protection, to the property of the pany's just rights, were permitted to Mogul's own subjects. Where these grow and spread themselves; but abuses have happened, and have itill fome revenues were pecetrary to been detected, the company has fre- the sovereign, and some share of quently been obliged to make fatis- trade was the bitch right of his subfa&tion to the country-government, jects, who paid duties of 25 per cent. by the payment of large sums of to the country-government*. When money. Let it then be bore in the governor of Bengal (Mr. Vanmind, that there has always been fittart] went to Mongeer (to treat a distinction been the company's rights, with the Nabob] he does not seem and the asumed commerce of their ser- fufficiently to have considered the vants, who have no ritle but the in- inconveniences which might result dulgence of their masters, who have from an open avowal of the rights not opposed themselves against such of private trade carried on by the encroachments so long as they have company's servants in articles herebeen conduced with any degree of tofore deemed illicit; but (pushed decency, and have not appeared to on by the disposition of the gentledraw after them any consequences men in council, who, from the consubversive of the general intereft, ftant tenor of their conduct towards ruinous to credit, and threatening him, he had reason to believe would even the existence of the whole not easily be satisfied; in hopes, System of commerce. The com- however, to quiet them) he settled pany's rights were never disputed by [in a formal treaty) with the Nabob, Coffem Alley Cawn, nor was there that the Engliin private merchants any attempt to infringe the treaties trading for themselves should carry subsisting between us ; our military on their trade at the small duty of establishments were well supported, 9 per cent. when, as we faid before, our commercial interests extended, the Nabob's own subjects were payeven private emoluments of the com- ing 25. How then will you be surpany's servants, beyond the com- prised, when I tell you, that one of

* We have been told that some time plaint was allowed by Mr. Vanfittart and before the hoftilities were commitied, of fome others of the council, to be just; and which an account was received by the to give redress to the Nabob, Mr. Vantittart Lapwing, the Nabob fent a remonftrance went and had an interview with him, and to the council, complaining that some concluded a new treaty, fome particulars of of the company's clerks sold to the Nabob's which are contained in the pamphlet now own subjects per mits which exempted them before us. This treaty appears to have from paying those high duties which con kindled the resen ment of those gentlemen stituted a principal part of his revenue, who had all along opposed Vanfittart's meaand subjected them only to the small duty fures, bigber than ever; the consequence imposed on the company's goods ; that this of which are the present broils. The treaty, exemption from high duties had been however (as we have been informed, but granted only to the company's goods, and cannot warrant) was transmitted home, not to those of their menial clerks; that by and approved of by the directors, and inthis means great injury was done to him, Itructions prepared accordingly, some time whore revenues being already much dimi- before the arrival of the Lapwing. And nithed by the ceffions made, and the mo- as advice was received at the same time of ney paid, to the company, by his predecef- the strong oppofition made to it by the mafor and himself; he was incapacitated to jority of the council, what has since hapanswer the demands made on him by the pened was then fortold.] company. This representation and com


the demands since made on the Na- would have pleased to set on them; bob (by the gentlemen who refused forming by this a monopóly against to sign Vanfiitart's treaty ; and, who their own masters, in despite of their being a majority of the council, af- orders, and in open violation of the sumed to treat with the Nabob with- established principles of the serout the concurrence of the governor] vice.was, That the company's servants This author says, in another place, trading for themselves should pay no that these conditions “demanded of duties at all, excepting 2 1-half per the Nabob, sovereign of the country, cent. on falt.' The Nabob, upon re. were offered with infolence, and receiving this unreasonable demand, fused with indignation.” He immefaid, He would then lay open all diately adds, “ It is not known trade, that his subjects might be up- what were the inducements that on a footing with the servants of the urged Mr. Ellis to the attack of Englith company. But this not an- Patna, and the sacrifice of thousands fwering the purpose of the gentle of defenceless inhabitants. Indeed, men then in opposition to the go- there seem so many circumstances vernor, they carried in the council wanting to complete that history, against him (to which he entered that it were to be wished the curiohis proteft +) a resolution to send an fity of the public would stay till the embassy to the Nabob, in lifting, that arrival of the next ship, which he fould not only free them from all might give us more particulars reduries, but should still continue to lating to the unhappy gentlemen who levy the duties as usual upon his were the first sacrifice to their own own fubjeéts : the consequence of imprudence.” which niust have been, that the servants of the company, by selling In Mr. Holwell's Refutation of a dufties (or permits) to the subjects of letter from certain gentlemen of the Counthe Nabob, would have collected the cilat Bengal, he observes, that of the revenues arising from the duties fix gentlemen who sign it, Messrs. which were the undoubted right of Coote, Ellis, and Carnac, were not the sovereign ; or else, by not selling in Bengal, during the progress of the dufties, but keeping the trade en. those events which occasioned the tirely in their own hands, would, of unavoidable neceflity of divesting course, have excluded the most con- Mhir Jaffier of further. power; and fiderable black merchants; and forcing coming to the board with an unthem to some other part of the coun- happy disposition to oppose every try, a here they could have carried thing that had been done, because on their trade on a more equal foot- they had no hand in the doing them, ing, must ultimately have ruined the they had no methods to pick up trade of the company; who would materials but from the Bazars and then have had no resource but pur- public reporters of detraction. And chafing from a few of their own ser- that as for two others, Messrs. Batson Sants, the commodities of the coun.. and Verelit, they were not of the try, at whatever price their servants committee, and consequently could † This proteft the author appears to have

know nothing of the political ", though he wrote before the general system ; so that amongst the fix Soort was held on Monday.

gentlemen who sign this letter, one


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Letter from Sir Walter Raleigh to Prince Henry, Son of James I.

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and not to that of being all-good. His ing their benefactors. Believe me, majesty's wisdom, it is to be hoped, my prince, there is no other right will save him from the snare that can Aow from God. While your may lie under gross adulations; but Highness is forming yourself for a your youth, and the thirst of praise, throne, consider the laws as so many which I have observed in you, may common places in your study of the poflibly mislead you to harken to science of government; when you these charmers, who would conduct mean nothing but justice, they are your noble nature into tyranny. Be an ease and help to you. This way careful, O my prince! Hear them of thinking is what gave men the not, fly from their deceits ; you are glorious appellations of deliverers in the succession to the throne, from and fathers of their country ; this whence no evil can be imputed to made the fight of them roure their you, but all good must be conveyed beholders into acclamations, and from you. Your father is called the mankind incapable of bearing their Vicegerent of Heaven. Shall man very appearance, without applaud. have authority from the fountain of ing it as benefit. Consider the ingood to do evil ? No, my prince; let expressible advantages which will mean and degenerate spirits, which ever attend your Highness, while you want benevolence, suppose your make the power of rendering men power impaired by a disability of happy the measure of your actions. doing injuries. If want of power to While this is your impulse, how do ill be an incapacity in a prince, easily will that power be extended ! with reverence be it spoken, it is an The glance of your eye will give incapacity he has in common with gladness, and your very sentence bave the Deity. Let me not doubt but a force of bounty. Whatever some all pleas, which do not carry in men would insinuate, you have lost them the mutual happiness of prince your subjects, when you have lost and people, will appear as absurd their inclinations. You are to preto your great understanding, as dif- fide over the minds, not the bodies agreeable to your noble nature. of men; the foul is the essence of the Exert yourself, O generous prince, man, and you cannot have the true against such fycophants, in the glo- man against his inclinations. Choose rious cause of liberty; and assume therefore to be the king, or the consuch an ambition worthy of you, to queror of your people ; it may be secure your fellow-creatures from fubmission, but it cannot be obeNavery; from a condition as much dience that is passive, below that of brutes, as to act without reason is less miserable than to

I am, Sir, act against it. Preserve to your London, Aug.. Your Highness's most future subjects the divine right of be- 12, 1611. faithful Servant, . ing free agents; and to your own royal house, the divine right of be



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