ページの画像
PDF
ePub

Mag.

Natural HISTORY is the Cocheke Al FiV.

HI S insect is of the torpid fort, ■*■ and performs all the necessary offices of life, while it is small; but it soon grows large, and then lives almost motionless for the remaining part of life. It is now pretty common in Jamaica, where it is said to have been introduced from the main continent not many years ago : .i; breeds chiefly upon the prickly-pear in that islands that particular species called the tuna, on which they commonly breed, being very rare there. They are commonly found wrapt up in stiall rusts of delicate white down, which yields like a cobweb; and , sticks pretty close to the sides of the inlect, immediately above the legs, as if i: had grown out of that part of the body. They live chiefly upon succulert> plants, but are most commonly found upon those of the cactus tribe, which generally supply them both with fastenings and a defence: for which reason, the Indian1;, who are the only people that raise them, pronagatc large quantities of the molt harmless species of thar class to breed them upon, as it affords a ■ better opportunity b uh for managing and collecting them; but their frequent harvests, and the heavy rains that fall in those countries, would render all their industry, in this respect, useless; did they not always take care to preserve and protect a sufficient stock of breeders; which is generally done in the following manner, viz.

Every Indian who manufactures

cocheneal, is supplied with regulaf walks or plots of tuna, to feed his infects; and when he apprehends the seasons are setting in, he cuts off some of "the best furnished branches, and plants them in his nurfery-houfe, leaving the infects ont the remaining part of the tree to be collected by the proper workmen, who brush them off very carefully; and gather them in small baskets, or cloths, to be dried and prepared for the market; while the oftiers swell and breed very copiousty on the protected plants. But when the seasons are quite over, aivi the weather again settled, these are also brushed off and fixed anew on the plants in the walks, where they spread and increase until the following crop. For in those countries the rains fall chiefly at two stated seasons, and would wasli away the insects, if they had not been gathered or protected.

The dye obtained from these insects formerly used to be prepared, by pounding them, and steeping the pulp in the decoction of the texuaola, or that of some other plants, which they observed to heighten the colour. This was left to settle at leisure, and afterwards made into cakes and dried for the market. But of late they have found both a better and a more expeditious method of preserving the dye, which is by drying the infects whole, either in an oven, or upon the bakingstones.

Seme Account os the Going os Mr. Harrison'; Longitude Time Keener.

rOME imperfect accounts having papers of the result of the trials of *^ already appeared in the news- Mr. Harrison's Longitude Time* Jegust 1764. 3 1 Keep*-,

^«» Account os Mr. Harrisoi

Keeper, in a late voyage to Barbadoes, and it be!og probable that others may follow; it has been thought proper, by way of satisfying, in some measure, the importunities of his friends, till a board of longitude shall be held, and the master decided upon by the honourable commissioners, to give th« following authentic and plain narrative of some experiments, which, though they will not any of them fall under the notice of the commissioners, as they were not enjoined to be mace by them, may yet serve as collateral proofs of the going of the Time-Piece, and how far it is likely to succeed in the solution of the grand problem of the longitude.

In December 1763, Mr. John Harrison, by a written circular invitation, prevailed on twelve noblemen and gentlemen, of unquestionable abilities and integrity, to meet daily at his house in Red-LionSquare, to examine and witness to the going of his Time Keeper (soon to be sent to America on trial for the longitude) in such manner as they shall deem most satisfactory among themselves. Accordingly they agreed to compare it every day with a regulator, fixed in the fame house, which, for thirty years together, had seldom been known ro vary from the rate of mean solartime more than about one second in a month ; and that the going of the said regulator itself should likewise be ascertained by means of an accurate instrument, also in the house, for obtaining the sun's transit over the meridian, as often as the leather should permit.

The Time-keeper was thus compared with the regulator for eight successive days, and immediately after each companion wa* wound up, 5

'j Longitude Time-Keeper. British and then sealed up in a box, with as many of the company's seals as they chose to assix; the regulator being also sealed up in like manner.

The result of all these comparisons was, that the Time piece gained upon the regulator, for the most part, about one second a day, sometimes a small matter more; it having, upon the last comparison, been found to have gained nine seconds and fix tenths of a second in the whole eight days.

After these trials, Mr. Harrison took his Time-keeper asunder, in order to perfect farther that part of if, which was concerned in counterbalancing and regulating those small inequalities which may arise from the various temperature of the air, in respect of heat and cold ; but he had not time to execute his purpose before a ssiip was appointed to take the machine on board, and proceed for the island of Barbadoes, upon the ultimate trial for the longitude.

Mr. William Harrison, the son, being ordered, along with the Timekeeper, on board the Tartar man of war, then lying in Long Reach, and commanded by Sir John Lindsay, did, at the request of Mr. James Short, F. R. S. on the 13th of February, come to the said Mr. Short's house, in Surry-street in the Strand, and there compared the Timekeeper with Mr. Short's regulator, made by the late Mr. Graham, which was that day adjusted to the mean solar time, by a nice transitinstrument; when the Time piece was found two secor;ds and a half slower than the mean time. Immediately after Mr. Harrison set off ir» a boat from Surry Stairs, with the Time-piece, for Long Reach.

The (hip, according to order, proceeded to Portsmouth, whence,

aster

Mag. Account of Mr. Harrison'/ Longitude Time-Kttper. 42 \

after some stay, Mr. Harrison sent to the best-settled longitude be could
to Mr. Short, and others of his procure before he left England,
friends, a written declaration, im- The day before they made it, he
porting, that he had found, by ex- declared the distance; and in con-
periments, that when Fahrenheit's sequence of this declaration Sir John
thermometer stands at 42, the Time- sailed till eleven at night, when it
keeper gains three seconds in 24 proving dark, he thought proper to
hours; when at 52, it gains two lay by, Mr. Harrison then declaring
seconds; when at 62, one second; they were no more than eight or
when at 72, it neither gains nor nine miles from the land; which ac-
loses; and when at 82, it loses one cordingly, at day break, they saw
second a day; that nevertheless he from that distance,
would not be understood that fu- June the 4th, Mr. Harrison sailed
ture Time-keepers will be liable to from Barbadoes, with the Time-
the like difficulties in being brought keeper, on board the New Elizr-
to perfection, since it is no difficult beth, Capt. Robert Manley, bound
matter to keep a track once marked for London. July the 12th, Mr.
out. Harrison declared they were 50

The ship sailed from Spithead, leagues to the westward* of the LiMarch 28, and met with hard and zard; presently after which they contrary gales, especially in the spoke with an outward-bound brig, Bay of Biscay. April 18; they made which proved to be sent from Lethe island of Porto Santo, North verpoole, and had yesterday taken East of Madeira, as set forth in the her departure from the Scillies (alfollowing certificate of the captain, ways allowed to be 20 leagues to Madeira, April 19, 1764. the westward of the Lizard.) The

"I do hereby certify, that yester- New Elizabeth, by the Log, found'

day, at four o'clock in the after- the run 53 leagues; whereupon

noon, Mr. William Harrison took Capt. Manley averred, that the

two aliitudES of the fun, to ascertain Time-keeper had found the Lizard

the difference of longitude, given much more exactly than the Brig's

by the Time-keeper, from Ports- reckoning, though stie had seen the

mouth; according to which obser- Scillies but the evening before,

rations, he declared to me, we were, Capt. Manley now made directly

at that time, 43 mites to the east- for the Thames, and he and Mr.

ward of Porto Santo. I then steered Harrison arrived in a boat at Surry

a direct course for it, and at one Stairs, July the 18th, about half past

o'clock this morning we saw the three in the afternoon; when it

island which exactly agreed with was found, upon comparing the

the distance mentioned above. Time-keeper with Mr. Short's clock,

"Given under my hand, on board examined that day by the transit in

his majesty's (hip the Tartar. strument, that allowing for the va- .'

"JOHN LINDSAY." nations of the thermometer, as spe

They arrived at Barbadoes May 13. cified in Mr. Harrison's journal, the

Mr. Harrison all along, in the voy- Time-keeper differed from the mean

age, declared how far they were solaV-time 1 5 seconds flow; but that

^ilUnt from that island, according without allowing for such variations,

3 I 2 and •

4.24' Death strangely prevented. British

and abiding by his declaration of the departure from Surry-Street, till its uniform gain of one second a day, it arrival there again, after 156 days, bad then gained 54 seconds, from its or iz weeks and two days.

Remarkable Instance os the strange Effifis of Opium.

'TpHE people of Surat, who indulge + themselves immoderately in the use of opium, prtttnd (hat tt U ding iias a sirange paradoxical mi* tin erf effects in its operation, causing at once a seeming heaviness of the head, an apparent sleepiness of the *ye, and yet an extraordinary watchfulness; in confirmation of which they relate the following story: One of the governors of the town leceiving a visit from a Gen too xajah his friend, at a garden wiihtjut the ciiy walls, they met with each their guards ana attendants. As they were walking the governor took notice of the rajah's guards, who were squatted down aster their manner, in an open guard-room, with their heads leaning on their naked swords, and in appearance either dozing or last asleep. The governor observed with a smile to the rajah, that he had a very just opinion of his good faith, since he would venture this interview with

guards in such a condition from the opium he knew it was their custom to take. "That, fays the raj-»h, is a mistake, and if there he any b< dy here for whom thou hast no concern, bid him pluck a flower as softly as he pleases out of any of their turbans." The governor instantly ordered a person, who was near him, to do what the rajah had mentioned. The man obejtd; he proceeded with the utmost cav.fi n, and approaching him who seemed the most overcome wiih sleep, snatched off the flower. The rajah's guard felt what was done, and withdut more ceremony, at one stroke cut off bis arm, and the reil were instantly on their feet. Thus the governor was convinced of their vigilance at the expence of a ferl vant, who, whether he was innocent, or so guilty as to deserve being exposed to such a trial, was probably thought of no consequence under that arbitrary governmciir.

DEATH strangely prevented.

T N the history of Muscovy, publiflied by the ambassador Demetrjus, we read the memorable fortune of a ■country peasant. This man seeking for honey, got into a hollow tree, where was such a plenty of it, that it sucked him up to the breast; and being unable to get out, he had lived two days upon honey only, and ijpding his voice could not be heard J.I tUat solitary w,ood< despaired of

freeing himself from this sweet captivity. A huge bear came to the fame tree to eat the honey, of which these beasts are very greedy, and descending with his hinder pans foremost, the poor fellow catchers hold of his loins ; the bear, terribly frighted, laboured with ali his might to get our, and so drew the peasant from his sweet prison, which otherwise had proved his grave.

Hstorital Mag.

Historical

ON the accession of James the Fiist to the throne of-England, the court swarmed with whose .multitudes of beggarly nobility from the neighbouring ;kingdom, Who, because they were Scotchmen-, thought themselves- sufficiently entitled to treat the English in whatsoever manner they-pleased.—The first act of insolence was committed on Sir Herbert Crofts, a member of parliament, at the very firstrneeting of that assembly after James's arrival in England: the day his majesty opened the session, the commons being sent for, as usual, to attend in the house of peers, the members

[ocr errors]

crouded to hear what their new king another instance of Scottish oppreshad to. say, and this occasioned some sion and impudence obliged the king"

Rustle at the door. Sir Herbert Crofts particularly pushing forward, a Scotch rascal belonging to the guard, thrust him rudely back, and at the same time said, Gude M*n Burgess, ye come not here.—Sir Herbert made a complaint to the house, but like some houses of commons since, they took no notice of the matter, and were afraid of offending the court, it they proceeded to the punishment of a Scotchman.

The next instance of Scottish audacity was this:—Mr. Edward Hawley, a gentleman of the first eminence, belonging to Gray's-Inn, coming one day to court, and havin?, accoiding to a very great fashion then in vogue, a black string in his ear, one Maxwell, a worthy Scot, who had been particularly savoured by the kinp, not liking his appearance, he went up in the very presence, and led- Mr. Hawley out by the stiii'g, loading him at the feme titce with all the auk ward

to interpose in behalf of his scabby, and audacious, countrymen.--One Ramsey, a fellow, whom, like Maxwell, he had raised up from' the dirt4 of a bleak mountain to a- peerage, having some dispute at a horse race with the Hon. Philip Herbert, -bro-' ther to the earl of Pembroke* Ram-' sey made no more a-do, but basted him heartily with his whip, and even struck him several times across the face. --Mr. Herbert, afraid-of the. king's resentment, -never*once re-, fisted, and James w'ho was a passi- . onate admirer of passive obedience, was so charmed with his behaviour, that the next day he created him a knight, a baron, a viscount, and earl of Montgomery. . .

Shortly a'ter, another affair hap. . pened which alarmed the whose kingdom, and made every body look upon a Scotchman as a tyrant and a murderer. — Robert Creighton, lord Sanquir, being an excellent swordsman, had once a mind to,

disgrace

« 前へ次へ »