefore understand this Place and Pf. IV. 4. (where exactly the same Phrase occurs) agreeably to the Genius of the Arabic Language, which delights in calling the Heart A Bed; and this it must be confessed is no improper Metaphor, the Affections being there


quietly composed as in a Bed, till they are roused by some unexpected Accident: thus the Poet Motanabbius, Carm. XVI. 8.

پری حده غامضاة القلوب و

i.e. Gladius ejus infpicit CUBILIA CORDIS. And, Carm. XLVI. 25,

مقبل حب حبة فرح به

ومقېل غېظ عدوة مقروح * ز القلب by مقبل rium vulneratum e

The Scholiatt Wahedienfis explains



i.e. CUBILE AMOris amici sui lætatur, fed CUBILE odii in adversa

eft; and though neither of these Words, or viai, be found in Gólius or Castle in the Sense of Bed, yet I doubt not of their having that Signification in the Camus or other Lexicons; for both the Verbs and Jb signify to sleep, and yli to roll, to turn about. I would therefore render this place thus HEART; which Sense it is evident is well connected with the Con. text, which contains an Exhortation to prepare for an offenfive War, to which nothing can be more opposite than the Notion of rolling on a Bed: but, on the contrary, if this be understood to have reference to a martial Song before the Engagement, the Climax will be kept up, and the Harmony preserved. See the Preposition by used in this senie, Noldius, II.

V.6. Let the high Praises of God be in their Mouth: 58 noort Dinda] Rather — God will be EXALTATIONS (or, HIGHLY EXALTED) IN THEIR MOUTHS, AND A TWO EDGED SWORD &c.

- this Honour þave all bis Saints. Praise ye the Lord. 777 ,

- gorion by 897] These Words are an Epiphonema, as in the last Verse of the preceding Psalm, and should be thus translated



Praise God in his Sanctuary : praise him in the Firmament of . : -] GOD ON ACCOUNT OF HIS HOLINESS : PRAISE HIM ON ACCOUNT OF THE EXTENT OF HIS POWER, (or, HIS EXTENSIVE Power.) That the Preposition à has this Force here, is evident from the Use made of it in the next Verse; and that yopo is not confined to the Firmament (or spacious Extension between the Earth and the Clouds) but fignifies also any Extension, may be inferred from the geAeral Sense of the Verb ypr, To spread forth, To stretch out.



הללו יה:

Rather PRAISE [הללו אל בקדשו הללוהו ברקיע עזו :

.of his Power

I CANNOT conclude my Remarks on the Book of Pfalms with out making a few generál Observations on the Authors, and the Titles of them; and this I thought might best be done by bringing the whole into one View.

This Collection of Divine Hymns has always been held in the highest Degree of Veneration, both by Jews and Christians ; and it must be confessed that their Excellence is obvious, either in the Light of Compositions, or in respect to the Subject Matter of them. But this very Circumstance has proved prejudicial to them; for as they have been more frequently transcribed, they abound more in Faul than any other of the sacred Books; a Circumstance unavoidable without the Divine Interposition, which we cannot fuppose would have interfered further than in providing that they should be transmitted down to Posterity sufficiently intire.

By the Word Psalms, the Jews seem sometimes to have understood the whole of the Hagiographa, or moral Books, when put in Contradistinction to the Pentateuch, and the Prophets ; which last Division comprehended also the Prior Prophets, (as they called them) or the Historical Books. See Luke XXIV. 44. This Collection has been divided into different Parts, and in different Modes, according as their Fancy, or perhaps some more folid Reason, now unknown to us, suggested. It is certain however, that in their present State neither the Order of Time, the Unity of the Subject, nor the Distinction according to the Authors seem to have been much regarded ; that some of the Psalms are a literal Transcript one from the other ; and that two of them have been made from what was originally but one, and this perhaps with no other View than that of making a round Number of the Sum total.

Some of the Fathers held that all these Psalms were composed by David. But though this Opinion was abetted by Chrysostom, Theodoret, Ambrofius, Augustin, and some other respectable Names, yet it is so weak that it will not bear the Test of Examination ; no more than the Inference which some of thern made on another Occasion, 'viz. that our Lord's Ministry had continued only one Year, because they thus understood the acceptable Year, prophesied of by Isaiah, LXI. 2. When these Men, more remarkable for their Piety than their critical Skill, were prefied by their Opponents with the Titles which some of the Psalms bore, and the Matter they contained, which proved the contrary, they gave evasive Replies to the first Point, and asserted that David could predict all the Circumstances relative to the Captivity and other


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Periods, in as ample a Manner as if he had been an Eye Witness to the Tranfactions there mentioned ; an Absurdity equal to that of the Romanists, who reprefent the Almighty as constantly engaged in working Miracles without Necessity.

When these Titles were firft added is a Point which cannot now be determined : That they were not added by the Authors of the respective Psalms, is I think probable ; because few or no Compositions had any Titles anciently, (this being a later Refinement) and many of them have none to this Day.. Who they were that made this Addition is also very uncertain. It is generally

generally supposed to have been the Work of Ezra, Nehemiah, or some of the latter Prophets. Others have imagined that “they might have been prefixed by Transcribers ?

upon their own Conjectures, and perhaps upon some uncertain Tra“ditions. And if so, they can have little more Authority, than if “modern Commentators were to affix their Opinions or Conjectures, " as the Occasions of writing any of these Psalms." See Fenwick on the Titles of the Psalms; P. 4. These Additions seem however to be prior to the Existence of the Version of the LXX, as they appear there.

That several of these Pfalms could not have been composed by the Authors whose Names they bear, appears evident from internal Marks. The following Instances may sufficiently prove this Point. The XIV th is said to be David's, though the last Verse proves that the Author lived during the Captivity. Calmet entertains the same Idea of the XXVIIIth, from what is said V. 2d. The LXXXIXth has the Title of Ethan, the Ezrahite, a cotemporary with David, (1 Kings IV. 31.) and yet from the last 15 Verses it seems to have been written during the last mentioned Epocha. The XCth is attributed to Moses : but, from the common Period of human Life there mentioned, must have been written several Centuries after his Time. And among the several Psalms which are distinguished by the Name of Afaph, the Master of David's Band of Music, the following are thought by the most judicious Critics to be of the same Æra, viz. the LXXIVth, LXXVth, LXXVIth, LXXXth, as are the LXXXIVth, and CIId, the Songs of Degrees (as they are called) from the CXXth to CXXVIth, so likewise those that are anonymous from the CXLVIth to the End.

Besides the Historical Titles, there are other Words prefixed to many of the Psalms, which seem to denote their Quality; as MASChil, instructive, XXXIId; MichTAM, golden, XVIth; NEGINOTH, merry, LIVth ; SHIGGAION, plaintive, VIIth ; &c. or to have reference to Seasons, as SHOSHANNIM, to Festivity, wherever it occurs ;



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