Cmseitdivui Hi/lory of fuince. British

marriage; which, however, made view this divorce, who presently debo impression upon Thibaut earl of clared it null, and excommunicated Champagne, elder brother to the Rodnlpb, in case he did not leave, hi* English monarch, and uncle to Eu- second wife, and take back his first, stace, who began to renew his old This so provoked the king, that he practices, and. to form- intrigues made another expedition into Chamagainst a prince, whom he thought pagr.e; where, having taken Vitri, too tenderly educated to lead the he caused the church to be set on life his father had done, who was fire, in which thirteen hundred peoalmost always in arms, and whose pie were either choaked cr burned, experience he thought insufficient to But when he came to reflect on this deal with one who had made the cruel action, he not only admitted framing such kind of confederacies th» archbilhop, and made peace almost the sule business us his life, with the count, but resolved to exBut in this he found himself exceed-: piate his offence by going to the ingly mistaken, and this nolwith- Holy Land.

standing he was more in the right It is necessary here to enter into than perhaps he had ever been in the characters of two ecclesiastics, his life. upon whom at this juncture the fat« Albric, archbishop of Bourges, of the king and kingdom absolutely dying, the chapter of that see elected turned. These, though different in Pierre de la Chatre, without having other respects, agreed in the singular the king's permission; upon which qualities of unfeigned piety and abLewis swore he should net be arch- solute disinterestedness. Bernard, bishop, commanding the chapter to abbot of Clairvaux, was, for those £0 to a new election, leaving them times, learned, naturally eloquenr, at full liberty to elect whom they austere in his life, irreproachable in pleased, Pierre de la Chatre only ex- his morals, zealous in tbe'highest do cepted, which they refused to do; gree, and withal inflexible. He had and the pope declaring in favour of long before gained the reputation of the new archbishop, he retiied into a saint, he was heard as an oracle, the estates of the count of Cham- and revered as a prophet. Suger, pagne, and excommunicated the abbot of St. Denis, was a man of king's domain within the bounds of another kind, mean in his birth, and his archbishoprick. Lewis, upon meaner in his aspect; he was so this, pushed Thibaut so hard, that distinguished by his merit, that he he was on the point of coming to had a great share in the arfministraterms, when a new accident excited tion during the former reign, and, still greater disturbances. Rodolph, which was not a little strange, was' count of Vermandois, who was the equally respected and beloved in his king's chief minister, and his near convent for his humility and strict relation, obtained a divorce from his manner of life, and admired in the wife, under pretence of their being council for his prudence and penerelated, and married Petroniila, the tration. Lewis the Gross loved him queen's sister; but his first wise be- for. his sincerity; Lewis le Jeunt tog nearly related to the count of respected him as his father. Thibaut Champagne, he sollicired the pope count of Champagne, the molt anile fend a legate into France to re- ikia) man of his time, set so high a

Maj. Comptniious i

value on the friendship of the abbot of St. Denis, that he seldom refused him anything, and never attempted to deceive him. Bernard earnestly pressed the king to make the -vpedition against the infidels in person; Suger persuaded him to contribute men and money, but to remain at home, and govern his people wifely. Bernard carried his point by his vehemence, and Suger, though he submitted, retained his own opinion, and made no scruple of foretelling the inconveniencies that would attend thi; measure; while Bernard, os if inspired, magnified the honour that would result from it, and made himself in a great measure answerable for its success.

A great council of the nobility and prelates was called at Vizila in Burgundy, that a matter of this importance might not seem to be undertaken without the consent of the nation. Hitherto such assemblies bad been stiled by historians who wrote in Latin, Cenneaiui, or Platiia; but we find this denominated Magnum Parliamentum, which is the first time that we meet with this word; and from hence the reader •il torm a just notion of the parliaments of France, which, however altered or fallen from what they were, are all that is left of these sntient parliaments. As there was "ot in Vizila a church capable of folding even a small part of so great 3 number of people, the assembly "as held in the open air. The abbot Bernard read the letter of pope Eugene the third, which he seconded Dv a vehement declamation. The king then rose up, and received from his hand the cross which had been feot him from Rome, and then nude a discourse of the like kind. Hi. quten followed his example j

nsiory tf France. 235

and then Alonso de S. Gilles count of Toulouse, Thierri d'Alsace count of Flanders, Henry, son of the count of Champagne, Guy count of Never*, Renaud his brother, count of Tonnerre, Robert count of Dieux, brother to the king, Yves count of Soissons, William count of Ponthieu, William count of Varenne, cousin to the king, Archambaud de Bourbon, Enguerrand de Couci, Geoffrey Rancon, Hugues de Lusignan, William de Courtenai, and many other lords, spoke to the same purpose ; the multitude of persons of inferior rank, who entered into the fame engagements, almost exceeded computation. The abbot Bernard, after appointing another assembly to be held before Easter, went to preach the croisade in Germany; where, by the force of his irresistible elocution, he prevailed on the emperor Conrad the third, Frederic duke of Suabia, who was afterwards emperor, and an infinite number of all ranks, to embrace the fame design.

An expedition of this nature could not be undertaken with too much deliberation, and therefore there were two more assemblies held before the king left France, in which Rodolph count of Vermandois, and Suger, abbot of St. Denis, were chosen and confirmed regenrs of France during the' king's absence. The forces assembled upon this occasion were suitable to the extent and grandeur of the French monarchy, though the wiiters of that age do not very exactly agree; the most authentic affirm, that it was composed of fourscore thousand horse, the infantry was very numerous besides, and their very futtlers and attendants might have made a considerable army. There were many reasons which H. h Z migh( %$6 Parallel bet ween Lord C

rnight have deterred the emperor, as well as the king of France, from taking the route of the first croisade by land, and by the way of Constantinople; but there were other motives so strong as to prevail over these, or rather the impossibility of transporting such armies by sea was so apparent, that they were in a manner compelled to overlook objections that could not otherwise have salted to deter them. The emperor, with his troops, marched first through Hungary into the territories of the Greek emperor, and, passing over the streights of Constantinople, entered into Asia. Lewis

- and Oliver Cromwell. BritUh

followed him, and was received with great complaisance, and the highest testimonies cf respect, by the Greek emperor Manuel Comnenes. On his arrival in the neighbourhood of Nice, he found the emperor Conrad with the miserable remains of his army, the far greatest part of which had perished by the swords of the Turks and the treachery of the Greeks; and it was not long before the king had his full share of the like misfortunes; at least so we find things represented by the historians of their times.

[fe ht continued.]

PARALLEL between LordC—Cwoliver Cromwell.

I. s\ Liver lived at a time when Charles the first invaded, contrary to Magna Charta, the liberties pf the people of England.

2. Oliver beheaded the lawful king of England.

3. Oliver fought the battle of Worcester, and gained it against the lawful heir of England.

4. ©liver refused the crown, but was made Protector of England.

5. Oliver appropriated none of the public money to his own or his family's use.

6. Oliver annexed Ireland ant} Scotland to England, but reserved no quit-rents for his private use.

7. Oliver soon after declared war upon and defeated the Dutch in Europe.

8. The parliament wish to limit Qlirer's authority,

I.T Ord C— lived at a time when SurajaDowla, contrary to the charter of the Mogul, invaded the privileges of the India company.

2. "Lord C— suffered Meer Jaffier to behead Suraja Dowla, lawful suba of Bengal, when he might have pre-; vented it.

3. Lord C— fought and gained the battle of Plassey against the lawful heir of the kingdom of Bengal;

4. Lord C— made Meer Jaffier suba, but was made Omrah of the Empire.

5. Lord C— emptied the treasures of the Nabob into his own pockets.

6. Lord C— annexed territory, to the amount of 60,000 1. to the company, but reserved a jaghire or quit-rent for himself of 30,000 1.

7. Lord C—, without declaring war, engaged and defeated the Dutch in India.

8. The directors wish to lessen Lord C—'S jaghire.

9. Oliver klag. Account of the a

9. Oliver new models the parliament.

10. Oliver dissolves the parliament, by taking away the mace, and driving the speaker from the chair, though to this parliament he owed his power.

11. Oliver makes choice of 144 persons to form a new parliament.

iz. Oliver and his council of officers are appointed to the sovereign power by his pack'd parliament.

13. Oliver divides England into districts, and constitutes major-generals over them.

14. Oliver new models his army in England.

15. Oliver quarrels with his friends, as soon as he obtains, by their means, his darling object, power.

xcltnt Irish Bar J/. 237

9. Lord C— new models the directors.

10. Lord C— dissolves the court of proprietors, by making the chairman put the question i y, and

by hurrying him out of court, tho* to this fame court he owed his jaghire the day before.

11. Lord C— makes choice of Z4 persons to form a new direction.

iz. Lord C— is appointed to the civil and military command in Bengal by this court of directors.

13. Lord C— persuades his—— court of directors to divide India into two districts, Bengal and.Madras, and constitutes his major generals over them.

14. L°rd C— new models his army in India.

15. In this respect the characters of those heroes differ toto ca/o. His lordship's attachment to some gentlemen who supported his cause, established his power, and secured his darling object, the jaghire, with uncommon vigour, spirit, and abilities; and the generous manner in which he exerted his new acquired influence, in procuring redress to their injured friend, will to the latest posterity from the most shining part of his character.

Some Account of tbt 1

WE are informed by the Irish historians there were three principal tribes among the ancient Irish. «4 The first were Leaders, Chiefs, or Legislators: the second were Druids or Priests: the third *ere Bards. The two last were honoured with an appellation equivalent to the name of Gods." The Bards had estates settled on

stunt Irish Bards.

them, that they might be free from worldly cares; they lived in perfect independence, and were obliged to no service: their persons were inviolable: to kill them, was esteemed the blackest crime; and it was held an act of sacrilege to seize their estates, even for the public service, and in times of the greatest distress.


Account os the ancient Irish Bardi. Biilifll

The profession was hereditary: kingdom is said to have ranked

but when the Bard died, his tfiate themselves in this class, as a safe

descended not to his eldest son, but asvlum for idleness and hypocrisy,

to the most accomplished of his fa- When the principal Bards assembled

roily in the poetic and musical pro- in a body to divert this impending

session. A law was made by Ollamh storm, they met, to the number of a

Fodhla, one of their greatest kings, thousand. This, may account for

that none should be invested with the numbers that claimed to be of

the dignity of a Bard, but those of the profession; for every principal,

the most illustrious families. Bard retained thirty of inferior note,

The Bards, the Druids, and No- ss his attendants; and a Bard of tht biliiy, were summoned by the seme second order was followed by a retiring,'to a triennial festival, which nue of fifteen. In this convention, was thus by him established, to after many debates, it was resolved transmit to posteiity the authentic that they should leave the island, songs of the Bards, as the materials and retire into Scotland, before the of their suture histories. In conse- sentence of their banishment was rjnence of th;s, the approved songs pronounced.— However, the fenos the ancient Bards we're pieserved fence was mitigated: they were alin the custody of the king's anti- lowed to disperse themselves over quary; and are appealed to by the island, and promised to live in a Keating, as the foundation of his manner less offensive to the public, history. Many of them were sabu- In a succeeding, and no very dislous; but this circumstance hath tant period, we find them again no essential relation to our presttit grown troublesome to the' kings, inrjniry. who complained of them, as a bur

Garmtnts of different colour were then to the people, lazy, covetous,

appropriated to the various ranks of and insatiable. On this, their num

the kingdom : so high was the power ber was lessened and regulated: by

and dignity of the Baids, that they the advice of St. Colum Cill, every

wore the lame colour with the royal provincial chief had one learned Bard

family, allowed him in his retinue, to re

Thus invested with honours, cord the achievements of his fawealth, and power; and posstssed mily. Their independence, with a of an art which gave them a natural competent revenue, was preserved: influence over the minds of the peo- and this regulation was the standard, pie; we find, that about the year by which the society of Bards were 558, they had become insolent, directed in succeeding ages, deeply corrupted, and dangerous. 'Tis to be observed, that in some

Hence, the reigning king con- unrecorded period, a separation had vened a general council of the no- taken place in the Bard's profession: bility and gentry (for Christianity in the early times, the offices of being now planted in Ireland, the Poet and Lyrist were united in Ihe Druids were no more) with inten- fame person : in the later ages, it tion to expel them the island. They appears, that the Bard only cornwere now become a kind of sacred posed the poem; and that it was order, or college ; which was grown fung by a rhapfodist or harper at se numerous, that one third of the the public festivals.

3 However,

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