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DUBLIN, called by the Saxons Duflin, by the Welch Dulin, and by the Irish Balacleigh, a town Upon Hurdles, the ground on which it stands being soft and quaggy.

It is the capital of Ireland, and doubtless very antient, being mentioned by Ptolemy; but we meet with no certain history of it till the Danish wars, when Saxo Grammaticus fays, it was sadly shattered; and afterwards became subject to Edgar king of England. The Norwegians next got possession of it; and Harold so greatly augmented and embellished, after subduing the greater part Of Ireland, that he is said to have built Dublin. On the first arrival of the English in Ireland, they soon took this city, and gallantly defended it, when it was vigorously attacked by Ausculp, prince of Dublin, and afterwards by Gothred, king of the Isles. A little after this, an English colony was transplanted hither from Bristol, by kirfg Henry lli who gave them this city, with all the liberties and free customs enjoyed by firistol. From that time it continued to flourish, and in times of the atest difficulty has given many ample proofs of its loyalty to ! kings of England, who have aldefended it when attacked by e enemies of that crown. During contests it has been sometimes distressed, particularly at the ! of the massacre in 1641 ; but if Kept some part of the years and 1690, when the earl of Tyrconnel and the Irish army had posiesfioii of it for the abdicated kit.g James II. it always held out and remained faithful to the English. And it Ireland had from time to time Mqtb 1764.

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been very liable to domestic troubled and rebellions, as well as foreign invasions, the earl of Wharton, when lord-lieutenant, obtained thirty-one thousand pounds sterling of queen Anne, to be applied for building and furnishing an arsenal near this city, with a sufficient quantity of arms and military stores, to be in readiness for opposing all future attempts to disturb the tranquility of that island.

An antient writer, Joscelinus de Farnesio, in the life of St. Patrick, tells us, that this city was then nobly peopled, very pleasantly situated among sweet plains, woods of oak. and fine parks, famous for trade, and well supplied,with fish from the river and the sea: and William of Newburgh long ago observed, that for its trade and concourse of merchants, it even rivalled London. Its situation is indeed particularly pleasant and wholesome, having hills on the south, plains on the west, and a navigable river called the Litfey, running through itj and near the mouth of which it stands.

It Is the grand mart and the center of commerce for the whole kingdom, especially for the communication of trade with England; and from hence thd greater part of the inland cities and towns are supplied! with goods. *fhe only misfortune of this city is the deficiency of its' harbour, occasioned by the bar at the mouth of the river Liffey, where there are such heaps of sand brought in by the tides, that it Is difficult for loaded ships to come in, except at spring-tides, and even then ships of great burthen dare not venture in 9 the water on the bar being so shallow, 154 Description of the

that at low water it is but fix feet deep, and at high water not above sixteen or eighteen, except in extraordinary high tides. Nor when they are in the harbour, can any stiipcome to the quay, if they draw above seven or eight feet of wafer; all the rest being obliged to lie below in the river, and deliver their goods by lighters arid other vessels at Ringfcnd, about three miles within the bar.

On the fame spot where Allhallows monasteryi stood formerly, there is now a fine building called Trinity college, founded May 13, 1591, and made an university by queen Elizabeth, who, Mr. Camden say?, added a liberal endowment, and a good library; which, together with the university, have been since improved and increased in proportion with the city, and are now in a very flourishing condition. The college has been enlarged by a gift of three thousand pounds from king William III. upon an address of the house of commons. As Dublin is the fee of an archbishop, he has a very handsome palace called St. Sepulchre, in the suburbs of St. Patrick, so denominated from the cathedral dedicated to that Saint. This structure is venerable for its antiquity, and numbers several kings in its list of benefactors. It is added that Gregory, a king of Scotland, came in pilgrimage hither in 890, that he might pay his devotion to the image of St. Patrick; and that king John of England built part of the East-end, and greatly beautified and enlarged the whole structure.

This church is famous for its curious workmanship, stone- pavements, arched roof, and high steeple. It was made a church of prebendaries by John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin, aud the grant confirmed by pope

City of Dublin. British

Cælestin III. in the year 1191. Some time after, his successor Henry Loundres augmented it with the dignities of parsonages, as the founder expresses it. At the fame time he, by immunities, orders, and customs, rendered it conformable to the church of Salisbury. At present it consists of a dean, a chanter, a chancellor, a treasurer, two arch-deacons, and twenty-two prebendaiies.

In the heart of the city is a collegiate church called Christ-churrh, though dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It was founded about the year 1012, by Donatus, the fiisl: bishop of Dublin, in pursuance of a grant of the ground given for that purpose by Sitric, king of Dublin, son of Ableb, count of Dublin, to the Holy Trinity and to the said bishop, with gold and silver sufficient both for the church and churchyard; but though it was begun by Donatus, it was finished by Laurence, archbishop of Dublin.

Besides these structures, there are not less than thirteen parochial churches; but Christ-church is that to which tht lord-lieutenant, the lords justices, &c. always go in state.

As this city is also the seat mf the government of Ireland, the lordlieutenant resides in the castle. There are also the chamber of the privycouncil, the courts of judicature, the secretary's office, the treasury, the parliament house, &c. and hackneycoaches, to the number of betwixt two and three hundred, ply here as at London. There is a stadt-house or guild-hall, built of square-stone, where causes are tried before the mayor, &c and adjoining to it the exchange, called the Tholscl, from the old word toll-stall, where the officers stood or fate, to receive the

toll

Mag. Description es the

toll or custom for such goods as paid a duty to the city. 'Tis a handsome pile built at the charge of the city in 1683. Besides these, there is a custom house.

It has six gates, besides a large Aone-bridge over the Liffey. The entrance of the city on the East-side is by Dammergate, near which stands the king's callle upon a rising ground, well fortified in Camden's tinne wiih ditchts and towers, provided with a good arsenal, and built by Henry Loundres, archbilhop, about the year 1210; bur, having teceived great damage by a blast of gunpowder some years ago, was beautifully rebuilt, or at least repaired, as are likewise several other of the most decayed buildings of the city. In the suburbs, on the Eastside near St. Andrew's church, Henry II. king of England, as Hoveden fays, caused a royal palace to be built of smooth wattles, very curiously contrived after the manner of this country; and kept his Christmas here with the kings and princes of Ireland.

The North-g3te opens towaru's the bridge, which is arched, and was built of free-stone by king John, who joined Oustman-town, or, as it is commonly called, Oxman-town, to the city: for here the Oustmanni formerly mentioned, who, Geraldus fays, came from Norway and the Northern iflands, settled, according to our historians, about the year 1050. In this suburb stood formerly the famous church of Sr. Mary de Oustmanby, as it is called in king John's charter; and a house of Black Friars, whither the courts of judicature were transferred. This is now called the king's inns, and here the judges and lawyers meet in comoiiffioas one week in every term. 3

City cs Dublin. 155

But as to the courts of judicature, they are now removed to a sumptuous fabric erected for the purpose near Christ-church. On the Westside of the city are tyvo gates, Ormond's-gate and Newgate, which is the common gaol, both leading to St. Thomas, the longest suburb of the city, where stood in Camden's t'nne a noble abbey, calle.l Thomascourt, founded and endowed with large revenues by king Henry II. to atDiie for the death of Thomas Becket, archbistiop of Canterbury, but now turned into houses and streets. The entrance of the city on the South-side is by St. Paul'sgate, and' that called St. Nicholas, which opens into the suburb or St. Patrick. The other chief bridges are, that called Essex, in honour of the earl of Est'e*, when lord-lieuteuan: of Ireland, and Ormond and Arran bridges, in honour of the late duke of Ormond and his son the earl of Arran.

It was formerly governed by a provost; but in the year 1409, Henry IV. gave them the .privilege of chusing every year a mayor with two bailiffs, and of carrying a gilt sivord before him. EdwardVI.changed these bailiffs into slieriffs. Charles II. gave its mayor the tide of lord, with, five hundred pounds to support the digniry, and a collar, as a badge of the honour; but this ornament being lost when James II. was in that kingdom, William III. gave them another of near one thousand pounds value. Every third year the city and its suburbs are surveyed by the lord-mayor and the twenty-four corporations or trading companies.

In the year 1646', while they were fortifying the East-suburbs of Dublin, they dug up an antient sepulchre, consisting of eight marble stones, X 2 two

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