απαν, ελεφας Αιγυπτιος και γαρ επιδόυτερα φερεθ) ας αλκην ελεφαντος Ινδε: B.IV. Or though one SEIZE HIM in a Trap By His Eyes, or ViSAGE : YET HIS NOSE FORCETH ITSELF THROUGH THE SNARES; which agrees very well with what is said above of his yast Force, and the Impenetrability of his Skin by Iron.


is another generic Name for a Beaft of an enormous לויתן [בחכה

says it

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V. 1. Canst thou draw out Leviathan with an Hook ? — 107.9 quan

] a Size : thus it is used for a Whale, Psal. CIV. 26; for a Serpent, Isa. XXVII.I ; and, by a Metaphor, it signifies in general a Tyrant, XXVII. 1, and Pharaoh in particular, Pf. LXXIV. 14. But it is probable that the Cause of the Appropriation of this Name to an oppressive Monarch is in its Origin deduced from the Cruelty of that Pharaoh (for even this Name is in Coptic only a common Appellative for a King) who kept the Children of Israel in Bondage ; because the Leviathan, or CROCODILE, is both unfriendly to Man, and an Inhabitant of Egypt. And that this is the Animal here meant, is I think, from its Characteristics, fufficiently clear. See Bochart, Hieroz. B. I. C.7. Ælian


be tamed; B. VIII. C.

or his Tongue with a Cord which thou lettest down ? banan : 13709 yipen] Rather — OR Tie his TONGUE WITH A Cord: for vpu in Samaritan signifies the same as wan, viz. Ligavit, Cinxit.

V.2. Canst thou put an Hook into his Nose ? — 1982 1928 D'wnn]. Rather CANST THOU PUT A ROPE ABOUT HIS NOSE? for 1028 here signifies properly a Rope made of Reeds.

- or bore bis Jaw through with a Thorn? :175 apn ninay ) non signifies, among other Things, a Fisher's Hook, and ought to be rendered here Hook. It is probable that in Job's Time the Method of taking the Crocodile was not known. For Herodotus informs us that, when he was in Egypt, this was attended with no Difficulty; for he fays - αγραι δε σφεων (κροκοδειλων) πολλαι κατεστασι, και παντοιαιη de

peod δοκει αξιωτάλη απηγησιος «ναι, ταυτίω γραφω επεαν νωτον συος δελεαση σεex ΑΓΚΙΣΤΡΟΝ, μετια ας μεσον τον ποταμον αυτος δε ωει το χειλεος τ8 ποταμε εχων δελφακα ζωης, ταυτίω τυπτα: επακέσας δε της φωνης ο κροκοδειλος, μεται κατα τω φωνην· εντυχων δε τω νωτω, καταπινει. οι δε ελκάσι· επεαν δε εξελκυθη ες γην, πρωτον απαντων ο θηράντηρ σηλω κατ' ων επλασε αυτά της οφ

θαλμους. .

התמלא בשכות

The latt Hemitic would be [שים עליו כפך-זכר מלחמה אל תוסף :

θαλμυς. τουτο δε ποιησας, καρτα ευπετεως τα λοιπά χαρουται: μη ποιησας δε TOUTO, OUV movw. Euterpe. Cap. LXX.

V.6. Sball thy Companions make a Banquet of him? - pomy ang Dinan] Some Egyptians, Ælian informs us, eat the Crocodile, when he was in that Country; while others, more superstitious, rejoiced, if by Chance their Children were devoured by that Animal, which they worshipped as a God. B. X. C. 21.

V.7. Canst thou fill his Skin with barbed Irons ?
1998]' The Skin of his Back is said to be impenetrable. oi de Kpoxedes-
λοι εχουσι

deprec appaxtov Porodwror. Aristotle Nat. Hift. B. II. C. 1o. So
Pliny - Unguibus bic armatus eft, contra omnes ictus cute invicta. Nat.
Hist. B. VIII. C, 25.
V. 8. Lay thine Hand upon him, remember the Battle, do no more.

clearer, were it rendered --- but REMEMBER THOU SHALT HAVE
NO OTHER CONFLICT: for this is doubtless the Sense. The Note
in the old Version is, -" If thou once consider the Danger, thou
“ wilt not meddle with him.”

V. 11. Who bath prevented me, that I mould repay him ? '32'7777'DE 50x7] Rather-'WHO HATH BENEFITED ME &c? i.e. wbo bath first done me a Kindness, and laid me under an Obligation to repay him? So this Verb signifies, Deut. XXIII. 4. Isa. XXI. 14. See Rom. XI. 35. V. 12. I will not conceal his Parts, nor bis Power, -9972 vong so's ]

-- I WILL NOT CONCEAL IN HIM NEITHER ANY THING OF HIS Power &c. for that seems to be the precise Meaning of 927 in this Place: and in respect to 1992, I cannot find that it ever signifies either Parts, Limbs, or Strength. See Ch. XVIII. 13.

nor his comely Proportion. : 1379 799] Rather ADVANTAGE OF HIS STRUCTURE.

V.13. Who can discover the Face of his Garment ? -10905 no ba yon] Rather WHO CAN UNCOVER THE FACE OF HIS GARMENT? For the Face of his Garment would by a common Hebraism fignify the upper or external Garment.

V. 14. -- his

Rather [ודבר גבורות

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V. 14:

- his Teeth are terrible round about. :179X73w ma'ad ] Rather perhaps THE Rows OF HIS TEETH are TERRIBLE. Ilis Mouth is said to be so large, that it can take in a whole Sheep; and he has thirty six sharp pointed Teeth in each Jaw.

V. 15. His Scales are his Pride ; — Dilare p58 17182] That is doubtless the Sense of this Place : but notwithstanding ought not the Words to be literally rendered --- The STRENGTH OF BUCKLERS is his PRIDE?

Shut up together as with a close Seal. :75 bn 9780] The Participle here cannot agree with either of the Nouns in the foregoing Hemistic. This Clause ought therefore to be rendered — HE IS SHUT UP close as with A SEAL.

V. 18. — and his Eyes are like the Eyelids of the Morning. 7'3"Y4 : No syby)] Hebetes oculos hoc animal dicitur habere in aqua, extra ACERRIMI VISUS.

Plin. B. II. C. 25. .
V. 22. — and Sorrow is turned into Foy before him. 1970 13059

] Rather, I think AND SORROW GOETH BEFORE HIM : i. e. “ he causes Sorrow wherever he goes.” In our old Version we read -- and Labour is reječted before him : that is, “ Nothing is hard “ or painful unto him.” But the Words cannot bear that Interpretation : and that which is given in our present Version does not seem pertinent. The Verb r7 has the Signification there adopted from the Chaldee (for it occurs only in this place :) but I derive it from the Arabic cungo ex alto deorsum descendit. This Animal, it is well known, · occasions great Ravages in a Country. See V. 25.

V.23. The Flakes of bis Fles are joined together ;--17279902 503) --- The Ribs (or BONES) OF HIS BODY CLEAVE FAST TOGETHER: for either Sense may I think be justified from the Arabic Juli caro in cava parte, hve latere coxa.

they are firm in themselves, they cannot be moved. why pyss : 010 ) Rather — HE IS COMPACT IN HIMSELF that HE CAN

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See V. 15.

V. 24

yea, as hard as a Piece of the nether Milftone. aboa pysyy :hinnn] Rather, I think

YEA, AS HARD AS THE COULTER OF THE Plow: literally, the lower Part. As there is nothing said of


[משתו יגורו אליס-משברים יתחטאו:

.Breakings they purify themeloes

Milftone, and be has no Sense suitable in Hebrew, I borrow from the Arabic the Signification of ästi Aratrum, Vomer. V.25. When he raiseth himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of

. : ] Our Version is not very intelligible in the latter Hemistic: the old one is; but the Words cannot admit of that Construction, viz. and for Fear they faint in themselves. The Verse ought to be thus rendered

BY REASON OF His GREATNESS (his enormous Bulk) THE MIGHTY ARE AFRAID : THEY WHO BRUISE HIM (endeavour so to do ) MISS THEIR AIM. nwn is here construed as Ch. XXXI.

23. and 10nm, as Judg. XX. 16. and Ch. V. 24. This is very apposite to the Context, V. 30. Sharp Stones are under him : be spreadeth sharp pointed

. : ] Rather---UNDER HIM IS A SHARP PLOUGHSHARE : HE MAKETH HIS Bed upon HARROWS In The Mire. 97771 fignifies literally Sharpnesses. von is the same Word without the Heemantics as nenono, I Sam. XIII. 20. 797 is used for making a Bed, Ch. XVII. 13; and for supporting one's self, Cant. II. 5; and you is an Harrow, 2 Sam. XII.31. and i Chron.


3. - one would think the Deep to be boary. DID SUNT In'w ] Rather --HE CAUSETH THE DEEP TO BE THOUGHT HOARY : for zen' is in Hophal.

V. 34. He beholdeth all bigb Things:-778972049 nx] Rather ---HE LOOKETH UPON EVERY THING with HAUGYTINESS. This Sense the next Hemistic seems to confirm.

V. 32.

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לבלתי עשות עמכס ; your Fally

- left I deal with




Rather [ נבלה

V. 14. And be called the Name of the firft Jemima &c. Et fapt "921 no'm' nhan ] That is -- Å TURTLE, or Dove ; from Turtur, Columba sylvestris ; Kesa, or rather CASSIA, from ägai,

the aromatic Shrub so called ; and Keren-Happuch, i. e. The Bosom of Delight: for 33 yö signifies a Bofom, and the Verb &Si, festivus, jocosus, urbanus fuit. I make the Arabic the Fountain of all these Names, because it was Job's vernacular Dialect. Why their Names-are particularly mentioned more than those of their Brethren seems to be for these two Reasons, viz. because they were remarkably beautiful; and because they were peculiarly favoured in being allowed to divide their Father's Inheritance with their Brethren: a Favour greater than that which was conferred on the Daughters of Zelophehad; each of whom has also her Name recorded, Numb. XXVII. 1. &c.

V. 16. After this Yob lived an bundred and forty Years.] From this Datum we may fix the Æra in which Job may be supposed to have lived ; viz. about the Time of Abraham. For most of the Patriarchs, whose Ages are recorded by Moses, lived in that Period to about this Age. See this Point discussed on Pf. XC. 10.

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BEFORE I conclude my Remarks on this Book, it may perhaps be expected that I should deliver my Sentiments in regard to the leading Subject, as well as the Object, of it; and touch upon the Nature of this Composition, the Author, and the Time, when it may be supposed to have been written.

I shall therefore speak to each of these Points briefly, except the last, on which I shall beg Leave to enlarge ; as I think it will be incontestably proved by a long Induction of Particulars, that the Book could not have been written till about the Time of the Babylonish Captivity. The Texts I shall bring in Confirmation of this point have been collected by a late ingenious Clergyman, whose MS. was obligingly communicated by a Friend some Time after thefe Sheets had gone to the Press. To this I shall subjoin some of the Remarks and Classical Illustrations of the same learned Man, which I flatter myself will also be no disagreeable Present to the Public.

Whether such a Personage as Job ever existed, is a Matter of very doubtful Disputation. The affirmative side of the Question appears probable, when we find him ranked by Ezekiel with Noah and Daniel, and referred to by St. James. But on the other Hand, the Silence of Moses and all succeeding Historians concerning him is apt to induce the contrary Opinion. The Prophet might perhaps chuse to mention Job preferably to Abraham, or any other righteous Man, because the Book had lately been published, and particularly because Job is there



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