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fore things came to this extremity, crown was left to Stephen during bis the had entered into a correlpon- life ; and, having go children, he dence with Henry duke of Norman consented that Heory should be de. dy, count of Anjou and Maine, son clared his succeffor ; the more wil. to Geoffrey Plantagenet and the lingly no doubt, if, what some wri. empress Maud, To that he was pre- fers fay be true, that the empress fumptive heir to the crown of Eng- assured him he was the fruit of their land ; and her espousing him in lix amours in the life-time of her hufa weeks after the divorce rendered this band. fufpicion fo much the more proba. As foon as the truce expired, ble. This marriage, which the wife Lewis invaded Normandy, where he abbot of St. Denis foresaw, mortified made some progress; but the death the king extremely, and procured of king Stephen, and the accession him the surname of Le Jeune, as we of Henry to the throne of England, before obferved. By this great alli- quickly induced the king to make ance, Henry, to the duchy of Nor- peace. He certainly wanted not abi. mandy and the estates of the house lities to discern the danger he was in, of Anjou, added the county of Poi- not only from the great power, but fou and the duchy of Guienne; fo from the great talents of Henry, who that he was at least as powerful in inherited all his grandfather's fpirit, France as the king himself. Lewis, and was invested with much more to correct this false step, entered into authority ; but, though he knew his a league with Stephen king of Eng- danger, he had not sagacity enough land, received the homage of his son to devise, and, it may be, wanted the Euftace count of Bologne, in quality firmness to apply, the proper remeof duke of Normandy, and drew dies. But how much soever he fell over to his party Geoffrey the bro- mort of being great, was supplied in tber of Henry, who had once a pro. being a good prince. His subjects ject of running away with queen adored, and his nobility loved him, Eleanor himself. In consequence insomuch that, at their persuasion, of this league, count Eustace attack, he married Donna Constantia, .ed Normandy, and made a confi. daughter to Don Alonso, king of derable progress there; which might Castile ; and soon after, from mohave been fatal to duke Henry, if tives which have been explained in hiş abilities had not been superior another place, made a pilgrimage to to bis fortune. At the age of twen- the tomb of St. James at Compor. ty he was a great captain and a tella, which gave him an opportugreater politician, and took so much nity of conferring with his father-inpains to footh and to flatter Lewis, law, and with Sancho, king of Nathat, contrary to all the rules of po- varre. Ac his return he held a counlicy, he concluded a truce with him ; cil at Soissons, where he en- ., which afforded Henry leisure to gaged his nobility to swear a "55.

11550 transport himself, and his mother peace for ten years ; that is, they the empress, into England, where precluded themselves, during this they created Stephen a great deal of space, from deciding their quarrels - trouble; and count Eustace by the sword, which was their com.

” dying, a treaty was conclud- mon method. ed between them, by which the Amongst these great lords the

count count of Flanders was the most con- with the rest dire&ly to Toulouse, fiderable; who going, not long after, where, having forced one of the posts into the Holy Land, committed his of the besiegers, he threw himself son and his domivions to the care into the place with the flower of his of Henry, king of England, which troops. Henry, perceiving it would was a new mortification to Lewis, be very difficult, is not impractica. who found himself in a manner ble, to carry the town, fent a comblocked up on every side by this too pliment to the king, importing, that powerful neighbour; yet Henry he would not commit hostilities omitted no arts to mitigate his jea. against any whom he had underlousy and apprehensions. His queen taken to protect, and thereupon raishad fufficiently instructed him in the ed the fiege. This, however, did temper of Lewis, and he managed not put an end to the war, which him with such address, that he had continued two years longer, and scarce any pretence given him on then ended in a peace, on terms that which to found a quarrel; for Henry were tolerably equal. Henry did was continually writing to him, and homage to the king for his duchy of finding him presents; treated him Normandy ; his foo Henry did the with the highest marks of deference like for the counties of Anjou and and esteem, and proposed a mar- Maine ; and it was agreed, that his siage between his son Henry and the second son Richard, already con. princess Margaret, the king's daugh- tracted to the daughter of the count ter by his second marriage, though of Barcelona, Mould quit her, espouse they were but infants. But at length one of the king's daughters, and have a rupture happened; for Henry, un- the duchy of Guienne. In this peace Satisfied with the great dominions he the count of Toulouse was. already had, surmized that the coun- included, but without any ty of Toulouse belonged of right to discussion of the point upon which his wife, as being not given, but the war began ; for peace was nemortgaged only by a duke of Aqui- cessary to Lewis, and Henry was retaine to the ancestor of the then folved to keep his old claim in recount: he offered therefore the fum ferve. that he supposed to be due, and that The same year died the queen being refused, marched with a great Donna Constantia ; and the nobility army, composed of all nations, and being very urgent with the king to blocked up Toulouse. The place marry again, as he had only two was not firong by Gtuation, nor was daughters by her, he accordingly it fortified; but the count, brave in espoused Adelaide, the daughter of his person, and having a numerous Thibaut, earl of Champagne, by army, made a gallant defence. He which alliance he gained all the had married Constance, the widow princes of her family. At this juncof Eustace, count of Bologne, and ture, a schism in the church was very fifter to king Lewis, who immedi- near plunging the most considerable ately armed, in support of his bro- powers in Europe into a war. The ther-in-law; and having left a com- kings of France and England suppetent force, under the command of ported Alexander II. the emperor his brother the count de Dreux, on Frederick maintained the cause of the frontiers of Normandy, marched Victor IV. went fo far as to arm on his behalf, and threatened France tiation, produced the peace of Montwith an invasion, Lewis, provoked mirail, where Henry did homage in by his behaviour, levied troops like. person for Normandy, his fon Henry wise, and the king of England for the counties of Anjou and Maine, marched a powerful corps to the Richard for the duchy of Guienne, frontiers of Normandy, that they and prince Henry a second time for might be in readiness to join the the county of Bretagne, which his French, if it was necessary ; and, brother Geoffrey was to inherit, in. upon this occasion, Alexander III. consequence of his marriage with the had the satisfaction of seeing Lewis heiress of that country, and for which on one side, and Henry on the other, he was to do homage to him as preat his stirrups, on foot, while he rode sumptive beir of the duchy of Nordowly to a magnificent tent prepared mandy, and he to Lewis, as Bretagne for him in the French camp, and was a remote fief of the crown of held afterwards a council at Tours France. In this we have ..ce with great splendor. It was not been so much the more par. " long before new differences arose ticular, as it serves to explain the between the two monarchs, chiefly titles to these countries, and the teon account of Thomas à Becket, nures then in use; points of such chancellor to king Henry, who hav. utility in this period of history, that ing raised him to the archiepiscopal it cannot be understood without besee of Canterbury, found him less ing versed in them. pliant than he expected, and there. The situation of affairs between fore disgraced him. On this he re- these two princes was such, that, tired into France, where he was re- though they often made peace, they ceived and treated with great respect, were never reconciled; and the innotwithstanding all the representa- termarriages between their families, tions made by his master. From iuftead of contributing to their own this discordance in sentiments, both and their subjects repose, served only kings foresaw that it would not be to furnish fresh pretences for disturb. long before they came to an open ing both. King Henry having caused rupture ; and this at length hap- his eldest son to be crowned in Engpened, notwithstanding the empress land, while his confort was in France, Maud, so long as the lived, exerted Lewis, to revenge the affront done her utmost endeavours to prevent it, to his daughter, invaded Normandy; In the prosecution of this dispute, but Henry, too wise to quarrel about leveral places were taken on both a mere matter of form, promised sides; some vallals of the crown of the coronation should be performed France took up arms for king Henry, over again, as it accordingly was. and, on the other hand, most of the On the return of the young king to lords of Poitou armed on behalf of his father in Normandy, Lewis deLewis. At length, both parties, fired that his son and daughter mighe weary of seeing their countries de- come and spend some time at his ftroyed to little purpose, and having court, which was granted, and there other motives to wish for the return such notions were put into the young of quiet, amongst which was the prince's head, as, after his return, birth of a son to Lewis, a treaty was 'produced great heart-burnings belet on foot, which, after a long nego- iween him and his father, Arlength

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the young king, pretending that he Both kings were now thoroughly thought his person in danger, Aled weary of war ; Lewis was afraid of privately out of England into France, suffering by that good fortune which and was received with open arms by constantly attended his rival, and Lewis, who was now grown as tho- Henry had so much reason to fear rough a politician as Henry, and be- his own family at home, that he had Jieved the time was now come, in no stomach to quarrels abroad, which he might revenge himself for Lewis, however, conceived in his all past affronts. He knew the pope own mind, that he had good grounds was angry with the king of Eng. to be offended with the condud of land; and that he was also odious the monarch of England, on account to a great part of his subjects, on of his daughter Alice, whom the account of the assassination of arch- king retained at his court without bishop Becket: he farther knew that marrying her to his son Richard, the king was much feared by his In order to obtain satisfa&ion, he neighbours, and that the disputes applied himself to the pope ; and ran high in his family; so that he his legate having expostulated with fatiered himself that he Mould gain Henry, that prince very roundly deequal advantages by fraud, and by clared he would have caused the mar. force. The young king Henry, who riage to be celebrated, but that Lewis served him zealoufly, drew his two had promised to give the city of brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, into Bourges in dowry with his daughter, the confederacy against their father; as he had likewise promised the and, which is almoft incredible, em. French Vexin, when the princess barked his mother queen Eleanor in Margaret espoused the young king the same scheme. At the same time Henry. As the facts were contro. the king of Scots was in motion, and verted by Lewis, the decision of their rebels and malecontents started up difference was left to the pope. In in almost all parts of the king of the mean time all the antient England's dominions. Henry, be treaties were renewed; and "77. ing surprized at this, offered fair the two kings, to thew their cordial terms ; but, finding this rejected, affection for each other, undertook raised an army, and quickly restored to make a croisade together, the prehis affairs at home and abroad. All parations for which were likewife this time he amused the king of ferred, notwithstanding which neiFrance with negotiations, and at ther of them went; Lewis being length consented to a peace, but it strongly dissuaded by his confort, was upon his own terms ; and tho' and by the principal nobility; and these were, in appearance, honour. Henry finding his affairs ftal fo em. able enough for king Lewis, and barrafled, that his presence was more very advantageous for the princes necessary than ever in his own dowho had put themselves under his minions. Some have attributed the protection, yet the king of Scots, the making and the breaking this treaty earl of Leicester, and the earl of to policy; but it is more probable Chester, who had been made pri that Lewis was very fincere, and soners, being left to his mercy, shew. made the first proposition of it to ed plainly that he was victor over Henry, who could not but give his this formidable league.

consent, having entered into an en.


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