marriage ; which, however, made view this divorce, who prefently debo impression upon Thibaut earl of clared it oull, and excommunicated Champagne, elder brother to the Rodolph, in case he did not leave his English monarch, and uncle to Eu- second wife, and take back his first. ftace, who began to renew his old This fo provoked the king, that he practices, and to form intrigues made another expedition into Chamagainst a prince, whom he thought pagne; where, having taken Vitri, too tenderly educated to lead the he caused the church to be set on life his father had done, who was fire, in which thirteen hundred peoalmost always in arms, and whose ple were either choaked or burned. experience he thought insufficient to But when he came to reflect on this deal with one who had made the cruel acion, he not only admitted framing such kind of confederacies the archbichop, and made peace almost the file business of his life. with the count, but resolved to exBut in this he found himself exceed- piate his offence by going to the ingly mistaken, and this notwiihHoly Land. landing he was more in the right It is neceffary here to enter into than perhaps he had ever been in the characters of two ecclefiaftics, his life,

upon whom at this juncture the fate Albric, archbishop of Bourges, of the king and kingdom absolutely dying, the chapter of that fee elected turned. These, though different in Pierre de la Châtre, without having other respects, agreed in the fingular the king's permission ; upon which qualities of unfeigned piety and ab. Lewis swore he should not be arch- folute disinterestedness. Bernard, bishop, commanding the chapter to abbot of Clairvaux, was, for those go to a new election, leaving them times, learned, naturally eloquent, at full liberty to elect whom they auftere in his life, irreproachable in pleased, Pierre de la Châtre only ex- his morals, zealous in tbe'highest des cepted, which they refused to do; gree, and withal inflexible. He had and the pope declaring in favour of long before gained the reputation of the new archbishop, he retired into a saint, he was heard as an oracle, the eflates of the count of Cham: and revered as a prophet. Suger, pagne, and excommunicated the abbot of St. Denis, was a man of king's domain within the bounds of another kind, mean in his birth, and his archbishoprick. Lewis, upon meaner in his aspect; he was so this, pushed Thibaut so bard, that distinguished by his merit, that he he was on the point of coming to had a great share in the adminiftra. terms, when a new accident excited tion during the former reign, and, still greater disturbances. Rodolph, which was not a little strange, was count of Vermandois, who was the equally respected and beloved in his king's chief minister, and his near convent for his humility and Atria relation, obtained a divorce from his manner of life, and admired in the wife, under pretence of their being council for his prudence and peneTelated, and married Petronilla, the tration. Lewis the Gross loved him qaeen's lifter ; but his first wife be- for, his ancerity ; Lewis le Jeune ing nearly related to the count of respected him as his father. Thibaut Champagne, he sollicited the pope count of Champagne, the moft arti. to fend a legate into France to re. ficial man of his time, let so high a

value on the friendship of the abbot and then Alonso de S. Gilles count of St. Denis, that he feldom refused of Toulouse, Thierri d'Alface count him any thing, and never atiempred of Flanders, Henry, son of the count to deceive him. Bernard earnestly of Champagne, Guy count of Nepressed the king to make the axpe. vers, Renaud his brother, count of dition againit the infidels in person; Tonnerre, Robert count of Dreux, Suger perfuaded him to contribute brother to the king, Yves count of men and money, but to remain at Soissons, William count of Ponthieu, home, and govern his people wisely. William count of Varenne, cousin to Bernard carried his point by his the king, Archambaud de Bourbon, vehemence, and Suger, though he Enguerrand de Couci, Geoffrey Ran. submitted, retained his own opinion, con, Hugues de Lurignan, William and made no scruple of foretelling de Courtenai, and many other lords. the inconveniencies that would at. fpoke to the same purpose; the multend this measure; while Bernard, as titude of persons of inferior rank, if inspired, magnified the honour who entered into the same engage. that would result from it, and made ments, almost exceeded computa. himself in a great measure answer. tion. The abbot Bernard, after ap. able for its success.

pointing another assembly to be held A great council of the nobility before Easter, went to preach the and prelates was called at Vizila in croisade in Germany; where, by the Burgundy, that a matter of this im- force of his irreiftible elocution, he portance might not seem to be un- prevailed on the emperor Conrad dertaken without the consent of ihe the third, Frederic duke of Suabia, nasion. Hitherto such affemblies who was afterwards emperor, and had been ftiled by historians who an infinite number of all ranks, to wrote in Latin, Conventus, or Plaembrace the same design, cila; but we find this denominaied An expedition of this nature could Magnum Parliament um, which is the not be undertaken with too much firft time, that we meet with this deliberation, and therefore there word; and from hence the reader were two more assemblies held bę.

Oil form a just notion of the par- fore the king left France, in which liaments of France, which, however Rodolph count of Vermandois, and altered or fallen from what they Suger, abbot of St. Denis, were were, are all that is left of these chosen and confirmed re-.. antient parliaments. As there was gents of France during the "+7• not in Vizila a church capable of king's absence. The forces affemholding even a small part of so great bled upon this occafion were suitable a number of people, the affembly to the extent and grandeur of the was held in the open air. The abbot French monarchy, though the wii. Bernard read the letter of pope ters of that age do not very exactly Eugene the third, which he seconded agree; the most authentic affirm, by a vehement declamation. The that it was composed of fourscore king then rose up, and received from thousand horse, the infantry was his hand the cross which had been very numerous besides, and their lept him from Rome, and then very suttlers and attendants might made a discourse of the like kind. have made a considerable army. His queen followed his example; There were many reasons which

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might have deterred the emperor, as followed him, and was received with well as the king of France, from great complaisance, and the highest taking the route of the first croisade testimonies of respect, by the Greek by land, and by the way of Conitan- emperor Manuel Comnenes. On his tinople ; but there were other mo- arrival in the neighbourhood of tives so strong as to prevail over Nice, he found the emperor Conrad these, or rather the impoflibility of with the miserable remains of his transporting such armies by sea was army, the far greatest part of which so apparent, that they were in a hád perished by the swords of the manner compelled to overlook ob- Turks and the treachery of the jections that could not otherwise Greeks; and it was not long before have falied to deter them. The the king had his full fare of the emperor, with his troops, marched like misfortunes; at least so we find first through Hungary into the ter- things represented by the historians ritories of the Greek emperor, and, of their times. pafling over the streights of Con

[To be continued.) ftantinople, entered into Asia. Lewis

PARALLEL between Lord Cm- and Oliver Cromwell.

1. Liver lived at a time when I. T Ord C-lived at a time when

Charles the first invaded, con- Suraja Dowla, contrary to the trary to Magna Charta, the liberties charter of the Mogul, invaded the of the people of England.

privileges of the India company. 2. Oliver beheaded the lawful 2. Lord C-- fuffered Meer Jaffer king of England.

to behead Suraja Dowla, lawful suba of Bengal, when he might have pre

vented it. 3. Oliver fought the battle of 3. Lord C- fought and gained Worcester, and gained it against the the battle of Plassey against the law. lawful heir of England.

ful heir of the kingdom of Bengal. 4. Oliver refused the crown, but 4. Lord C- made Meer Jaffier was made Protector of England. fuba, but was made Omrah of the

Empire. 5. Oliver appropriated none of 5. Lord C- emptied the treathe public money to his own or his fures of the Nabob into his own family's use.

pockets. 6. Oliver annexed Ireland and 6. Lord C- annexed territory, Scotland to England, but reserved to the amount of 60,000 l. to the no quit-rents for his private use. company, but reserved a jaghire or

quit-rent for himself of 30,000 1. 7. Oliver foon after declared war 7. Lord C-, without declaring upon and defeated the Dutch in war, engaged and defeated the Dutch Europe.

in India. 8. The parliament with to limit 8. The directors with to lessen Oliver's authority,

Lord C-s jaghire.

9. Oliver

9. Oliver new models the parlia. 9. Lord C- new models the diment.

rectors. 10. Oliver diffolves the parlia- 10. Lord C- diffolves the court ment, by taking away the mace, and of proprietors, by making the chairdriving the speaker from the chair, man put the question i- y, and though to this parliament he owed by hurrying him out of court, tho? bis power,

to this same court he owed his jag

hire the day before. 11. Oliver makes choice of 144 11. Lord C-makes choice of persons to form a new parliament. 24 persons to form a new direction.

12. Oliver and his council of 12. Lord C- is appointed to officers are appointed to the love the civil and military command in reign power by his pack'd parlia- Bengal by this court of diment,

rectors. 13. Oliver divides England into 13. Lord C- perfuades his diftri&ts, and constitutes major-ge court of directors to divide India into nerals over them.

two districts, Bengal and. Madras, and constitutes his major generals

over them, 14. Oliver new models his army 14. Lord C- new models his in England.

army in India. 15. Oliver quarrels with his 15. In this respect the characters friends, as soon as he obtains, by of those heroes differ toto cælo. His their means, his darling object, lordship's attachment to some genpower,

tlemen who supported his cause, established his power, and secured his darling object, the jaghire, with uncommon vigour, fpirit, and abilities; and the generous manner in which he exerted his new acquired influence, in procuring redress to their injured friend, will to the latest posterity from the most fining part of his character.

Some Account of the ancient Irish Bards. W e are informed by the Irish them, that they might be free from

V historians there were three worldly cares; they lived in perfect principal tribes among the ancient independence, and were obliged to Irish, " The first were Leaders, no service: their persons were inChiefs, or Legislators: the second violable: to kill them, was esteemed were Druids or Priests : the third the blackest crime; and it was held were Bards. The two last were ho- an act of sacrilege to seize their noured with an appellation equiva, estates, even for the public service, lent to the name of Gods."

and in times of the greatest disThe Bards had estates settled on tress,


The profession was hereditary : kingdom is faid to have ranked but when the Bard died, bis estate themselves in this class, as a safe descended not to his eldest son, but asylum for idleness and hypocrisy. to the most accomplithed of his fa. When the principal Bards assembled mily in the poetic avd musical pro- in a body to divert this impending felon. A law was made by Ollamh storm, they met, to the number of a Fodhia, one of their greatest kings, thousand. This, may account for that none thould be invested with the oumbers that claimed to be of the dignity of a Bard, but those of the profession ; for every principal the mor illustrious families. Bard retained thirty of inferior note,

The Bards, the Druids, and No. as his attendants; and a Bard of the biliiy, were fummoned by the same second order was followed by a reti. king, to a triennial festival, which nue of Gifteen. In this convention, was ihus by him established, to after many debates, it was resolved transmit to polierity the authentic that they Tould leave the island, Songs of the Bards, as the materials and retire into Scotland, before the of their future histories. In conse- fentence of their banishnient was quence of this, the approved songs pronounced. — However, the senof the ancient Bards were preserved tence was mitigated: they were alin the custody of the king's anti: lowed to disperse themselves over quary ; and are appealed to by the iland, and promised to live in a Kearing, as the foundation of his manner lefs offensive to the public. hiftory. Many of them were fabu. In a succeeding, and no very disJous ; but this circumstance hath tant period, we find them again no effential relation to our prefent grow'n troublesome to the kings, ingniry,

who complained of them, as a burGarments of different colour were then to the people, lazy, covetous, appropriated to the various ranks of and insatiable. On this, their numthe kingdom : so high was the power ber was lefsened and regulated : by and dignity of the Bards, that they the advice of St. Colum Cill, every 'wore the same colour with the royal provincial chief had one learned Bard family,

allowed him in his retinue, to re. Thus invefied with honours, cord the archievements of his fawealth, and power ; and pofleffed mily. Their independence, with a of an art which gave them a natural competent revenue, was preserved : influence over the minds of the peo- and this regulation was the standard, ple; we find, ihrat about the year by which the society of Bards were 558, they had become insolent, directed in fucceeding ages.. . deeply corrupted, and dangerous. 'Tis to be observed, that in some

Hence, the reigning king con- unrecorded period, a separation had vened a general council of the no- taken place in the Bard's profeflion: bility and gentry (for christianity in the early times, the offices of being now planted in Ireland, the Poet and Lyrift were united in she Druids were no more) with inten- fame person : in the later ages, it rion to expel them the island. They appears, that the Bard only comwere now become a kind of sacred posed the poem ; and that it was order, or college ; which was grown fung by a rhapsodist or harper at fo pumerous, that one third of the the public festivals.


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