Spirit. Their Christian privileges they are not instructed to look upon as personal : spiritual personal holiness is not necessary to their being accounted holy : they may be sanctified without sanctification, regenerate without regeneration. In fact, the scheme of Dr. Taylor has so curtailed the number of terms expressive of character, that the reader, with his interpretation, may travel a great way in the Scriptures of the New Covenant, without meeting with any thing which belongs more to a sincere than a hypocritical Christian professor.' pp. 115-117...

Mr. Mendham's work is well entitled to our approbation, not less for the judicious and temperate manner in which it is written, than for the importance of the subject to which its discussions relate.

Art. V. Interesting Roman Antiquities recently discovered in Fife,

ascertaining the Site of the great Battle fought betwixt Agricola and Galgacus; with the Discovery of the Position of five Roman Towns, and of the Site and Names of upwards of seventy Roman Forts: also, Observations regarding the ancient Palaces of the

Pictish Kings in the Town of Abernethy, and other Local AnI" tiquities. By the Rev. Andrew Small, Edenshead. 8vo. pp. 324.

Price 10s. 64. 1823. COPIOUS as is the title-page of this volume, it does by

no means convey to the reader a complete description of its contents. In addition to the sites of ancient battles, and the position of Roman towns and forts, and other local antiquities, the Author has furnished details of witchcraft, anecdotes of King James V., the “ Gudeman of Ballengeigh,” with some other entertaining particulars, which entitle his book to the benefit of an exemption from the character generally given of antiquarian publications as being dry and dull. Mr. Small's distribution of his subjects is, indeed, not a very happy exemplification of the lucidus ordo; but this, perhaps, the reader will excuse in consideration of the Author's infirmities, which rendered the task of writing these pages, even once over, one of great difficulty, though plainness and perspicuity have been, he assures us, aimed at through the whole. We cannot praise his book for correctness of diction.

Objects are great and interesting by relation. Some persons would hear of the discovery of Cicero de Republica with perfect indifference, who would be quite enraptured to witness the digging out of some long-buried bones from the earth ; and the sight of the Roman wall would delight others, more than a walk in the galleries of the Vatican. The Antiquities which Mr. Small describes, were, it seems, discovered about the begins

nis Objects art of the would be tried to fit out

and the combich this here na

Kinke of action has been generally mong antiquarielte has long

Tacipaign, hbt little as recorded heral adwwhere

Fords bich he hasoman mountais programit.

• ning of Autumn, 1820;' and the gratification which he re. ceived on that occasion, as well as the importance which he connects with the discovery, may well be understood from his remarking that~' It would appear as if the Great Ruler and

Superintendent of all events in providence were now willing " that the veil of ambiguity, by which this interesting battle • (between the Romans and the Caledonians), and the events ' connected with it, which have been so long concealed in ob'scurity. should now be drawn aside; and that such sub

stantial documents should be educed as to establish the truth ‘of it for ever after, upon the most solid and permanent basis.'

Of the battle which Agricola at the head of the Roman forces, fought with the Caledonians commanded by Galgacus, and which proved so disastrous to the latter, the site has long been a subject of controversy among antiquaries. Gordon, whose opinion has been generally received, decides that the scene of action was in Strathearn, balf a mile south of the Kirk of Comerie. Tacitus, who, in his description of Agricola's seventh and last campaign, has given us one of the finest productions of his pen, affords but little aid in this inquiry. The only direct note of place which he has recorded, is in the sentence which informs us, that the Roman general advanced with his army till he arrived at the Grampian mountains, where the Caledonians had posted themselves to dispute his progress -ad montem Grampium pervenit quem jam hostes insederant. Agric. Vit. 29. Mr. Small remarks, that, as the Grampian hills are well known to be a ridge of high mountains running through nigh the whole breadth of Scotland, Tacitus, if the battle had taken place there, would have written · Montes Grampi in the plural number;' forgetting, it would seem, that a ridge of high mountains is frequently described by an appellation in the singular, of which Mons Taurus, Mons Libanus, and similar denominations occurring in classic authors may be cited as examples. Mr. S. will not believe that the Caledonians would ever allow the Romans to march through the most populous of their territories, and even to cross two of the largest rivers of their kingdom, before they attempted to measure their strength again with them, after their attack on the ninth legion; and he insists, that the antiquities which have been discovered in Fifeshire, and of which his book contains a description, -urns, implements of war, coins, the foundations of a town, all Roman, and the evidence of the burning of the dead which the inspection of several places in the vicinity affords, determine the place of Agricola's victory over the Caledonians to a situation nigh the north base of the west Lomond Hill, in the district between Kinross and Cupar. The

conflict, which he designates the battle of Meralsford, the Author has described with a particularity as signal as if he had been a per- , sonal observer of the contest, following the armies step by step, marking their advances and their retreats, distinguishing their positions, and the precise spot where they fought, and triumphed, or were defeated. He is not at all pleased with Tacitus, whom he charges with intentional misrepresentations in his account of the battle, and as having forfeited all claim to the character of a candid and impartial historian. Nor is be in better humour with Agricola and the Romans, whose successes he ascribes, not to their superior valour and discipline, but to their cunning. In tracing the marches of the Romans, and describing the operations of the hostile armies, the Author has been less watchful over his imagination than was required by the kind of service in which he was engaged. . He has too, we, suspect, exercised somewhat less of both skill and patience in the examination of the relics of which he makes a report, than were necessary. Urns full of ashes and fragments of burnt bonés, with their bottoms uppermost, are not decisive proofs of Roman cremation. Some of the Antiquities des seribed are probably Caledonian. Mr. Small's notices and remarks are scattered in such disorder through his book as to render it not very easy to obtain an extract for the information of our readers. We must content ourselves with the follow


1. In Agricola's seventh campaign, which answers to the year 84, the Romans seem evidently to have marched from their camp at East Blair, where they had been in winter quarters, as early in the spring as the weather and the rivers would permit them to pass ; and appear to have crossed the Leven, a little below where the Gullet Bridge, now stands; to have advanced forward by Scotland Well, Kinnes Wood, and where the two Balgedies now stand; then, at the village of Pittendriech, to have turned more towards the north-east, through the farms of Wester and Easter Gospetrie, towards a gap or opening in the higher grounds on the other side of the vale of Eden, which would appear then in view as the most probable and casy passage towards, Strathearn: and, in the west side of this opening, the foresaid precious marsels to the antiquary were found. .. ? ... By the time the Romans reached the farm of Easter Gospetrie, they would have a full view of the brave Caledonians drawn up on the other side of the Eden in order to give them a warm reception : and a warm reception it seems indeed to have been. They seem to have crossed the Eden a little below where the small village of Burnside or Burngrange now stands, where, by the junction of three streams, the Eden assumes the appearance of a small river, still keeping the line of the new proposed road between Burnt-island and Perth, all along from where they crossed the Leven, towards the new road lately made from Glenfang Inn to Gateside, passing the old castle of Vol. XXI. N.S.

2 R

Balvaird. At Burnside, they were within less than a quarter of 2 mile of the Caledonians, having only to cross, in a north-east direction, the south-east angle of the farin of Bonnety, when they entered upon the lands of Edenshead; and there they came first in contact with the Caledonians, where a large Cairn, erected upon the march betwixt these two lands, straight east from the farm-steading of Boonety, which stood till about these twenty years back, evidently points out the extremity to where the left wing of the Roman army had extended. The ground seems to have been well chosen by the Caledonians for making a stand against the Romans, being firm, light, and dry, with a gentle slope towards the south and south-east, having both their flanks defended by strong ramparts of turf or earth thrown up. There the battle seems to have commenced between the two armies.' pp. 33–35.

Art. VI. 1. An Appeal to the Members of the British and Foreign

Bible Society, on the Subject of the Turkish New Testament, printed at Paris, in 1819. By Ebenezer Henderson, Author of “ Journal of a Residence in Ireland.” 8vo. pp. 70. London,

1824. 2. Remarks on Dr. Henderson's Appeal to the Bible Society, on the

Subject of the Turkish Version, &c. By the Rev. S. Lee, A.M. D.V. of the University of Halle, F.R.S.L. F.R.A.S. Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. 8vo. pp. 204. Price

38. 6d. Cambridge, 1824. W E should not have suffered Dr. Henderson's Appeal to

remain even thus long unnoticed, had we not learned that an effective exposure of its frivolous and vexatious nature was preparing by Professor Lee. Dr. Henderson is an individual for whose talents we have a high respect, and all that we know of his personal character commands our esteem. He is one of the last men whom we should have wished or expected to encounter as an opponent in any good cause. But the best of men are but men. It was at a very early period in the history of the Christian Church, that two brother Missionaries, one of them an Apostle, were obliged to separate, because “ the contention was so sharp between them.". Barnabas was “a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost, and of faith ;" but'in that affair, he was clearly misled by his partiality for his nephew, and he discovered ‘no little obstinacy. The separation was, however, productive of advantage to the cause of Christianity : each pursued his errand in a different direction. Only the name of Barnabas has come down to our distant age, with this slight flaw attaching to it;-as if to admonish us, that a good man may be nevertheless of a somewhat tetchy and obstinate temper

Dr. Henderson's own Preface to his Appeal, satisfied us that he was to be blamed. He there anticipates that the enemies of the Institution would be furnished with ‘ a temporary occasion • for triumph. Granted,' he says, but • Is this for a moment to be compared with the handle that would be given to the most inveterate foes of our holy religion, by putting its records into their bands in a state so derogatory to their high and heavenly character? But it may safely be asserted that not one genuine friend of the Institution will desert its ranks in consequence of these remarks, provided the effect be produced which they are intended to produce : viz. the total annihilation of this edition of the Turkish New Testament.'

Here it is distinctly avowed to be the Writer's object, either to compel the Bible Society to do as he, Dr. Henderson, thinks they ought to do, in the case of this particular version, or to induce all whom his remarks may influence, to desert its ranks, and abandon a Society that can be guilty of the wickedness charged upon them. This is the only alternative he can contemplate.' And whereas, if the said nefarious version be suppressed, the enemies of the Institution will be furnished with only a temporary occasion for triumph, it is implied that, if not annihilated, the triumph, and the cause of triumph, will be permanent.

Now let us for a moment suppose, that Dr. Henderson's critical objections to Ali Bey's Version were well founded ; that he is in the right, and that Professor Lee, and Professor Kieffer, and Baron de Sacy, and the other Oriental Scholars consulted by the Committee of the Bible Society, are in the wrong; let us suppose, further, that this · Mahommedan' Version was obnoxious to twice as many well founded objections as Dr. Henderson has arrayed against it with little or no foundation; we ask, Would cause have been shewn against the Society, sufficient to warrant a single genuine friend or genuine Christian to desert its ranks? What would the crime have amounted to? Out of the one hundred and thirty different Versions of the Scriptures, or portions of the Scriptures, distributed by the Bible Society, there is one, the Turkish, which is exceptionable. Therefore, the Society ought to be abandoned ! Here is an Institution which has now existed in active operation for twenty years, and has issued in that time more than four millions of Bibles and New Testaments. Up to this period, the Prosecutor gives it the best of characters. But at length, it has blundered on an exceptionable version ; and Dr. Henderson denounces it, abandons it, and would persuade others to do likewise, unless it repent. Not satisfied with mourning over its fall in secret, he tells it in Gath, he publishes

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