« 前へ次へ »
I4.0 Parallel bttixietn Sir Frani
lives in the study of philosophy; both exchanged the noisy tumult of the busy and the thoughtless for the calm tranquility of a retreat, where they employed their time in making new discoveries for the service of mankind. But Bacon, pushed from the height of honour, fell with lhame and reluctance. Locke acquired greater glory by resigning, than was in the power of wealth and external honour to bestow. He resigned whnt he thought incompatible with the discharge of a greater duty. He privately resigned his post to the king, from whom he had received it, without making the least advantage of bis resignation. The one was a philosopher and a courtier: the other a philosopher and a Christian.
Learning had been long extinguished by the northern nations, who, like a deluge, had overspread Europe; they restored liberty and destroyed the arts. Amidst this barbarism, a confused notion of Aristotle's philosophy began at length to prevail, a philosophy big with mystery, false and inexplicable, At last some great geniuses, like stars, arose, among which was the renowned friar Bacon. These spread their light on several branches of knowledge, but their rays were soon intercepted by the clouds of ignorance; each was regarded as an ignis satuus, and philosophy still continued an inexplicable mystery. These philosophers wgre treated with contempt, persecuted unjustly, loaded with ignominy, and condemned by councils; their works were burnt, and often their persons imprisoned. ■The world was convinced, that, if once that veil of obscurity which cohered the face of nature was removed, the rash curiosity of mankind would prompt them to account for
is Bacon and Mr. Locke. British
> all the appearances in the visible world by the powers of mechanism. At last the immortal Sir Francis Bacon arose, dispersed the darkness-, placed philosophy on the firm foundation of experiments, and pointed out the way of pursuing Nature thro' ail her labyrinths by fact and observation. It is true, a philosophy of this kind was not adapted to make a very sudden revolution in the republic of letters; bqt its pTogress, like that of time, quiet, slow, and sure, will in the end become universal. "If'we stand surprized, says the Ingenious Mr.Mallet, at the happy imT agination of such a system, our sur? prize redoubles upon us, when we reflect that he invented and methodized this system, perfected so much, and sketched out so mqch more of it." And what greater honour can be given to his memory, than for the great Boyle, afld the immortal Newton, to build upqn this plan, and that all their labours should be employed in carrying the edifice to an astonishing degree of perfection.
Mr. Locke lived in an age when learning made a surprizing progress, not only in Great Britain, but throughout all Europe. Instead of attempting to improve natural and experimental philosophy, subjects on which some of the greatest men the world ever produced, were then engaged, he left them to investigate the laws of the natural world, and undertook a new branch of science. The pagan philosophy, with respect to the powers of the mind, and the art of reasoning, mixed with some ingenious fubtilties, was strongly intrenched in the schools; and this unnatural alliance of the Christian theology with the doctrine of the, Periparerics, had rendered the opinions of Aiisiotle not onty venerable Mag. Parallel lettunn Sir Frar
bcr sacred. Here Locke arose in defence of truth and reason, to do honour to the noblest part of our frame, to unfetter the soul, and to teach it how to exert its powers. With this view he made the mind of ■an his study, traced the manner of its operations, and delivered more profound truths relating to the intellectual power?, and the conduct of the understanding in the acquisition of knowledge, than are to be met *ith in all the volumes of antiquity. Thus, notwithstanding the strongest opposition, he overthrew the metaphysical whimsies which had till that time made man substitute sounds in the roo.-n of fense, and unintelligible jargon for profound erudition. He laid the foundation of just criticism, taught the necessary art of distinguishing truth from error, and of conducting the mind in all its enquiries.
Bacon's genius was universal, and his learning prodigious. ^Amidst the variety of subjects of which he has treated, he has wrote several of a religious kind: as a translation of tie psalms into English verse, a confession of faith, several prayers, the character of a believing Chris'ian, &c.
On the other hand, Locke has gi'en us, The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures; a work that may with great justice be allowed to be one of the best books that have appeared since the times of the apostles. He Wots also a paraphrase and notes on the epistles to the Galatians, Corinthian?, Romans, and Ephesila both these pieces he has
:is Bacon and Mr. Locke. 141
vindicated the cause of the Christian religion, by proving that its doctrine* are sounded on the rules of reason and good sense; he has sapped the foundation of the deist; and, by proving it reasonable, has proved it worthy of him who is the fountain of intellectual light.
I might here draw a parallel between those excellent pieces of Mr. Locke, entitled, Thoughts on Education, and Letters on Toleration, his twoTreatises on Government,&c. and several pieces of SirFrancis Bacon, as his Essays, and several other works of a moral and political kind. I might also here make some observations on the last great writer's history of Henry VII. which he undertook at the desire of king James. But it will be sufficient to say, that as Locke had far greater advantages than Bacon, he had the less merit in excelling him. Mr. Locke wrote in a learned age, which frequently furnished him with lights to direct his progress; he had no prejudices to indulge, no ambition to gratify, no enemies to fear; those he encountered with were of a harmless kind, and of a strength unequal to such a champion; while Sir Francis Bacon, though a lover of truth, was sometimes governed by ambition, and is, in his last-mentioned piece, allowed to be partial. But the works of both, to the honour of human nature, are become universal, and will continue so as long as reason and good sense subsist among mankind.
I am, your's, &c.
Continuation os tbt Remedies extraiitd from Dr. Theobald'* Pamphlet, called Every Man his own Physician.
TAKE oil of sweet almonds and syrup of balsam, of each two ounces, four ounces of barley water, and thirty drops of spirits Sal Volatile; (bake them well together, and take two large spoonfuls when the cough is troublesome.
Take of the Ibavings of sassafras two ounces, guaicum one ounce, liquorice root three ounces, coriander feed;, bruised, six drachms; infuse them cold in one gallon of limewater for two or three days. Dose half a pint three or four times in a day.
N. B. Lime-water is made by pouring twelve pints of boiling water on a pound of unslackt lime; when it is cold it is fit for use.
Take powder of jalap, cream of Tartar and Florentine Iris, of each a quarter of an ounce, mix them; the dose is from thirty to forty grains every other day. On the intermediate days take the quantity of a large nutmeg, every night and morning, of the following electuary: take two drachms of powder'd chamomile flowers, as much ginger, and half the quantity of prepared steel: make it into an electuary with two ounces of conserve of orange peels.
Fainting. Apply to the nostrils and temples some spirits of sal armoniac, and give a few drops in a wine glass of water inwardly.
[To bt continued.']
A Genealogical Account os
THIS noble earl derives his pedigree from William lord Howard, second son of Thomas, the second duke of Norfolk, by Margaret his second wife, daughter of Thomas lord Audeley. The said William lord Howard was restored in blood by an act of parliament passed in the first year of James I. and married Elizabeth daughter to Thomas, and sister and heir of George lord Dacres of Gillefland. By her he became possessed of Naworth-caslle, in Cumberland, the antient feat of her father's family. Sne lived with her husband sixtythree years, and left sive sons and three daughters.
Philip Howard, eldest son of Wil
loward, Earl os Carlisle.
Ham lord Howard, was knighted at Whitehall in the year 1604; but died in his father's life-time. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Carry!, of Harting in Hampfhire, and left issue three sons and two daughters.
Sir William Howard, eldest son of Sir Philip Howard, succeeded his grandfather, and married Mary, eldest daughter of William lord Eure, by whom he had sive sons and sive daughters.
He was succeeded by Charles, his eldest surviving son, who was in the year 1660 chosen member of parliament for Morpcth. And having been highly instrumental in the happy restoration of king Charles II.
Mag. Genealogical Account of Howard, Earl os Carlisle. I^j
be was, in consideration of that, and and at his return was installed at
his other loyal services, advanced to Windsor as proxy of that monarch,
the dignity of baron Dacres of He was afterwards made governor of
Gilittland, viscount Howard of Mor- Jamaica, where he continued several
peth, and earl of the city of Carlisle, years, and returned to England in
by letters patent, dated the twen- the year 1680. He married Anne,
tieth of April, in the thirteenth year daughter of Edward lord Howard of
of Charles II. Eserick, by whom he had two son9
In the year 1663 he was sent am- and three daughters; and died on
tafiador to the Czar of Muscovy; the twenty-sixth of February 1686,
and the year following to the kings and was interred in the minster of
«f Sweden and Denmark. He was the cathedral of York, where, on a
also employed in the year 1668 to monumental pillar of white marble
carry the ensigns of the order of the under his effigies, is the following
giner to Charles king of Sweden; inscription:
Near this place is interred,
He was not more distinguished by the
He datalogical Account cs Howard, Earl cf Carlisle.
He was succeeded in his honours and estate by his eldest son Edward, carl of Carlisle, who married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir 10 Sir William Uvedale, of Wickham in Hampshire, widow of Sir William Berkley, by whom he had three sons and two daughters; and died on the twenty-third of April 169Z.
Charles, his eldest son, succeeded to the family honours.on the death of bis father, and married the lady Elizabeth Capel, only surviving daugh. ter of Arthur earl of Essex, by whom he had issue two sons and three daughters. In the reign of king William the third, he was created first commissioner of the treasury, governor of the town and castle of Carlisle, vice-admiral of the seacoasts adjacent, and one of his majesty's most honourable privy-council. At the coronation of queen Anne, he was constituted eatl-marihal, and in 1706 appointed one of the commissioners to treat with the Scots about an union between the two kingdoms. On the demise of her majesty,', he was chosen one of the lords-justices by king George I. for the government of the kingdom till his arrival from Hanover; and afterwards sworn of the privy-council, and constituted first commissioner of the treasury. He died on the first of May 1738, and was interred at Castle-Howard, in the burial-place he had built for his family.
He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry, earl of Cailisle, born in 1694, and who served in several parliaments during the life-time of his father. He married the lady Francis Spencer, only daughter of Charles, earl of Sunderland, by his
first wife, the lady Arabella Cavendish, daughter and co-heir of Henry duke of Newcastle; by whom he had issue two sons and two daughters. But this lady dying on the twenty-seventh of July 1742, his lordship married his second lady Isabella Byron, sister to the present lord Byron, and by her had issue one sen and sour daughters. Both the sons and one of the daughters of his first lady, died before his lordship, who paid the debt of nature on the fourth of September 1758.
His only son Frederick, now earl of Carlisle, succeeded to the honours and estate of this noble family. He was born on the twenty-eighth of May 1748 ; and is consequently still a minor.
Armorial Bearings.] Gules, on a bend, between tix cross croslets fitche, argent, an escutcheon, or, charged with a demi-lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with am arrow within a double tressure counterflory, gules.
Crest.] On a chapeau, gules, turned up ermine, a lion guardant, his tail extended, or, gorged with a ducal coronet, argent, a mullet for difference.
Supporting On the dexter side, a lion, argent, differenced by a mullet. On the sinister side, a bull, gules, armed, unguled, ducally gorged, and chained, or. >
Motto.'] Volo non •valeo. My will is superior to my power.
Chief Stats.] At Castle-Howard, in Yorkshire; Naworth-Castle, in Cumberland; Morpeth-Casllc, in Northumberland; and Soho-Square, in London.