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will be found perfectly consistent with the whole Context; whereas the Sense of our Version seems at Variance with it.
. : ) Rather - of THE TROUBLED, or OPPRESSED. So yun is used Ch. XXXIV. 29. Thus also the Vulgate - vineam ejus, quem vi oppresserint, vindemiant.
[יכרם רשע ילקשו :
.and they gather the Vintage of the wicked
that they have no Covering in the Cold. :777pa nila 7] AND WITHOUT COVERING IN THE COLD.
CRIETH OUT ;
j A Subject is here wanting forכי יכיר בלהות צלמות :
V. 12. Men groan from out of the City, and the Soul of the wounded crieth out :
] Dina and Disbn are here equivalent ; 'the dead and the sain : If the literal Version be thought too bold, viz. THE DEAD GROAN OUT OF THE CITY, AND THE SOUL OF these Participles may perhaps be considered as the Participles in rus of the Latins, which the Hebrews want. V. 17. — if one know them, they are in the Terrors of the Shadow
. :j the Verb '3', for which I take the Morning from the preceding Hemistic, and render --- SURELY IT DISCOVERETH THE TERRORS
THE SHADOW OF DEATH, viz. in their Countenances for Fear of being known. V. 18. He is swift as the Waters; — O'n op sy 890 5p] Rather
He is swIFT UPON THE SURFACE OF THE WATERS: py being never used as a Particle of Comparison. So the old Version.
their Portion is cursed in the Earth. — poga anpin sapo ] This and the next Hemistic would perhaps be better rendered by the future Tense, as they are in the old Version : for this seems mentioned as a Judgment upon the Oppressor.
– so doth the Grave those which have finned. : 1890 5180] The in on seems to belong to the Beginning of the next Word : without it these Words will signify so doth THE GRAVE THE SINNER. So the old Version.
V. 20. The Womb Mall forget him, Tender Pity, or COMPASSION —; for Womb, without adding the Words bore him, does not seem sufficiently clear.
Rather [ ישכחהו רחם
and tender - יקומו לא
V. 22. he riseth up, and no Man is sure of Life. 1938* : 793] There seems to be such a Confusion of Persons according to the present Reading, that it is difficult to make out any consistent Senfe in this Verse, and the two following ones, according to the Rules of grammatical Interpretation, I would therefore read )
- HE DRAWETH THE MIGHTY ALSO WITH his PoweR: THEY RISE UP; HE TRUSTETH NOT IN LIFE. (V. 23.) IT IS GIVEN HIM to be in SAFETY, AND HE RESTETH THEREON ; HIS EYES are UPON THEIR WAYś. (V. 24.) They HOLD THEMSELVES HIGH FOR A LITTLE WHILE, BUT ARE NOT, &c, The Meaning of which I conceive to be this; in Verse 21, is shewn how the wicked Man oppresses the weak and friendless. This, however, is not all; for V. 22. it is added -- he draweth (vize to their Destruction, as the Word seems to signify Pl. XXVIII. 3. and Ezek. XXXII. 20. as well as here) the mighty also with his Power : but as the Word draw seems to imply, that he could not make fuch short Work here as in the Case before mentioned, but that the Business required Time and Management; so in the latter Hemistic of this Verse the Reason is assigned why he did fo ; because, if the mighty rose up to oppose him, he might run the Risk of his life. Therefore, as it follows (V. 23.) he contrives to live upon Terms of Security and Confidence with them ; qvær, and upon this Ground he proceeds, or he rests himself-here, and lies upon the Watch for an Opportunity to do them a Mischief. Then follows the Conseques (V. 24.) They enjoy their Greatness for a little while, but are at length reduced and brought to nought by his Artifices, sharing herein the common Fate of all other.
V. 5. Behold even to the Moon, and it shineth not ; — 859 nige go yo 51789] The Verb 78 signifies no where, either in Heb. or any of the Sister Languages, to shine : that Signification has been given to it from the supposed exigentia loci, or from some of the Versions. The Words I think ought to be translated
BEHOLD HE WILL NOT INDEED PITCH HIS TENT NEAR The Moon, viz, as not worthy of his Habitation.
6. How much less Man, that is a Worm? and the Son of Man, which
? :) ] in the Hebrew two different Words to express Man and Worm, would not one of each be better rendered by MORTAL and REPTILE ?
CHA P. XXVI.
V. 2. How hast thou helped him that is without Power ? nary na ng S5 ] Rather — WHOM HAST THOU HELPED who had NO Power ? So in the next Verse, mutatis mutandis.
- and how haft thou plentifully declared the Thing as it is ? : ny717 275 vini] Qu. ought not these words to be rendered — AND HAST THOU shewn KNOWLEDGE TO THE MULTITUDE ?
V.4. — and whose Spirit came from thee? : 792 783 » nousy ) Rather, I think ---AND whose INSPIRATION CAME FROM THEE? as Ch. XXXII. 8. V. 5. Dead Things are formed under the Waters, and the Inhabi
. : ° ) Translators understood Mines and Metals formed in the Bowels of the Earth. See the Note in the old Version. But the Word DXDY is never used in this Sense, nor do I see a sufficient Reason for giving it such an Interpretation. The Passage has ever been considered as very dark and difficult; but I fatter myself that I have at last hit upon its true Meaning. By D'897 I understand no other than the Manes mortuorum, the Spirits of deceased Persons, confined in 1980, commonly translated Hell
, but more properly to be stiled the Place, or Manson, of the dead, the same as e Adins in Greek, and Orcus in Latin. Whoever will take the Trouble of considering attentively the following Texts, where the Word D'899 occurs, Pi. LXXXVIII. 10. Prov. II. 18. — IX. 18. – XXI. 16. Ifa. XIV. 9. XXVI. 14, 19. will see Reason to conclude the Use of it in all those Places to be exactly as here represented. As the Point is curious, tending to throw some Light upon the Notions of the ancient Jews concerning the State of departed Souls, I may be allowed to consider two or three of these Passages at large. In Ifa. XXVI. 13. it is said, Other Lords befdes thee have had Dominion over us, viz. the Gods of the Heathen - But V. 14. it follows, these are no other than dead Men, Dina, (see Wisd. XIV.
the ,מתחת ,Hell
( to which is added from beneath שאול
15.) in Opposition to the living God; they are DD'899, departed Spirits, who have not Power to stir from their Place of Confinement, they cannot rise. Again V. 19. the qina, thy dead Men who pould live and rise again, the 1998, the Inhabitants of the Duft, who are called to awake and fing, and the Dixon, the dead, to be cast out by the Earth, are all the same Individuals. In that beautiful Prosopopæia, Isai. XLV. 9.
(, , Word used in the Passage before us) is poetically described as stirring up her Inhabitants, Dixon, the dead, the Spirits of departed Captains and Kings, represented as fitting there upon their Thrones, to meet with Taunting and Insult the haughty Tyrant of Babylon, on his being brought down to those infernal Shades. But the Passage, Pf. LXXXVIII. 10, &c. not only illustrates the Signification of D'897 in the present Text, but both the Sense and Terms so aptly correspond in both Places, that I can hardly suppose one written without Allufion to the other. There it is said, Wilt thou thew Wonders to the dead, Dinas? Skall the dead, D'X57, (which for the Sake of Variation I would translate, the deceased,) arise and praise thee ? SẢall thy loving Kindness be declared in the Grave (937, the fame as 51809) 'or thy Faithfulness in Destruction ? (11728 in both Places) Shall thy Wonders be known in the dark, rather, the Place of Darkness ? and thy Righteousness in the Land of Oblivion? Thus much may suffice to ascertain the general Import of Oxb7; let us now attend to the Connection of the Verse before us. In Ch.XXV. Bildad had spoken of God's Majesty, and Man's Impurity in respect of him. To which Job replies, and sarcastically asks, V. 4. whether he thought the Person he spoke to did not know as much as himself; and how he came by his Knowledge ? whose Spirit, or rather Inspiration (as the Word now, is rendered Ch. XXXII. 8.) came from thee? Did (says he, V.5.) the '87, ANY DEPARTED SPIRITS BRING it Thee FROM BENEATH ? (the Place of their Abode under Ground) or FROM THE SEA AND ITS, INHABITANTS ? The 7 prefixed marks the Interrogation ; and 5 bone is the Preter Pihel from byn, which admits of that Sense. See Prov. XXV. 23. Margin. It deserves Notice, that Ch. IV.15, &c. Eliphaz had said, that a Communication of the same Import had been made to him by a Spirit or Ghojt in the Visions of the Night; to which I cannot but think Job alludes, asking Bildad if he too, as well as his Friend, had been favoured with such an extraordi. nary Visitant. Not that he thought the Thing impossible in itself, though perhaps he doubted of it in the present Instance. On the contrary, the Possibility of its happening by God's special Direction and
Appointment seems strongly intimated in the next Verse; where, as if he had said from the before cited Psalm, that the Dixon could not of themselves rise up again to tell of God's Wonders and Righteousness, he subjoins, that God himself had Power, if he pleased, to send them on such an Errand; for such, I think, is the Connection of S980 being naked before him, and '70% (a Word of the same Import) being without a Covering, or Cover, i.e. the Gates of the lower Regions were always open to his Command. And this he confirms by Thewing how all other Things in Nature were disposed to obey the Divine Power. That the Jews had a Notion of the separate Existence of the Souls of the dead, and the Possibility of their revisiting the Earth, is evident from Saul's Application to the Witch of Endor, and particularly from the Parable of the rich Man and Lazarus, Luk. XVI. 24. where the rich Man requests Abraham to send Lazarus to admonish his Brethren. But Abraham replies, that what he asked was impossible, meaning doubtJess without express Commission from God, because the dead were not otherwise allowed to pass the Gulph fixed between them and the Earth. As to the latter Hemistic, which I render from the Sea and its Inhabitants, the Meaning is sufficiently clear from Rev. XX. 13. where at the general Resurrection it is said, The Sea gave up the dead which were in it, and Death and Hell delivered up the dead which were · in them; as if those who were drowned or buried in the Sea had their Place under the Waters, as those who were buried on dry Land had their's under Ground. It is not however impossible that by the Sea might be meant the Sea of Sodom, or the Lake Asphaltites, which bordered upon Idumea, the Scene of Action, the Waters of which were said to be of such a pestilential Quality, as to kill the Birds that attempted to pass over it ; whence perhaps it was called the Dead Sea, And I submit it to Consideration, whether the Notion, that prevails among the Vulgar, of Ghosts being laid or confined in the Red Sea (mistaken perhaps for the Dead Sea on Account of its similar Sound, the one Name being also more familiar to the common People than the other) might not have arisen from some fanciful Tradition concerning the Habitation of departed Spirits in that Place of Horror.
V.6. Hell is naked before him : - ] byen signifies here and Ch. XI. 8. The Nether Recesses or Lower PARTS OF THE EARTH. It has a very extensive Signification which is to be determined by the Context; as for Instance, when Jonah said that he cried out of "67780, the Word certainly means THE WHALE's Belly, wherein he was then confined, and should not be
The Word [ ערום שאול נגדו