fanatics, who thought themselves, by equally striking. They were neither the illumination of the spirit, dif- of them fariguinary or inhuman, like pensed from observing the rules of most of those who, by dint of congrammar and common sense, greatly quest and superior abilities, have contributed to corrupt eloquence, by raised themselves to an eminence making the obscure jargon of en- which they were not intitled to by thusiasm succeed to the beauties of birth. Antient history cannot afford Style, and the energy of just reason: an instance of a conqueror who led ing. If we follow Cæfar and Crom- less blood than Cæsar; nor can nowell from the senate to the field, we dern history Dhew us one less liable thall find the resemblance equally to the imputation of crueity. than ftriking. It was during his expedi- Cromwell. Matius, Sylla, and Cinrion in Gaul that Cæsar gained the na, were guilty of barbarities which hearts of the soldiery, and acquired Cæsar's generous foul would have that power and influence which ena. been shocked at; the history of their bled him to carry on a civil war bloody proscriptions cannot be read against the senate, and all the great without horror. Cromwell appears eit generals of the commonwealth: to have been equally averse to thed. and it was Cromwell's unparalleled ding blood, though he has been very fuccess in Ireland and Scotland that unjuftly charged with the cruelties put it in his power to become the committed by his foldiers in pilaging antagonist of that parliament which some towns in Ireland. It is not difhad invested him with authority, and ficult to prove that this accufation is to supplant all the generals who ri. groundless. Let a general's authority valled him in imerir, or endeavoured over his roldiers be ever so great, it to check his aspiring. If we confi- has its limits: there are some occasider Cæfar and Cromwell, when be- ons on which he entirely loses all his come the greatest persons in their influence over them; and it is appre. respective countries, the parallel will hended that a fiege wherein a town fitill hold: their conduct, when por is taken by storm, is one of these. feffed of supreme authority, betrays a At such a time a general, however weakness which they were entirely free willing to prevent the effusion of from whill they climbed up the steep human blood, and check the fury of ascent of ambition to attain it, and the soldiers, who breathe nothing ftruggled through difficulties in its but carnage and laughter, is under pursuit. In one particular, the re- a necessuy of conniving at the most semblance between them is triking; horrid barbarities, rather than expose Cæfar declined the diadem, though the weakness of his authority by the whole tenour of his condu& dif- giving orders which he is sure will covered the most ardent de fire to be not be obeyed. These two great pofseffed of it : and Cromwell re- men, as they resembled in their virfused to accept the crown when it tues and thining qualities, resembled was offered him, though his regret likewise in their defects. We cannot at having taken so ill-judged a ttep acquit Cæsar of some want of policy is supposed to have hastened his and discernment; for, living in death. If we take their temper and the midit of enemies bent upon bis disposition into confideration, the destruction, and for so much mirconformity of character will appear placing his confidence as to confer


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nobleft strains of poetry, in his verses himself to the most imminent danto the memory of the Protector. " ger in the field, who had stormed fo We must resign, Heaven his great roul does many towns, routed so many'armies, claim

and who owed his success in almost In storms as loud as his immortal fame, every enterprize more to the impe

The sublimity of these lines New tuosity of his courage than to his that the panegyrist was worthy of conduct or experience, furnishes us the hero whom he celebrates. With with one of the most useful and inregard to their manner of dying, ftructive leffons of morality. It Cæsar has greatly the advantage over shews the vanity of all pretensions Cromwell; he died as he had lived, to heroisın, and fully evinces the like a hero. Though he was at. truth of that maxiin of the wife tacked by a considerable number of man, Pride was not made for man, nor conspirators, he killed several of an bigh heart for him that is born of a them, and fell as bravely in the re- woman. Indeed, it often happens nate-house as he could have done that the concluding scene of the life in the field of battle. Cromwell on of a man renowned for his great his death-bed no longer supported exploits, eclipses all the lustre of his the character of the hero, or the former glory. Death pulls off the warrior; the enthusiasm to which he mask which made him appear a hehad devoted himself in his early life, fo to vulgar eyes, and the object of once more gained the ascendant over admiration stands confeít a man obhis mind, and he discovered all the noxious to all the frailties, and subtimidity of a religionist, who dreads ject to all the degrading circumdeath, even whilft he declares that stances to which human nature is his only hopes of happiness are in exposed in the lowest of mortals. another life. The expressions he Those therefore who are disposed to made use of, “I am not yet to die, envy and admire the great and illu. My hour is not yet come," and others Itrious, should contemplate them in of the like nature, are striking proofs the last fad scene of life ; that will that the obferyation of the poet is reconcile them to their lot; they will juft;

be no longer dazzled with the glory Who bravely combats is not therefore brave. of thole who have acquired the most He dreads a death bed like the meanest .exalted reputation, but own flave.

The whole amount of that enormous famę, Such a close of life in a man who A tale that blends their glory with their had so often undauntedly exposed

12 Anecdote of Sir Godfrey Kneller. W HEN Sir Godfrey came into he had just received, desired the al

V very high reputation, a cer- derman to re-pocket them. The tain alderman came to be painted by latter staring, for what did you give This artist, and, as usual, paid him me those guineas ? said Sir Godfrey down half the price in guineas. Sir To draw my face, to be furt, answers Godfrey, after several times touch- the other. But by G-, replies ing the canvas with the chalk, and the painter, you have no face to draw; fubbing it out, very deliberately laid get you gone, get you gone,

aside, and pulling out the guineas



PHilip was by this means delivered at a great distance ; or, perhaps, his

from a potent adversary, and be- flatterers forged a pedigree to make lieved, as he had reason to believe, this probable. However it was, he that he had nothing to fear from Rom found churchmen to divorce him, bert, to whom his father left the and sent her to Montreuil; where, duchy of Normandy. His ambition, in process of time, she died of ill as upon other occasions, oufran his treatment and a broken heart. He prudence ; he published his claim then demanded in marriage Emma, to the realm of England, while his the daughter of count Roger, brobrother William was taking poffef- ther to the duke of Calabria ; who, fion of it ; which not only frustrat- consenting to it, fent over the lady ed his own designs, but brought richly adorned with jewels, and with William over with an army into a large portion of ready money. The Normandy. Robert, suspecting his Italian writers say this was done brother Henry to be recretly em- purely to deprive her of them ; the barked in his design, despoiled himn French historians deny the intention ; of the Cotentio, and then had re- but, if the fact be certain, it signifies scurse to Philip for his affittance. little what' was the delign, D. The king made great professions, As to the apparent reason, and entered Normandy with an ar- why the king did not espouse mogu my which might have made these her, that arose from another Nip in good ; but William Dackened his the king's conduct; which, as it was pace by the help of money, and, by one of the fouleft, so it was also the the repetition of this argument, de- most fatal he ever made, and the ef, tached him from the cause that feets of which pursued him to his wanted it. Robert was forced to grave. consent to a peace ; by which Wilc Foulques le Rechin, count of An. liam kept what he had conquered, jou, whose character we mentioned Henry was restored to what he had before, though far in years, and loit, and the unfortunate prince first though he had two wives already, mentioned was at the expence of all. having heard of Bertrade de MontThe politics of Philip were right for fort, a young lady esteemed the the present, which is the rock that handsomeft in France, was bent on cunning splits on ; true wisdom would marrying her, and, not without soine have taught him to support Robert, difficulty, brought it about, her fa. and to have placed his security not mily facrificing her to their own inin the division of the duchy of Nor. terest. This woman, tired of an mandy, but in preserving it for the old, gouty, and furly husband, and lawful duke, and thereby making hearing that the king had parted him his friend. This was one falle with his wife, privately invited bim tep; he quickly committed aro. to come and see her. Upon this he ther. He was grown weary of his framed some pretence for going to wife, though he had by her two sons Tours, where the count of Anjon and a daughter. He recollected received him with all pofiible duty that me was related to him, though and respect; in return for which he


keduced his wife to elope, and follow fore, that Henry of Burgundy went, him to Orleans. He was not satis- with other French lords, to the ass fied with the possession of this wo- listance of the Spaniards against the man, but he resolved, at all events, Infidels, which procured that young to marry her, and, to this end, a di- prince a marriage suitable to his vorce was procured between her and rank, and the county of Portugal in her husband ; but when this bar dowry with his wife ; but these exwas removed, none of the bishops amples wrought nothing on the king. of France could be prevailed on to His brother Hugo, indeed, took the celebrate this marriage, or even to cross, and his friend Robert duke of be present at it. He contrived, Normandy ; but as for Philip, thos however, to get it done, with some he humbled himself so far to the kind of solemnity, by Eudes, bishop pope as to procure an absolution, of Bayeaux, brother by the mother's yet wanting alike the fortitude of a fde to William the Conqueror, in prince and the true principle of a the presence of the bishop of Senlis, penitent, he relapsed into his forand the archbishop of Rouen, all mer scandalous manner of living

Normans. This did not with the countess of Anjou, and was 1. hinder pope Urban the se. excommunicated a third time. His 194. cond from causing the whole conduct, so unworthy of a prince, matter to be closely examined in exposed him justly to the contempt à council held at Autun, where of the people. Too many of 1 D. the king was excommunicated in the nobility followed his ex- case he did not part with this wo- ample, and at the same time rogo. man, whom he stiled his wife. Some despised his authority ; not only have pretended, that his subjects making war upon each other, but were released from their obedience, spoiling and robbing his subjects and the kingdom put under an in- with equal impudence and impunity. terdi& ; but in this there is no truth, All this time Philip was soliciting all the effects of the excommunica- and cajoling the court of Rome, till tion were, that he did not hear di- at length he prevailed with pope vine service in public, and that he Paschal to cause the whole of his af. did not wear his crown or robes of fair to be reviewed in a council held state. It is true, the pope threa- at Poitiers, which, notwithstanding tened to proceed further; but the all the efforts that could be made by king, promising to submit, obtained the populace, excited by his partin a stay of the censure. How- zans, terminated in a new excom

ever, as he broke his word, munication. But notwithstanding 95 the pope summoned another this, the queen being dead, council at Clermont, in which he and the old count of Anjou was excommunicated afresh, the offering, for a large sum of troue clergy of France making no manner money, to give whatever allistance of opposition.

might be requisite to procure a paIt was in this council that the first pal dispensation for the king's marcroisade was published for the reco- riage, he renewed his instances at very of the Holy Land. It was about Rome, offering at the same time to this time also, or rather a little be submit to whatever penance should


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