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242 Genealogical Account ofCo
his friends to turn their eyes upon the king, heing persuaded that his restoration would prove less oppressive than the tyrannical government of Cromwell. They allb hoped that as the king's circumstances were very narrow, and most of the princes of Europe had forsaken him, it would not be difficult to establisti the presbyterian sect, and reduce the prerogatives of the crown within proper limits, if they engaged to aflist in his restoration.
Soon after this confederacy was formed, Cromwell paid the debt of nature; and the Rump parliament appointed Sir Anthony one of their council of state, and a commissioner for managing the affairs of their army. This promotion did not however divert him from his design of restoring the king; and in the year 1659, he was accused before the house of keeping a correspondence wirh the king, ar.d raising men to join Sir George Booth, who was known to be collecting troops for his majesty's service. In consequence of this accusation he was, wiih many other gentlemen of rank ajid fortune, thrown into prison; but acquitted on his trial, and the Rump afterwards intrusted him with the command of a regiment of horse, which was one of the first corps that declared for general Monk and a free parliament. When the convention declared for the king, he was one of the twelve commoners sent by the house to the king, with six lords, to desire his majesty would condescend to take upon him the government of England, where he would find all possible affection, duty, and obedience from all his subjects. But during Sir Anthonv's stay in Holland, waiting upon his (overeign, he was overturned in his 1
per, Earl os Shaftfbury. British
carriage, w hereby he received a dangerous wound in his side, which was afterwards opened under the direction of rr.e famous Dr. Wiliis,
His majesty landed at Dover on the 25th of May, and Sir Anthony, together with general Monk, was the next day sworn at Cants rbury of the privy-council; the king wisely considering that those whose advice had already been so successful in planning the restoration, might be highly necessary in establishing him on the throne of his ancestors. In the month of October following, he was appointed one of the commissioners for trying the regicides; and three days before the coronation he was created a baron of this kingdom, by the title of lord Ashley of Winborne St. Giles, Soon after he was made chancellor and under.treasurer of the exchequer, and on the death of George, duke of Albemarle, one of the commissioners of the treasury. Orr the 20th of January, 1671, he was constituted lord lieutenant of Dorsetsllire, and on the 23d of April 1672, created lord Cooper of Paulet in the county of Somerset, and earl of Shaslsbury. Sir Orlando Bridgeman resigning the great seal on the 17th of November following, the carl of Shaftfbury was constituted lord high chancellor of England. This important office he executed with such prudence, candour, honour, and integrity, that hardly any one of his decrees were ever reversed.
When the Dutch war was under consideration, he made a very remarkable speech in the house of peers, in which he suggested that the Hollanders were our grearelt enemies in point of trade, and therefore ought to be extirpated; Delinaa fjl Carthago. He always advised the
Mag. Genealogical Account of Cooper, 'Earl of Shaft/bury: J^j
ling to agree with his parliaments; ing every method was taken by his and though hfi complied with his enemies to ruin him, he retired to majesty in his declaration for an in- Holland, where he died on the 2zd diligence to dissenters, it was only of January 1682. with design to unite all protestants His lordship married three wives; under one head; thinking it his the first was Margaret, daughter of duty to protect all his majesty's pro- Thomas lord Coventry, by whom he testant subjects, who only differed had no children ; the second Frances, in some points of worship. At the daughter to David earl of Exeter, by same time he promoted the test for whom he had one son named Anrendering papists incapable ofen- thony, afterwards earl of Shastsbury; joying any office or place of trust, and the third Margaret, daughter to which obliged the duke of York to William lord Spencer, by whom he throw up all his commissions, and had no issue.
who from that moment became the Anthony his only son and successor chancellor's irreconcileable enemy, was born on thei 5th of January 1 651, Soon after the duke prevailed upon and married Dorothy daughter to the king to take the seals from the John earl of Rutland, by whom he earl of Shastsbury, who now became had three sons and four daughters, as strenuous an opposer of the court, He died on the 10th of November >s he had been before an advocate 1^99, and was succeeded by his eldfor its measures; nor could all the est son Anthony. This nobleman, offers of posts and honours made was born on the 26th of February him by his majesty, prevail upon 1670, and rendered himself famous aim to rejoin the ministerial party. by his writings, particularly a work
The king was now wholly go- entitled "Characterislicks of men, »oned by French councils, and manners, opinions, and times." • He *H without a parliament for fifteen married Jane, daughter of Thomas months, during which the earl Ewer of Bushy-hall in Hertfordshire, formed a strong party, who declared Esq; and died at Naples on the 15th for the protestant religion, and the of February 1713. interest of England. But question- He was succeeded by his only sort log the authority of the parliament, Anthony, the present earl of Shaftsafter so long a prorogation, he was, bury, who, on the 12th of March together with the duke of Bucking- 1725s married lady Susan Noel, ham, the earl of Salisbury, and the sister to Baptist earl of Gainfbobrd Wharton, committed to the rough. This lady died without issue Tower, where he continued thirteen on the 1 2th of March 1725, and h'S months.' lordmip has since married Mary sc
In the year 1679, he was ap- cond daughter to lord Folkstnne. pointed lord president of the coun-. Armorial Btarirg<.~\ Argent, three ci'; but persisting in his opposition bulls passant, fable, armed and unto the duke of Yotk's succeeding to guled, or.
'he crown, and the arbitrary mea- Crt/t.] On a chapeau, gules, turnwei pursued by the court, he was ed up, ermine, a bull passant, fable, removed from his post on the fifth gorged with a mural coronet, and TM October following ; when find- armed, or.
I i 2 Suppsrters.]
244 History e/"Moraddin, Prince of In&oftan. BritHh
Supporters.] On the dexter side a Chief Sean.] At Winborne St.
bull sable, his ducal collar, or. On Giles, in Dorsetshire; at Rock
the siuister, a talbot, azure, gorged burn-house in Hampshire; and in
as the dexter. Margaret-street, Cavendistt Square,
Motto.] Love, serve. London.
The HISTORY of Moraddin, Prim ^Indostan.
THE court of the Mogul fur- dearments had satiated him, threw passes all those os Asiatic mo- out their attractives in vain; they narchs in luxury and magnificence, could no longer lull his fenses to reIts princes and great men slumber pose. He found something was wantaway their lives upon the down of (ng to his happiness ; and that unindolence; and the law of the holy easiness of mind, which took its rife prophet is there either disbelieved or from the desire of novelty, made neglected. Moraddin, born to hold him, in his heart, prefer the rugged the sceptre of Indostan, though by paths of virtue to the luxury of a nature endowed with all the virtues court, where nights and days are which form the hero, by the educa- Consumed in a tumultuous succession tion he received at the court of of delights, and where the mind, Delly was so much softened and hurried by a variety of pleasing obenervated, that in his youth he did jects, can find solid - satisfaction in not seem to promise even to surpass none.
other monarchs distinguished by the He therefore determined to quit
eminence to which fortune had raised Delly in disguise, and travel through
them, and rather iliustrious for their the extensive regions of Persia, which
dignity ihan conspicuous for their being then embroiled by a civil war
virtues. between Ibrahim and Muley Hassan,
But it was the intention of sale who were rivals for sovereign sway,
that Moraddin should reform the might, he thought, afford him an
manners of the Indians; and a pas- opportunity of displaying those abi
sion which seemed to be one of his lities and exercising that virtue which
greatest faults, made him form a re- were lost to mankind, whilst his life
solution which procured him those was passed away in the pleasures and
opportunities of improrement which dissipations of a court. No sooner
he must otherwise have wanted. So was he arrived in Persia, but he
great was Moraddin's fove for no- found his heart dilate with joy; to
velty, that a repetition of the fame be deprived of the ease and pleasures
pleasures disgusted him, and the of a seraglio, appeared to him the
eager desire of some new enjoyment highest felicity, because the want of
made the delights which he had so sensual gratifications could not but
often tasted, altogether insipid. Mu- be more than compensated by the
sick could not charm his tar, nor full enjoyment of liberty, with which
could wine exhilarate his spirits ; the the forms and ceremonies of a court
beauties of the seraglio, whose en- areas inconsistent as the confinement
of History e/"Moraddin, Prince «/"Indostan.
of a dungeon. His hopes were sanguine, and the exultation of his mind seemed to him to be a prognostic of success in his enterprise. He did not foresee all the difficulties, dangers, and disappointments which he had to encounter, and which made him afterwards more than once repent his undertaking, and wish he had never forsaken the luxurious ease of the seraglio. Success attended him for a considerable time, and he vainly presumed that this success would be uninterrupted, and that he was privileged from even suffering those calamities which had not approached him at his first launching out into the world. He without hesitation espoused the cause of Muley Hassan, not so much because he thought it more just than that of his adversary, as because there was a conformity between their characters, which could not fail of determining him in his favour. Muley Hassan and Moraddin united, took the field against Ibrahim, and defeated him in several battles; so that Ibrahim was constrained to retire to a fortress upon the confines of the empire,f and Muley Hassan was seated upon the throne of Persia. The exaltation of Muley Hassan was the immediate consequence of that of Moraddin; and indeed he was bound in gratitude to raise the man to whose valour' he was indebted for his kingdom. Moraddin being become the vifir of Muley Hassan, in that station discovered as much conduct as he had displayed valour in the field. To superintend the administration soon became easy to him: for such was the force of his genius, that he easily became master of the policy of a court, though in his early youth he had been acquainted only with
its pleasures. Unexpected success is too apt to beget confidence, and the favours bestowed upon men by fortune, too frequently make them forget its fickleness. Thus it happened with Muley Hassan and his vifir Moraddin: they both thought their greatness established so strongly that nothing could (hake it; they equally owed thtir prosperity to each other, and looked upon each other as sufficient vouchers for its continuance. The valour and abilities of Moraddin filled Muley Hassan with confidence, and confirmed him in an opinion that his empire was fixed upon the firmest foundation. He was secure of the fidelity of his visir, and thought that the monarch who had such a minister to direct his councils, and such a general to lead his armies, could have nothing to fear from his enemies. Moraddin, secure of the favour of a prince whom he had raised to sovereign sway, was satisfied with being the next to him in power, and aspired no higher. He almost forgot that he had been born a prince, and that he might one day lay claim to the sceptre of Iodostan. Prosperity does not always last; the angel of evil, who for a long time had not visited Muley Hassan or Moraddin, after a certain time made them the objects of his wrath, and they became companions in affliction, as they had before been partners in prosperity. Ibrahim, who had a considerableparty amongst (he Persians, found means to corrupt many of the governors of Muley Hassan's garrisons; and, having levied an army of a hundred thousand men, marched towards Ispahan, determined to dethrone his rival, or die in the attempt. Muley Hassan', being apprized too late of this resolution of Ibrahim, marched against
History e/* Moraddin, Princt «/"Indostan.
him with an army inferior in number, and not equally well disciplined; Moraddin, whose valour filled him with confidence, attending him to the field. The army of Muley was defeated by that of Ibrahim at the first onset; and the victor, who was exasperated to cruelty by being so long deprived of what he thought his right, caused the eyes of Mnley Hassan to be put out, and confined him for life in a ca(He of Ispahan, where he remained the rest, of his days a miserable example of the transitory nature of all human felicity. Moraddin, who had sought bravely, and a long time marie the fortune of the d iv doubtful, formed a resolution to quit Persia, lest he should fall into the hands of the merciless conqueror, from whom he expected a treatment as severe as that which MuVey Hassan had received. Calamity, though it visited him for the first time, did not so deprive him of presence of mind, as to prevent him from taking the best measures for eluding the vigilance of the enemy, and securing himself by flight. He disguised himself in cloaths of the meanest fort, and long wandered through the deserts of Persia, suffering all the miseries that the most indigent and forlorn wretches are exposed to. It was now Moraddin first knew real misery, and he never before knew the full value of the bleilinr>s which he had been deprived of. The affluence and pleasures he had enjoyed at the courts of Delly and Ispahan, appeared to him to be gifts of Heaven which claimed a return of constant gratitude; and he became sensible that in his exalted station he had too much negledted Allah, to whom he was indebted for all his greatness. He thereforeTormcd a resolution tc
make the adoration of the Almighty his first care, during the remainder of his life, and he determined, in case he ever ascended the throne of his ancestors, to make the law of the holy prophet as much revered in the realms of Indostan, as at the holy city of Mecca, where crowds of pilgrims offer up their yearly vows before his tomb. In continuing his journey through Persia, the many distresses he suffered, being sometimes obliged to travel whole days in the snow, and often obliged to lie upon the bare ground, and the various scenes of misery which he beheld amongst the cottagers, upon whose charity he subsisted, though they had hardly the means of subsisting themselves, suggested to him that sultans and emperors, who should be the fathers of their people, must be greatly criminal in neglecting those committed, by Providence, to their care; for to their neglecting their duty, he justly attributed the poverty and wretchedness of their subjects. The earth, said he to himself, produces in abundance every thing necessary to the-support of its inhabitants; why then are such multitudes of peasants almost: destitute of food, and hardly stieltered from the inclemency of the weather? It must be owing to the superfluities of the great, whose excesses frequently obstruct their enjoyments, and make their lot scarce to be envied by the lowest of mortals. The insurrections of subjects, which so often in the space of a day make sultans ami emperors change the throne for a dungeon, and which he once looked upon as the most atrocious actions that human creatures v ere capable of, appeared to him then to be the natural tffects c: 'heir little attention to the welfare